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Integrated Approach to Electro-Mechanical System NVH Analysis

  • Romax Technology Ltd. - Robert Holehouse, Annabel Shahaj, Melanie Michon, Barry James
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

The paper presents an integrated approach to system NVH analysis, which gives an insight into the system response in an EV driveline due to electrical and mechanical excitations; namely gear transmission error, electrical machine torque ripple, and stator tooth forces. It is shown through simulation the importance of considering the complete system when evaluating NVH performance. This is demonstrated by examining how the response of the drivetrain is affected by electro-mechanical interactions. The simulation will demonstrate the importance of considering influences such as system boundary conditions, the representation of bolted connections and manufacturing tolerances. Furthermore, the paper will present validation results of NVH testing performed on a prototype drivetrain, developed to meet the system requirements of a battery EV city car as part of an EU funded project. Good agreement is shown between measured and predicted response due to both gear and electrical machine excitations.


Optimizing Vehicle NVH Using Multi-Dimensional Source Path Contributor Paradigm.

  • Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd. - Gaurav Gupta, Vivek Singh
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

Automotive Industry is moving towards lightweight vehicle design with more powerful engines. This is increasing a demand for more optimized NVH design. Source-Path-Contributor (SPC) analysis is one of the ways to draw a holistic picture of any NVH problem.


Psychoacoustic Analysis of High Frequency Elasto-Acoustic Emissions from Hollow Driveshaft Tubes

  • Loughborough University - Rishi Patel, Ramin Rahmani, Homer Rahnejat
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

Lightly damped non-linear systems such as vehicular drivelines undergo a plethora of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) problems. The clonk phenomenon is one concern which occurs as the result of impulsive torque input in the form of sudden clutch actuation or throttle tip-in and back-out. The resulting impact of meshing gear pairs propagate structural waves down the driveline. With lightly damped thin-walled tubes having high modal density, elasto-acoustic coupling occurs. High frequency noise emission is of metallic nature and quite disconcerting to vehicle occupants as well as passers-by. It is perceived as structural failure and/or poor-quality build. Therefore, the occurrence of the phenomenon is a concern to vehicle manufacturers and progressively constitutes a warranty concern. This paper investigates the clonk phenomenon through use of a long-wheel base rear drive light truck test rig. The investigation uses psychoacoustic metrics to establish the severity of clonk noise in different maneuvers. This is an attempt to quantify the effect of transient clonk event which is usually ascertained through subjective evaluation ratings in a customer/jury clinic in industry. Alternatively, detailed numerical analysis is carried out with parametric studies to quantify different clonk events, a very time consuming approach which is not usually correlated with occupants’ perception of the event. Therefore, the experimental NVH monitoring-psycho-acoustic approach is new for the case of clonk and not hitherto reported in literature. The study corroborates the results and conclusions of previous work, pointing to the loudness and sharpness of high frequency short-lived “metallic” response, which is attuned to human aural perception. The psychoacoustic analysis has shown this to be as the result of short duration hard impact (accelerative period). This hard impact duration accounts for the bulk loudness and sharpness of the overall event. Therefore, effective palliation should focus on the attenuation of particular frequency bands, which carry the main contribution to loudness and sharpness.


Dynamic Stiffness Investigation of an Automotive Body-in-White by Utilizing Response Surface Methodology

  • Iran University of Science & Technology - Milad Abbasi
  • RMIT University - Mohammad Fard
  • Show More
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

Noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) attribute is needed to be included in the vehicle structure design since improving the NVH characteristics enhances the ride quality experienced by the occupants. In this regard, an efficient method was proposed to investigate the structural dynamic response of an automotive body considering low-frequency NVH performances. Moreover, the improvement of an automotive structure under the constraint of NVH behavior was investigated by using the design of experiments (DOEs) method. The DOEs methodology was for screening of the design space and generating approximation models. Here, the thicknesses of panels consisting of a body-in-white (BIW) of an automotive were employed as design variables for optimization, whose objective was to increase the first torsional and bending natural frequencies. Central composite design (CCD) for DOEs sampling and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to optimize the dynamic stiffness. Moreover, the effects of the selected variables as well as their binary interactions were modeled and the optimum conditions for rigidity improvement were obtained via the RSM. Furthermore, the validity of the proposed optimization scheme was verified through CAE analysis. The results indicated that the first torsion and bending natural frequency were improved compared to the baseline design. Additionally, precise surrogate models in polynomial terms for the first bending and torsion natural frequencies were obtained.


