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Accuracy of Anthropometric Scaling: Using Stature to Estimate Body Segment Lengths

Explico Engineering Co.-Karla Petroskey
Jensen Hughes-Julius Campbell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0523
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the fields of forensic accident reconstruction and biomechanical engineering, it is often necessary to estimate the length of a specific body segment for an individual, about whom little is known besides overall stature. Since body proportions and body segment lengths vary throughout the population, there will be some error in these estimations. The current study provides estimates for the accuracy of human body segment length predictions based on stature. In this study, four different methods for predicting body segment lengths based on stature were evaluated. Using publicly available adult and child anthropometric datasets, a leave-one-out cross validation analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of each of the four methods in predicting body segment lengths. The results of the leave-one-out analysis showed that different prediction methods produced the best estimates for different body segment length measurements. When using the best method for each body segment, body segment lengths for an individual on average can be predicted within 2.5% of the actual measurement. The 50th percentile best estimates for each body segment length studied are…
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Capabilities and Limitations Related to Vehicle Dynamics and Operator Kinematics of Electric Scooter Micro-Mobility Modes

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
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Characterization of Seat Lateral Support as a Mechanical Behavior

General Motors LLC-Bonita Thomas
OBannon Technologies-Terry O'Bannon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0870
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Seat lateral support is often talked about as a design parameter, but usually in terms of psychological perception. There are many difficulties in quantifying lateral support mechanically to the engineering teams: Anthropometric variation causes different people to interact with the seat in different places and at different angles, BPD studies are usually planar and don’t distinguish between horizontal support and vertical resistance to sinking in, most mechanical test systems are typically single-DOF and can’t apply vertical and horizontal loads concurrently, and there is scant literature describing the actual lateral loads occupants. In this study, we characterize the actual lateral loading on example seating (both driver and passenger, as passenger experience will become more important as autonomous vehicles evolve) from various sized/ shaped occupants according to dynamic pressure distribution. From this information, a six-DOF load and position control test robot (KUKA OccuBot) is used to replicate that pressure distribution. The effect of various sizes and shapes of indenters is explored. In the spirit of the appendix of SAE standard J2896, we suggest some standard mechanical test…
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The Effect of Obesity on Rollover Ejection and Injury Risks

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1219
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Obesity rates are increasing among the general population. This study investigates the effect of obesity on ejection and injury risk in rollover crashes through analysis of field accident data contained in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database. The study involved front outboard occupants of age 15+ years in 1994+ model year vehicle rollover crashes. Complete and partial ejection risks were first assessed seating location relative to roll direction and belt use. The risk of serious-to-fatal injuries (MAIS 3+F) in non-ejected occupants were then evaluated. Occupants were sorted into two BMI groups, normal (18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI <25.0 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). The overall risk for complete ejection was 2.10% ± 0.43% when near-sided and 2.65% ± 0.63% when far-sided, with a similar risk for both the normal and obese BMI groups. Complete ejection was uncommon for belted occupants with a risk of 0.2% or less for all groups. The risk of partial ejection was greater for obese compared to normal BMI occupants. For near-side occupants, the overall risk of partial…
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An Optimization Study of Occupant Restraint System for Different BMI Senior Women in Vehicle Frontal Impact

Chongqing University-Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Huijie Xu, Yue Fu, Ling Jiang, Yunlei Yin
State Key Lab of Vehicle NVH & Safety Technology-Ruyi Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0981
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accident statistics have shown that older and obese occupants are less adaptable to existing vehicle occupant restraint systems than ordinary middle-aged male occupants, and tend to have higher risk of death and injury in vehicle crashes.However, the current research on the mechanism of injury in vehicle frontal impact for aging and obese occupants is scarce. This paper mainly focuses on the optimization design method of occupant constraint system parameters for specific body type characteristics. The damage attributes of vehicle crash on elderly female with different BMI (body mass index) was analyzed. The design variables in the constraint system were screened for DOE analysis. We selected five parameters for optimization, namely the force limiter force limit value of the seat belt, the pretensioner preload of the seat belt, the preload time of the seat belt, the ignition time of the airbag, the proportionality coefficient of the mass flow rate of the airbag. The objective of this study is to minimize the risk of comprehensive injuries, and the constraints are that indicator values for head injury, neck…
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Identifying Automated Driving Systems-Dedicated Vehicles (ADS-DVs) Passenger Issues for Persons with Disabilities

On-Road Automated Driving (ORAD) committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3171_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
It is expected that Level 4 and 5 automated driving systems-dedicated vehicles (ADS-DVs) will eventually enable persons to travel at will who are otherwise unable to obtain a driver's license for a conventional vehicle, namely, persons with certain visual, cognitive, and/or physical impairments. This information report focuses on these disabilities, but also provides guidance for those with other disabilities. This report is limited to fleet operated on-demand shared mobility scenarios, as this is widely considered to be the first way people will be able to interact with ADS-DVs. To be more specific, this report does not address fixed route transit services or private vehicle ownership. Similarly, this report is focused on road-worthy vehicles; not scooters, golf carts, etc. Lastly, this report does not address the design of chair lifts, ramps, or securements for persons who use wheeled mobility devices (WHMD) (e.g., wheelchair, electric cart, etc.), as these matters are addressed by other committees within SAE International.
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Film Analysis Guides for Dynamic Studies of Test Subjects

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J138_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide guidelines for the identification of subjects used in dynamic tests. It establishes recommendations for location and description of target areas on test subjects or test devices, as well as recommendations for photographic calibration and timing.
Annotation ability available
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About Face!

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

Jennifer Dukarski
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP09_05
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

To win acceptance, deployment of facial-recognition technology needs to fit within a picture-perfect consumer and legal framework that balances benefits with privacy protection.

Whether it's using your face to confirm payment over your smartphone, monitoring your child at day-camp, or being confirmed as a ticketholder going to a concert, the possibilities for facial recognition technology are virtually endless-and the technology already has become ubiquitous.

Annotation ability available
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Autonomy in Your Face

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: September 2019

Terry Costlow
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP09_04
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Biometric technology is deemed essential to ensuring AV driving safety and advancing the user experience-if privacy issues don't derail its deployment.

Research into potential automotive applications for biometrics-facial and retina scans or fingerprints-is increasing, despite rising concerns about privacy and data security, and outcries from civil liberties advocates. A growing number of OEMs, Tier 1s and startups are striving to add facial recognition capability to driver monitoring systems (DMS).

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Comparison Study of Malaysian Driver Seating Position in SAEJ1517 Accommodation Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

PROTON Shah Alam, Malaysia-Zuli’zam Rashid
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Nooh Abu Bakar
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0006
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A key element in an ergonomically designed driver’s seat in a car is the correct identification of driver seating position and posture accommodation. Current practice by the automotive Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) is to utilize the Society of Automotive Engineering (SAE) J1517 standard practice as a reference. However, it was found that utilizing such guidelines, which were developed based on the American population, did not fit well with the anthropometry and stature of the Malaysian population. This research seeks to address this issue by comparing the SAE J1517 Model against Malaysian preferred driving position. A total of 62 respondents were involved for the driver seating position and accommodation study in the vehicle driver’s seat buck mockup survey and measurements. The results have shown that the Malaysian drivers prefer to sit forward as compared to the SAE J1517 Model and have shorter posture joint angle. This could significantly affect the design of the driver seat positions and layout of other driving elements, suggesting a need to reconsider its application, in particular for the Malaysian population.
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