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Tonne Kilometer Per Hour Application

  • MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1098_201809
  • Current
Published 2018-09-21 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard establishes the procedures for the application of Tonne Kilometer Per Hour (TKPH) rating values for off-the-road tires; utilizing empirical data formula, it describes the procedure for evaluating and predicting off-the-road tire TKPH requirements as determined by a work cycle analysis.

Quantitative Optical Analysis and Modelling of Short Circuits and Blow-Outs of Spark Channels under High-Velocity Flow Conditions

  • Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Shogo Sayama, Masao Kinoshita, Yoshiyuki Mandokoro, Ryo Masuda, Takayuki Fuyuto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1728
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
This study models short circuits and blow-outs of spark channels. The short circuit model assumes that a spark channel is short-circuited between two arbitrary locations when the electric potential difference between the two locations exceeds the voltage which enables electrical insulation breakage in-between. The threshold voltage can be raised by increasing the distance between the two locations and decreasing the discharge current. Discharge current, in this model, represents the influence of both the spread and the number of electrically charged particles, i.e., electrons and positive ions, distributed near the two locations. Meanwhile, the blow-out model assumes that a strong flow diffuses electrons and positive ions in the spark channel, and consequently the discharge blows out. As the number of electrons emitted from the cathode decreases, i.e., as the discharge current drops, the probability of all electrons or/and positive ions in a spark channel being diffused before reaching the electrode becomes progressively higher. Therefore, the model provides a lower limit to the discharge current for maintaining the discharge. As the length of a spark channel increases, electrons and positive ions are exposed to the flow for longer duration. Therefore, the lower limit increases with the length of the spark channel. Both developed models were confirmed to consist with experimental results obtained under high-velocity flow conditions. Additionally, this study evaluates the accuracy of the equation developed by Kim et al., which is commonly employed in ignition models for predicting the electrical resistance of spark channels, under high velocity conditions. While the equation agreed well with the experimental results at a discharge current greater than 70 mA, it predicted an excessively high electrical resistance at a discharge current less than 70 mA. Hence, this study suggests changing the discharge current exponent with adjusting the coefficient when applying the equation to high-velocity flow conditions.

POD-Based Analysis of In-Cylinder Flow Data from Molecular Tagging Velocimetry in a Spark-Ignition Engine

  • Indian Institute of Technology- Madras-Ali Ahammed Jasim, Mayank Mittal
  • Michigan State University-Harold Schock
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
The fluid motion inside the engine cylinder is transient, three-dimensional and highly turbulent. It is also well known that cycle-to-cycle flow variations have a considerable influence on cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. Laser-based diagnostic techniques, for example, particle image velocimetry (PIV) or molecular tagging velocimetry, can be used to measure two or three components of the velocity field simultaneously at multiple locations over a plane. The use of proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) allows quantification of cycle-to-cycle flow variations, as demonstrated using PIV data [1]. In the present work, POD is used to explore the cycle-to-cycle flow variations utilizing molecular tagging velocimetry data. The instantaneous velocity fields were obtained over a swirl measurement plane when engine was operated at 1500 rpm and 2500 rpm. The instantaneous flow fields were then decomposed into three parts, namely, mean part, coherent part and turbulent part, using triple decomposition approach. The evolution of relative energy content, considering all three parts, was studied at different crank angle positions during intake and compression strokes. Results showed that the mean part is highly correlated, and represents to the bulk flow of the instantaneous velocity field. The coherent part contained about 90% of the total fluctuating kinetic energy, whereas turbulent part contained about 10% of the total fluctuating energy. Hence, cycle-to-cycle flow variations are primarily due to the coherent part of the instantaneous velocity field. Concerning different engine speeds, it was found that the fraction of total kinetic energy contained by the mean part was relatively higher for the engine speed of 2500 rpm than that of 1500 rpm.

Investigation into the Optimized Heat Release Rate and Corresponding Variation of In-Cylinder Specific Heat Ratio for the Improvement in Thermal Efficiency by Utilizing Two-Zone Combustion Model Analysis

  • New Ace Inst. Co., Ltd.-Kenji Enya, Hiroki Watanabe, Noboru Uchida
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Improvement in heat loss could be an important factor to increase the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of an internal combustion engine; however, the heat energy saved isn’t all converted to brake work. Theoretically, to increase the conversion efficiency of heat energy into indicated work, the compression (or expansion) ratio and specific heat ratio (γ) are important. Nevertheless, γ has not been well-studied thus far, since it can’t be easily controlled. This study utilized a two-zone model to calculate the time-resolved γ and local excess air ratio of the burned gas (λb), which varied with the heat release rate. The two-zone combustion model, in which the cylinder volume is simply separated into burned and unburned zones to simulate the overall diesel combustion phenomena, was developed to investigate the current status of heterogeneous (diesel) combustion compared to ideal homogeneous combustion. The study focused on the instantaneous variation in γ and resulting indicated thermal efficiency. The model results were also directly applied to analysis of experimental results through λb estimation. Engine experiments were carried out utilizing a single cylinder engine with multiple injectors. Initial zero-dimensional simulation with various combinations of excess air ratio for isochoric and subsequent isobaric burned zone suggested the potential of additional thermal efficiency improvement by further diluting and homogenizing the combustion zone, particularly during the isobaric combustion phase. Then by application of the model to experimental results, λb was estimated and a potential improvement in BTE (due to improved mixture formation during isobaric combustion) was identified.