Efficient Cause and Effect Analysis for NVH Phenomena of Electric Vehicles on an Acoustic Roller Test Bench

  • IPEK - Institut of Product Engineering - A. Albers, M. Bopp, M. Behrendt
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

Due to the increasing number of hybrid and full electric vehicles and the trend of generally decreasing noise levels in vehicles, the engineering fields regarding driving comfort and NVH issues become more challenging: The masking effect of combustion engines vanish while customer expectations towards NVH and driving comfort are growing. Also the trend to high-speed concepts in electric vehicles combined with high transmission ratios implies that dominant powertrain noise will shift from low frequency phenomena as in combustion engines to higher frequencies that have a much higher annoyance potential [1]. In most cases the vibroacoustic behavior of a drivetrain or that of the whole vehicle is not known until the system is already in operation, since vibroacoustic behavior is very complex and difficult to simulate. So a common situation is that unpleasant NVH behavior is not noticed until the product is in a very late stage of development, where time is limited and design changes are very expensive. To handle this situation, it is important to find the source of the noise and identify components that take part in transmitting or amplifying it as fast as possible. Using the example of a battery electric vehicle, such a method for efficient cause-and-effect analysis for NVH issues is presented in this paper. At first a subjective rating under real world driving conditions is conducted. The obtrusive noise is then described using a comparative, onomatopoeic system as well as through its correlation with system parameters. This allows to link the perceived noise to a specific phenomenon in the measured data, and in many cases already to a specific component. This component and its bordering structure and relevant transfer paths are analyzed. These findings can then be used as input parameters for the definition of countermeasures.


Identification of Blocked Forces and Moments of an Oil Pump Fixed on a Test Bench by Using an Inverse Vibration Technique

  • LAUM, Le Mans University - Charles PEZERAT
  • Matelys - Fabien Chevillotte
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

The major difficulty of the structure borne noise source characterization is the strong dependence of the coupling forces with respect to the input mobility of the reception structures and/or the mechanical link between the source and the receiver. The placement of a force sensor can then be too intrusive and the use of inverse techniques on the real reception structure is difficult to apply, because the accessibility can be limited and tests must then be applied for all structures likely to be linked with the studied source. The aim of this paper is to propose a general technique to identify the intrinsic characteristics that are the blocked forces and moments on a simple test bench hosting the source. The test bench consists in mounting the source on a vibrating beam where the mechanical link corresponds exactly to the link between the source and the final receiver. The vibration displacement field of the beam is then measured in two configurations: when the source is switched on and when the source is switched off while the beam is excited by a shaker. The application of the RIFF technique (also known as Force Analysis Technique) allows one to identify the force distribution applied to the beam. The second configuration (beam excited by the shaker) enable the identification of the force distribution due to the attachment of the source only. This force distribution can then be used to correct the beam equation of motion such that the effect of the link can be avoided. The RIFF technique can then be used to identify the blocked force distribution from the displacement measured in the first configuration (source switched on). The interest to identify the force distribution is that is it is possible to extract forces and moments applied to attached points by the source thanks to local spatial integrations around each attachment points. In this paper, the considered source is a oil pump that can be mounted on different engines. The study focuses on the blocked forces and moments applied by two close attachment points. Two post-processing are then proposed, the first consists in extracting forces and moments for each point, the second consists in calculating the equivalent force and equivalent moment applied by both points. Results are shown for all of these proposal, demonstrating the interest to consider the equivalent forces and moments in the low frequency domain.


