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Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine downsizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at unequal load - one of the machines at higher load and the other(s) at lower load.In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to…
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ERRATUM

Université de Lyon-Charlotte Fossier, Christophe Changenet, Fabrice Ville
Volvo Group-Denis Barday, Vincent Berier
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-01-0004.1
Published 2019-10-07
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An Energy Management Strategy for Through-the-Road Type Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

National Taiwan University, Taiwan-Ming-Yen Chen, Kang Yang, Yun-Zhong Sun, Jung-Ho Cheng
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0004
Published 2019-09-19 by SAE International in United States
This article proposes an energy management strategy for a through-the-road (TTR) plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) to achieve efficient fuel consumption performance. The target hybrid powertrain includes an electric traction motor, an integrated starter/generator (ISG), and a gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE) in the front axle and another electric motor in the rear axle. The energy management strategy is organized into six functional modules. The power mode is determined by the driver’s pedal demand, vehicle states, and the characteristics of the related power units to increase the overall system efficiency. The energy management strategy and the vehicle models are established in the Matlab/Simulink by using dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) software. The proposed strategy is examined in terms of three test scenarios in the Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) simulations. The vehicle operates in the EV mode in the range from 40% to 70% battery state of charge (SOC) to improve the fuel consumption. The ICE is ignited to charge the battery if SOC is under 40%. In the acceleration simulation, the ICE involves in the power output…
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Stability of Wheel Tractors during Braking

Kharkiv Technical University of Agricult-Zadorozhnia Viktoriia
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Mykhailo Kholodov, Dmytro Klets, Yevhen Dubinin, Borys Savchenkov, Alexander Koryak, Oleksandr Polianskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles of the wheeled tractor has a significant impact on the stability against skidding and the wheeled tractor braking effectiveness. At the same time, the clarification of the normal reactions distribution between the axles allows to choose more rational braking forces distribution between the axles.It is shown that the best way to ensure the highest braking efficiency is the braking mode when the rear wheels of the tractor are at the blocking limit. An assessment of the expediency of installing brake mechanisms on only one axle of the tractor was made.The increase of braking efficiency of wheeled tractors with all brake wheels provided that they ensure directional stability is considered. The laws of braking forces distribution between the axles of wheel tractors for different sequence of wheels locking are determined.Using the method of partial accelerations an improved method for estimating the effect of a brake system on the stability of wheeled tractor is proposed. The criterion in the form of angular acceleration in the road plane ώz,…
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Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics during Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The intensive development of tractor-building industry in the world has led to the widespread use of wheeled tractors and tractor trains in transportations on public highways. This requires an increase of engine capacity and speed of tractor trains, as well as strict demands for their braking systems.The formation of the necessary braking properties of wheeled tractors and tractor trains on their basis should be carried out at the design phase, taking into account a wide range of aggregated machines and tools.Blocking the wheels of the trailer with different sequence of their blocking and blocking the wheels of the tractor has significant impact on the total braking force, deceleration and stability of the tractor train. It is advisable to take this into account when modeling the braking process of a tractor train.The article deals with the braking dynamics of the tractor train and the impact of the dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles on the brake properties of the tractor train. The mathematical model of the braking process of the tractor-trailer train (consisting of…
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Probabilistic Method for Assessing the Stability of Multi-Axle Vehicles When Braking

Kharkiv Gymnasium № 39-Tetyana Abramova
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Dmytrii Abramov
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The solution to the problem of stability of a multi-axle vehicle during braking is connected with the determination of the dynamic distribution of normal road reactions between the axles. To assess the stability of the vehicle is used as an indicator of the stability factor representing the ratio of the stabilizing moment to moment, the perturbing skid. When the values of the stability coefficient is greater than or equal to unity, the movement is stable, and otherwise it is unstable. For a multi-axle vehicle, determining the dynamic normal road reactions on the axles is possible after disclosing the static uncertainty of the physical model of the car, which is a multi-support beam. The solution to this problem involves the use of the "three sigma" rule. The maximum possible value of the stability coefficient is realized with the most favorable distribution of the total normal road reactions between the axles, ensuring the maximum value of the stabilizing moment and the minimum value of the disturbing moment. The minimum (most unfavorable) value of the stability coefficient corresponds…
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The Improvement Brake’s Qualities of Vehicle by Developing the Method of the Choosing Frictional Pairs of the Brakes Mechanisms

