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High-pressure laminar burning velocity measurements of ethanol- a Co-Optima fuel candidate

Pub Authority for App Educ & Training-Bader Almansour
University of Central Florida-Gihun Kim, Anthony Terracciano, Subith Vasu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0332
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Co-Optimization of Fuels and Engines initiative (Co-Optima) of the U.S Department of Energy initiated investigations on several candidates of biofuels and blends for internal combustion engines. Several biofuels were selected by screening criteria, which were boiling point, toxicity, research octane number, octane sensitivity, laminar flame speed, and economical distribution system, etc. In this study, we focused our investigation on ethanol – a key fuel candidate. Measurements of properties such as ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity (LBV) are necessary for these fuels in order to understand their performance and applicability in engines. One key combustion metric is the fuel’s LBV in air over a range of equivalence ratios. LBV is dependent on reactive mixture composition, temperature, and pressure, but it is independent of hydrodynamic conditions, such as stretch rate, turbulent intensity, and Reynolds number. LBV is useful as it: (i) gives a measure of combustion efficiency and heat release rate; (ii) enables validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms; (iii) and gives engine design engineers a metric for the expected time required to burn the fuel…
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Effective Utilization of Low Carbon Fuels in Agricultural Engines Using Low Cost Electronic Primary Fuel Injection Unit

Hindustan Institute of Tech. & Science-Sasikumar Nandagopal, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy, Madhu Kovuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1369
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reliability and cost effectiveness of electronics demand its usage in all the wings of science and technology. Thus an attempt was made in this work to investigate the potential of using electronics for injecting primary fuel for the compression ignition engine used by farmers for agricultural purpose. In the first phase of the work, new Electronic Control Unit (ECU) for primary fuel injection was developed and tested for its repeatability on fuel injection quantity for the different input voltages. Test engine was developed and tested under various load condition for its performance, emission, and combustion characteristics with neat diesel and Waste Cooking Oil Methyl Esters (WCOME) as baseline readings in the second phase of the work. In the third phase of the work, developed engine was modified to operate in duel fuel mode with developed ECU. In this work, ethanol was chosen as primary fuel due to its availability and less toxic nature as compared to other green fuels. Pilot fuel (i.e. WCOME) was injected using mechanical fuel injection system. Results inferred that the brake…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

Symbiosis Institute Of Tehnology-Anand Kumar Pandey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Analysis of the Technical Viability of Biogas Utilization in Compression Ignition Engines for Electric Power Generation

Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM-Italo Rosa Policena, Rafael Vogt, Geovane Alberto Frizzo Prante, Roberto Antônio Garlet, Mário Eduardo Santos Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0245
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Increased energy demand and security of energy supply have become a concern in recent decades due to strong industrial growth. The high cost of fossil fuels and the need to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases have made renewable energy sources an attractive object. In this context, biomass becomes interesting and is the second largest source of renewable energy in Brazil, possessing many characteristics similar to fossil fuels. Energy can be obtained by direct burning or by conversion into biofuels, such as biogas, which is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. Methane released directly into the atmosphere has 21 times the greenhouse effect potential of CO2. In this way the importance of the development and improvement of this fuel and of the converter machines, which play a fundamental role in the transformation of biomass into other forms of energy, is justified.This study aims at analyzing the technical viability of application of biogas in compression ignition engines for electric power generation in RCCI operation mode (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) and dualfuel by fumigation. The experimental…
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B-GAS: Conversion system to Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel) for using alternative energetic source for application in Agricultural Machinery

Giovana Queiroz da Silva, Cléber Willian Gomes, Guilherme Bugatti dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Wey Nunes da Costa, Pedro Augusto Talib Soares, Renato Zerbinatti Raduan, Vinícius Trento Gomes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0235
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has a huge port in the operating costs of agribusiness, the increase on the price and the shortage of this energy resource has a direct impact on agricultural production costs. In this context, regions that are farther from refineries and lack the presence of fuel distribution centers tend to suffer more from the availability and cost of this resource. Economically speaking, agribusiness has a prominent position in the national scenery. The world fuel source had an evolution from the predominance of solid fuels to the current age of liquid fuels derived from petroleum and seeing the future and growing age of gas fuels as the predecessor stage of electric vehicles in some markets. Thereby, agricultural organic waste has the potential to generate an alternative energy, clean and ecological matrix, also reducing the emission of polluting gases, soil, groundwater, rivers and weir are still prevented, and the release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In Brazil, animal waste is normally used for the generation of biofuel, and only 14%…
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Research of Fuel Characteristic of Dimethyl ether / High Viscosity & Incombustible matter Blend for Marine Diesel Engine

Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University-Yu MIHARA, Daiki KURO-OKA, Tomoki SHIRAHAMA, Kenta KUWAOKA, Takashi SUZUKI, Ichiro ASANO, Tomohisa DAN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2229
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine has fuel combustion capability in various high density oil such as residual fuels or biofuels derived from fossil or living matter. But for commercial use, these fuels except bio diesel fuel (BDF) should be heated, separated and filtered by equipment and dosed or mixed with additive or distillate oil etc. before being supplied to the engine in order to improve combustibility.This study aims to illuminate fuel characteristic of blend contained woody pyrolysis oil (WPO) which is high viscosity and incombustible, and dimethyl ether (DME) whose emission of combustion has no soot particle. This paper describes thermo-physical property of neat WPO and the blend on the basis of the evaluation of fuel fluidity by measurement and calculation of viscosity.According to the result, it was confirmed that the fluidity of WPO was improved by mixing DME and the approximate viscosity expressions at any temperature of WPO and the blend were good accuracy.
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Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Hanna Bernemyr, Botond Csontos
Scania CV AB-Henrik Hittig, Oscar Forsberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2231
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors. Additionally, the influence of the nozzle geometry was tested by using injectors of various designs. In the experiments, high-load engine operation was used to create the effect of fouling in the presence of…
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The precipitation of biodiesel impurities at low temperature and its effect on fuel filter

DENSO CORPORATION-Minoru Funahashi
DENSO INTERNATIONAL ASIA CO., LTD.-Sareewan Suwannamit, Jaratpong Ngammoh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2188
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Biofuels are expanding continuously in global market as one of renewable options to replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is the most commonly used biofuel that can be blended into conventional diesels in any proportion. However, higher biodiesel blends may cause problems. One of its problems is precipitation formation arise from biodiesel may clog fuel filter at low temperature. This study focuses on fuel and environment factors on biodiesel precipitation and their influence degree on fuel filter clogging. The results indicate that monoglycerides and temperature have strong correlation with precipitate weight. Moreover, quantitative effect of precipitate weight on filter clogging was clarified.
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Approach for CO2 Reduction in India’s Automotive Sector

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Gaurab Bhowmick, Tapan Sahoo, Anoop Bhat, Gaurav Mathur, Deepak Gambhir
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2388
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
India has gone through a lot of transformation over the last decade. Today it is the 6th largest and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rising income level, increased consumerism, rapid growth in urbanization and digitization have attributed to this change. Government focus on “Make in India” for promoting trade and investment in India have ensured that India emerge as one of the largest growing economies in the world. The automotive industry played a pivotal role in the manufacturing sector to boost economic activities in India. The passenger car market has increased 3 times over the last decade and it has led to increased mobility options for many people across India. However, this has put concerns on the country’s energy security and emission levels. According to IEA’s recent report on global CO2 emission, 32.31 Gt of CO2 emissions were from fuel combustion in 2016, out of which transport sector contributed ~25%. India contributed ~11% of transport emissions in Asia in 2016. This necessitates systematic approach and action plans to curb India’s vehicular…
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Multi-Level Modeling of Real Syngas Combustion in a Spark Ignition Engine and Experimental Validation

C.M.D. S.p.A.-Domenico Cirillo
CNR Istituto Motori-Michela Costa, Gabriele Di Blasio, Daniele Piazzullo
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Syngas produced from biomass gasification is being increasingly considered as a promising alternative to traditional fuels in Spark-Ignition (SI) Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). Due to the low energy density and extreme variability in the composition of this gaseous fuel, numerical modeling can give an important contribution to assure stable engine performances.The present work intends to give a contribution in this sense in this sense, by proposing a multi-level set of approaches, characterized by an increasing detail, as a tool aimed at the optimization of energy conversion of non-conventional fuels.At first, a specific characterization of the dependency of the syngas laminar flame speed upon its composition is achieved through an iterative approach pursued in the ANSYS ChemkinTM environment, where validated correlations of the flame speed tuning parameters are obtained in a zero-dimensional framework.Subsequently, the interaction between combustion kinetics and fluid dynamics is considered through the development of a mono-dimensional (1D) model of the whole engine system in the GT-Power environment. A predictive combustion model, tuned on the ground of the combustion parameters determined through the previous…
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