Novel Three-Cylinder Engine Solutions Offering Low Noise Vibration and Harshness for Range-Extender and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

  • Auckland University of Technology - Peter R. Hooper
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

In recent years, automotive manufacturers have introduced an increasing array of in-line three cylinder engine solutions with the objective of providing efficient low CO2 emission power train solutions for small vehicles and in some cases to address down-sizing targets. At the same time, three cylinder engines have seen recent introduction in range-extender and hybrid electric vehicles such as the BMW i8. Unfortunately in-line three cylinder units present serious challenge to engineers in terms of noise, vibration and harshness and this often yields criticism from customer perceptions. The in-line three-cylinder arrangement however does offer an attractive packaging solution for vehicles and an effective method of reducing overall vehicle cost. This paper presents analysis and modelling of a high durability three-cylinder two-stroke cycle engine, which could offer advantages in this competitive and challenging sector for small automotive power plants particularly from a noise, vibration and harshness perspective. The engine uses segregated scavenging to overcome the durability problems of conventional two-stroke cycle engines. Configurations are presented with and without balance shaft and compared with a four stroke engine solution. The novel ability to combine the balance shaft with an integrated rotary valve system controlling gas exchange whilst simultaneously countering the problem of the pitching couple that three cylinder engines traditionally suffer from. Modelling of the benefits of the technology to address NVH issues are presented and discussed.


Stability Analysis of Combined Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer Based on Phase-Plane Method

  • Jiangsu University - Ren He, Zhecheng Jing, Xiaomin Shen
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0012
Published 2018-06-04 by SAE International in United States

An analysis method for the stability of combined braking system of tractor-semitrailer based on phase-plane is investigated. Based on a 9 degree of freedom model, considering longitudinal load transfer, nonlinear model of tire and other factors, the braking stability of tractor-semitrailer is analyzed graphically on the phase plane. The stability of both tractor and semitrailer with different retarder gear is validated with the energy plane, β plane, yaw angle plane and hinged angle plane. The result indicates that in the long downhill with curve condition, both tractor and semitrailer show good stability when retarder is working at 1st and 2nd gear, and when it is at 3rd gear, the tractor is close to be unstable while semitrailer is unstable already. Besides, tractor and semitrailer both lose stability when retarder is working at the 4th gear.


Enhanced Low-Order Model with Radiation for Total Temperature Probe Analysis and Design

  • Tyler Vincent
  • Joseph Schetz
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 01-11-01-0003
Published 2018-05-16 by SAE International in United States

Analysis and design of total temperature probes for accurate measurements in hot, high-speed flows remains a topic of great interest in aerospace propulsion and a number of other engineering areas. One can apply detailed computational methods for simultaneous convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, but such approaches are not suitable for rapid, routine analysis and design studies. For these studies, there is still a place for low-order approximate methods, and that is the subject of this paper. Here, an enhanced, low-order model is presented that includes conduction with variable thermal conductivity, convection with varying convection coefficient, varying diameter (and thus area) along the length of the sensor and radiation, all implemented in a convenient MATLAB code. We have also developed a new novel procedure to integrate the enhanced low-order model with computational fluid dynamics/conjugate heat transfer (CHT/CFD) simulations to accurately predict the important influences of radiation under different conditions in a very efficient manner.

Correlation Model of Subjective and Objective Evaluation Based on Grey GM(0,N) for Automobile Sound Quality

  • Zhendong Zhao
  • Journal Article
  • 02-11-02-0008
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States

Correlation analysis of subjective and objective evaluation for automobile sound quality is an important topic in automobile technology fields. In view of the deficiency of multi-dimensional linear regression analysis and the theoretical merits of grey system method, grey comprehensive relational degree was calculated to analyze the contribution of objective evaluation data to subjective evaluation. The main objective variables affecting the subjective feeling were determined. The variables include loudness, sharpness and shaking degrees. Grey GM(0,4) model was established as a quantitative expression for describing the subjective and objective evaluation correlation. The results of residual test and posterior-variance-test show that the established model was accurate and the model can be used to analyze and predict subjective and objective evaluation data of automobile sound quality.