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Viktor Bogomolov, Anatoliy Turenko, Andrii Molodan, Yurii Tarasov, Aloksa Mykolai, Vasyl Hatsko
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
One of the reasons for the large number of road accidents on highways in Ukraine [1] is the instability of the braking properties due to the unstable characteristics of the brake mechanisms’ friction pairs. The manufacturer produces new automobiles with installed brake pairs (brake pads and their counter bodies), which have passed long-term tests for the stability of the friction coefficient and braking forces distribution of between the axles. This ensures the compatibility of the friction pairs characteristics for front and rear brake mechanisms according to the criteria of heat resistance. During operation, instead of worn-out brake pads, brake discs and drums, drivers can purchase new ones, manufactured as spare parts. However, in the well-known literature there are no methods that allow to check the compatibility of the friction pairs characteristics for front and rear brake mechanisms according to the criteria of heat resistance. In the article a method for choosing a set of friction pairs of brake mechanisms for passenger car during operation is proposed. Assessment of the compatibility of the friction pairs characteristics…
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Energy-Management Strategy for Four-Wheel Drive Electrohydraulic Hybrid System with Optimal Comprehensive Efficiency

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Chongqing University, China-Yang Yang, Ke Lu, Chunyun Fu
  • Journal Article
  • 07-12-01-0004
Published 2019-08-22 by SAE International in United States
The four-wheel drive electric sport utility vehicle (SUV) requires high dynamic performance, and the front and rear axles are matched with a high-power motor. High-power motors operate under low-speed and low-torque conditions, with low efficiency and large power loss. To reduce the power loss under low-speed and low-load conditions, a hybrid system of front and rear dual motors and dual hydraulic pumps/motors is designed. A simulation model of a four-wheel drive SUV electrohydraulic hybrid system is constructed. Aiming at the optimal energy consumption, a dynamic programming algorithm is adopted to establish the driving control rules of the vehicle. Constrained by the Economic Commission for Europe Regulation No.13 (ECE R13), a braking-force distribution strategy for the front and rear axles is formulated. On the premise of satisfying the braking safety, regenerative braking is preferred, and the braking energy is recovered to the greatest extent possible. The optimal efficiency curve of the motor is identified, and an energy-management strategy based on the optimal efficiency curve of the motor is established. The comprehensive efficiency of the dual motor…
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Eleven Instrumented Motorcycle Crash Tests and Development of Updated Motorcycle Impact-Speed Equations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Axiom Forensic, United States-Louis Peck
Collision Engineering Associates, Inc., United States-Charles Dickerson
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0004
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Eleven instrumented crash tests were performed as part of the 2016 World Reconstruction Exposition (WREX2016), using seven Harley-Davidson motorcycles and three automobiles. For all tests, the automobile was stationary while the motorcycle was delivered into the vehicle, while upright with tires rolling, at varying speeds. Seven tests were performed at speeds between 30 and 46 mph while four low-speed tests were performed to establish the onset of permanent motorcycle deformation. Data from these tests, and other published testing, was analyzed using previously published equations to determine their accuracy when predicting the impact speed of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most accurate model was the Modified Eubanks set of equations introduced in 2009, producing errors with an average of 0.4 mph and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.8 mph. An updated set of Eubanks-style equations were developed adding data published since 2009, and further partitioning from two equations (pillars/axles and doors/fenders) to four equations (axles, pillars/bumpers, doors, and fenders). When applied to the subject tests, the newly developed set of equations produced an average error of 3.5 mph…
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Impact of Dynamic Characteristics of Wheel-Rail Coupling on Rail Corrugation

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Shanghai University of Engineering Science, China-Xiaogang Gao, Anbin Wang, Xiaohan Gu, Wei Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-02-0009
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of corrugation, including the development and propagation of corrugation, and impact of vehicle and track dynamics, a computational model was established, taking into account the nonlinearity of vehicle-track coupling. The model assumes a fixed train speed of 300 km/h and accounts for vertical interaction force components and rail wear effect. Site measurements were used to validate the numerical model. Computational results show that (1) Wheel polygonalisation corresponding to excitation frequency of 545-572 Hz was mainly attributed to track irregularity and uneven stiffness of under-rail supports, which in turn leads to vibration modes of the bogie and axle system in the frequency range of 500-600 Hz, aggregating wheel wear. (2) The peak response frequency of rail of the non-ballasted track coincides with the excitation frequency of wheel-rail coupling; the resonance results in larger wear amplitude of the rail. The track lateral pinned-pinned frequency at 540 Hz contributes to the propagation of rail corrugation. (3) With wheel-rail contact friction coefficient of 0.3, simulation results of track lateral pinned-pinned frequency…
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