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Comprehensive Study on Crashes with Pedestrians on Indian Roads

Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Solutions Pvt Ltd-Girikumar Kumaresh
Robert Bosch GmbH-Moennich Joerg, Thomas Lich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0004
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Pedestrian crashes are a major safety concern worldwide and especially in India. About one in every ten traffic-related fatalities in the country is a pedestrian. In 2016 nearly 15 800 pedestrians are killed in India are mainly exposed to risk when crossing and walking on the road in urban and rural areas. The aim of the study was to understand the pedestrian behavior on the road and to identify characteristics of pedestrian crashes in India. Overall it was aimed to derive countermeasures out from accident contributing factors to improve traffic safety in India. Bosch Accident Research access the accident database of the Road Accident Sampling System for India (RASSI). The present analysis is based on 1779 in-depth accident investigated and reconstructed cases from RASSI. Overall 168 crashes involving 207 pedestrians were analyzed and simulated afterwards. Five different locations involving majorly rural, urban & semi urban areas covered. As a result, every second pedestrian accident occurred while walking and crossing the road straight, and nearly 12% of crashes occurred while the pedestrian was standing in road.…

A Mitigation Strategy for Steering Wobble Phenomenon in Passenger Vehicle

Tata Motors Ltd-Shoaib Iqbal
Tata Technologies Ltd-Arunmohan Pattathil, Omer Soherwardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0183
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicles have a wide range of resonance band due to design nature & characteristics of its aggregates. First order vehicle speed dependent wheel disturbance due to wheel imbalances can result in excitation of different vehicle aggregates. Steering wobble, in frequency range of 10-16 Hz, refers specifically to first order road wheel excitation effects that manifest themselves as significant steering wheel torsional vibrations at highway speeds at smooth roads i.e., at the range of 80 km/h to 120 km/h. The tire, being an elastic body analogous to an array of radial springs, may exhibit variations in stiffness about its circumference, hence, it may vibrate at different frequencies due to wheel imbalance. This paper introduces dynamic virtual steering wobble analysis methodology either using vehicle speed at discrete (individual speeds) or by Sweep (low to high) method to investigate steering wobble in the virtual environment using the full vehicle MBD simulation model. It is also suggested that prior to wobble analysis vehicle level modal analysis should execute to locate and separate different coupling modes & its shapes in…

Advanced Automated Analysis Methodology for Predicting the Valve Durability

Durovalves India Pvt Ltd-Jitendra Sharma, Gurunathan Ramnathan
Ricardo Software-Ankush Bhayekar, John Foy, Yogesh Umbarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0302
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The recent advancement in IC engine and Hybrid vehicle, emphasize on use of high rated fuel with high calorific fuel values leading to higher operating temperature and pressure values which makes design of valve train components a complex task. Typically, IC engine valves are subjected to the varying stresses throughout an engine cycle. This resulted in fatigue failure of valve in many applications where the supplier was deficient in the advanced analysis methodologies. Considering this fact, a new technique for valve safety and life predictions has been developed using various approaches such as internal semi-empirical thermal boundary conditions calculation tool, Multibody Dynamics (MBD) and Finite Element Modelling (FEM). In this study, a bi-metallic (Stem – X45 CrSi 9 3 and Head – X50 CrMnNiNbN 21 9) exhaust valve operating under direct attack valvetrain of 1.2L inline 3-cylinder gasoline engine has been considered. Internal semi-empirical tool and literature work on gas flow has been used to predict the thermal boundary (gas side temperatures and HTCs at various locations) conditions. The predicted thermal BCs then used to…

Field Failure Simulation of a Non-Reactive Suspension Tie Rod for Heavy Commercial Vehicle Using a Road Simulator

Ashok Leyland Ltd-Dinesh Kumar Rajappan
Ashok Leyland Technical Center-Agathaman Selvaraj, Benny Johnson William, Manikandan Rajaraman, Srinivasa Chandra Vadlamudi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0350
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
The suspension system in a vehicle isolates the frame and body from road shocks and vibrations which would otherwise be transferred to the passengers and goods. Heavier goods vehicles use tandem axles at the rear for load carrying. Both the axles should be inter-connected to eliminate overloading of any one axle when this goes over a bump or a ditch. One of the inter-connecting mechanism used is leaf spring with tie rod, bell crank & linkages, when the first rear axle moves over a bump, the linkages equalize the loading with the second rear axle. This paper details about the failure analysis methodology to simulate the tie rod field failure using a six poster road simulator and to identify the root cause of the failure and further corrective actions. The methodology involves the study of field usage conditions and the nature of failure, strain gauging and instrumentation of tie rod, strain and load analysis on tie rod at various conditions, various experiments to re-create or simulate the failure, identification of failure modes and root cause…