Guidelines for Time-Limited-Dispatch (TLD) Analysis for Electronic Engine Control Systems

  • E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5107C
  • Current
Published 2018-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides methodologies and approaches which have been used for conducting and documenting the analyses associated with the application of Time Limited Dispatch (TLD) to the thrust control reliability of Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) systems. The TLD concept is one wherein a fault-tolerant system is allowed to operate for a predetermined length of time with faults present in the redundant elements of the system, before repairs are required. This document includes the background of the development of TLD, the structure of TLD that was developed and implemented on present generation commercial transports, and the analysis methods used to validate the application of TLD on present day FADEC equipped aircraft. Although this document is specific to TLD analyses (for FADEC systems) of the loss of thrust control, the techniques and processes discussed in this document are considered applicable to other FADEC system failure effects or other systems, such as: thrust reverser, and propeller control systems, and overspeed protection systems.

Design Verification Plan & Report (DVP&R) - Overview and Application

  • Professional Development
  • C1512
Published 2018-09-04
In this one-day seminar on Design Verification Plan and Report Overview and Application students will be introduced to important concepts, the basic theory behind the concepts, and discuss how these concepts can be applied to the client's design reliability activities. Participant involvement will be maximized to demonstrate and reinforce the concepts through reading assignments, group discussions, and exercises where students will begin a DVP&R on a client product.Upon completion of this course the participants will be able to: Differentiate between verification and validation concepts and activitiesExplain the purpose of verification and validation activitiesIdentify role of verification and validation within the design development and review processDescribe the “V” modelPlan for verification and validation activitiesSelect the correct techniques for verification and final validationComplete basic DVP&R templatesDescribe the relationship between the DVP&R, the DFMEA and other review/analysis techniques1 Day .7 CEUs

Design of Experiments (DOE)

  • Professional Development
  • C1888
Published 2018-09-04
We need to “Improve the Way We Do Business” to survive in the modern global economy. DOE is a discovery tool to better comprehend the state of the business systems/processed at our organizations and optimize their performance in accordance to business goals. The DOE methodology addresses planning, execution, analysis and interpretation of a set of planned experiments designed to provide the road to improvement and ultimately optimization of the business system/process or product design under consideration. This methodology has been successfully applied countless times to solve quality problems and improve process improvement in basic sciences, economics, engineering and industrial sciences. Effective application of DOE has proven to: improve quality, reduce costs, reduce product/process development time, accelerate the pace of the learning process, reduce variation, and achieve consistent and on-target performance. DOE allows the experimenters to realistically look at the impact of several factors and their interaction. This is far superior to the one factor at a time approach to experimentation. This leads to a quicker more efficient experimentation strategy. DOE strategies include statistical analysis (Analysis…

Mechanism Analysis and Simulation Study of Automobile Millimeter Wave Radar Noise

  • General Motors-Jinsong Wang
  • Jilin Univ.-Weiwen Deng, Shanshan Wang
  • Show More
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
The paper analyzes the mechanism of automobile millimeter wave radar noise, this paper does not study radar noise from the angle of signal processing, but from the level of false detection and missed detection, at the same time, the noise mechanism is modeled and verified.

Fused Analytic Desktop Environment (FADE)

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29683
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States
The Fused Analytic Desktop Environment (FADE) provides analysts in information-driven fields with a range of analysis technologies — capable of handling ad-hoc data sources — integrated into a single, easy-to-use system. Integrated into FADE is a robust collection of analytical capabilities that supports data ingest regardless of format, then triages available data and documents to identify those most relevant to an analytical task. Once individual documents have been identified as task-relevant, FADE enables users to analyze document collections and extract, identify, visualize, and analyze the underlying entities and relationships of interest.

Integrated Approach to Electro-Mechanical System NVH Analysis

  • Romax Technology Ltd.-Robert Holehouse, Annabel Shahaj, Melanie Michon, Barry James
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely gear transmission error, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator tooth forces. It is shown through simulation the importance of considering the complete system when evaluating NVH performance. This is demonstrated by examining how the response of the drivetrain is affected by electro-mechanical interactions. The simulation will demonstrate the importance of considering influences such as system boundary conditions, the representation of bolted connections and manufacturing tolerances. Furthermore, the paper will present validation results of NVH testing performed on a prototype drivetrain, developed to meet the system requirements of a battery EV city car as part of an EU funded project. Good agreement is shown between measured and predicted response due to both gear and electrical machine excitations.