Enhancement of Automotive Penetration Testing with Threat Analyses Results

Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Germany-Jürgen Dürrwang, Johannes Braun, Marcel Rumez, Reiner Kriesten
Technical University of Munich (TUM), Germany-Alexander Pretschner
  • Journal Article
  • 11-01-02-0005
Published 2018-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In this work, we present an approach to support penetration tests by combining safety and security analyses to enhance automotive security testing. Our approach includes a new way to combine safety and threat analyses to derive possible test cases. We reuse outcomes of a performed safety analysis as the input for a threat analysis. We show systematically how to derive test cases, and we present the applicability of our approach by deriving and performing test cases for a penetration test of an automotive electronic control unit (ECU). Therefore, we selected an airbag control unit due to its safety-critical functionality. During the penetration test, the selected control unit was installed on a test bench, and we were able to successfully exploit a discovered vulnerability, causing the detonation of airbags.
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Multi-Layer Framework for Synthesis and Evaluation of Heterogeneous System-of-Systems Composed of Manned and Unmanned Vehicles

United Technologies Research Center-Jeffrey R. Peters, Ebad Jahangir, Amit Surana, Zohaib Mian
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The advancement of both sensory and unmanned technology, combined with increased utilization of autonomous platforms in complex teaming scenarios, has created a need for practical design space exploration tools to aid in the synthesis of effective System-of-Systems (SoS). The presented work describes a modular, flexible, and extensible framework, referred to herein as the Technologies and Teaming Evaluation (TATE) framework, for straightforward identification of high-quality SoS, which may include both manned and autonomous elements, through quantitative evaluation of system-level and SoS-level attributes against a set of user-defined reference tasks. More specifically, TATE combines a top-down (goal-driven) approach, which systematically decomposes mission-level goals into a set of relevant technology and teaming options, with a two-layer bottom-up (technology-driven) approach that compares and selects effective components and configurations both for individual systems and the overall team. The TATE framework serves as an extension to existing design space exploration tools that focus on individual system design and do not readily scale to SoS. A canonical example is used to illustrate the use of the TATE framework for synthesis and evaluation…
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Nearfield Analysis of Low Speed Flow over a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Device for Enhancement of Small UAV Aerodynamics

West Virginia University-Patrick H. Browning
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
As unmanned aerial vehicle applications continue their rise in popularity in the public and private sectors, there is an increasing demand in many cases for smaller, more efficient low speed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Although the primary drivers for the continued performance improvement of smaller UAV platforms tend to be in the areas of electronics miniaturization and improved energy storage, aerodynamics, particularly in the low Reynolds number regime, still have a significant role in the overall performance enhancement of small UAVs. This paper focuses on the study of the nearfield aerodynamic effects of a low-power active flow enhancement technique known as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in very low speed/low Reynolds number flows most closely associated with small and micro unmanned aerial vehicles. With respect to influence on the 2D nearfield flow on a flat plate equipped with a DBD actuator, factors such as electric field strength, frequency, and excitation waveform of the DBD actuators are investigated and dimensionless terms are developed to better understand aerodynamic flow enhancement in both the x- and y-directions. Estimations are…
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Methods and Processes for Evaluation of Aerodynamic Effects of SAE-Qualified Aircraft Ground Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids

G-12ADF Aircraft Deicing Fluids
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6852C
  • Current
Published 2018-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This document describes methods that are known to have been used by aircraft manufacturers to evaluate aircraft aerodynamic performance and handling effects following application of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids (“fluids”), as well as methods under development. Guidance and insight based upon those experiences are provided, including: Similarity analyses Icing wind tunnel tests Flight tests Computational fluid dynamics and other numerical analyses This document also describes: The history of evaluation of the aerodynamic effects of fluids The effects of fluids on aircraft aerodynamics The testing for aerodynamic acceptability of fluids for SAE and regulatory qualification performed in accordance with AS5900 Additionally, Appendices A to E present individual aircraft manufacturers’ histories and methodologies which substantially contributed to the improvement of knowledge and processes for the evaluation of fluid aerodynamic effects
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Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Technology Center, China-Liang Zhong
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-05-0036
Published 2018-10-03 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel constant power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests. Accessories comprise energy consumption proportions of 4.7%-6.4% of the engine in winter and 10.3%-12.6% in summer; they show different characteristics under different temperature or road conditions. The two influence factors of accessory energy consumption, constant power and duty-cycle, are…
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Fundamental Aspects of Single Molecule and Zeptomole Electroanalysis

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33027
Published 2018-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The objective of this research program was to provide the fundamental understanding required for using the principles of electroanalytical chemistry to detect target molecules at very low concentration, including single molecules, with high specificity, simplicity, and low power.