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Integrated Engine States Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter and Disturbance Observer

Clemson University-Qilun Zhu, Robert Prucka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2603
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Accurate estimation of engine state(s) is vital for engine control systems to achieve their designated objectives. The fusion of sensors can significantly improve the estimation results in terms of accuracy and precision. This paper investigates using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to estimate engine state(s) for Spark Ignited (SI) engines with the external EGR system. The EKF combines air path sensors with cylinder pressure feedback through a control-oriented engine cycle domain model. The model integrates air path dynamics, torque generation, exhaust gas temperature, and residual gas mass. The EKF generates a cycle-based estimation of engine state(s) for model-based control algorithms, which is not the focus of this paper. The sensor and noise dynamics are analyzed and integrated into the EKF formulation. To account for ‘non-white’ disturbances including modeling errors and sensor/actuator offset, the EKF engine state(s) observer is augmented with disturbance state(s) estimation. Case studies demonstrate that the disturbance augmented EKF can identify the sources of estimation errors and mitigates these errors automatically within several engine cycles. This paper concludes that the number of disturbance…
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Structure Deformation Calculation Program for Structural Shape Monitoring

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35289
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Researchers at NASA’s Armstrong Flight Research Center are pioneering shape-sensing technologies that seek to maximize structural integrity and efficiency. A new and versatile computer program offers critical shape-monitoring capabilities and has applications for a wide variety of structures.

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Development of Dynamics Analysis Methodology for Front Loading Design Process of “Motor on Caliper”

Mando Brake-Jinsuk Song
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The current mega trend in the automobile industry are that of electronic systems. Amid this trend, the demand is also increasing for motorized conventional chassis products. As a result, we will be dealing with more complex designs and validations than conventional mechanical products.On the other hand, another issue in the industry is using simulation for front load design decisions. The concept of “Front Loading” is not entirely new to automotive manufacturers, who are becoming adept at eliminating cost, materials, time and waste from the design process. However, front loading is still needed in all units, and the simulation across the system is immature as ever.In this paper, we would like to show how to implement a more efficient design process by using simulation for front loading to new concept design of “Crossed Helical Gear Type - Motor on Caliper”. Also, it contains the simulation techniques and the fundamental methods studied to build this design process.
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Parametric Analysis and Optimization of Variables Affecting the Brain Injury Criterion (BrIC) in Various Crash Scenarios

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Bowhead (Systems and Technology Group), United States-Vikas Hasija
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, United States-Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0005
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Incompressibility of the brain makes it susceptible to damage from shear strains. Head rotational motion can easily produce high shear strains causing brain injury. Since head injury criterion (HIC) does not account for rotational motion, a brain injury criterion (BrIC) was developed. To design potential countermeasures for reducing BrIC, it is important to investigate the parameters that influence BrIC. This article focuses on parametric analysis to examine the sensitivity of BrIC to vehicle design and crash-related parameters, and identifying important parameters which can be controlled in developing countermeasures for reducing BrIC. Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male simplified human finite element (FE) model was used in this study. Four different analyses were conducted: a Design of Experiments (DOE) study to investigate sensitivity of BrIC to impact direction and crash pulse severity b DOE studies, with fixed crash severity, for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to identify important vehicle design parameters influencing BrIC c Optimization for frontal, far side oblique, and near side oblique crash modes to minimize…
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Determination of a Tyre’s Rolling Resistance Using Parallel Rheological Framework

University of Birmingham-Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Oluremi Olatunbosun, Khamis Essa
Published 2019-06-20 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, rolling resistance sits at the core of tyre development goals because of its considerable effect on the car’s fuel economy. In contrast to the experimental method, the finite element (FE) method offers an inexpensive and efficient estimation technique. However, the FE technique is yet to be a fully developed product particularly for rolling-resistance estimation. An assessment is conducted to study the role of material viscoelasticity representation in FE, in linear and non-linear forms, through the use of Prony series and parallel rheological framework (PRF) models, respectively, on the tyre’s rolling-resistance calculation and its accuracy. A unique approach was introduced to estimate the rolling resistance according to the tyre’s hysteresis energy coefficient. The non-linear PRF choice resulted in rolling-resistance calculations that reasonably match that of the experimental work and the literature for various vertical load and inflation cases, whereas the Prony series option was found irresponsive to the tyre’s deformation in which it gave unreliable and infinitesimal outputs.
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Evaluation of Uncertainties in Classical and Component (Blocked Force) Transfer Path Analysis (TPA)

University of Salford-Andy Moorhouse, Joshua Meggitt, Andrew Elliott
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transfer path analysis (TPA) has become a widely used diagnostic technique in the automotive and other sectors. In classic TPA, a two-stage measurement is conducted including operational and frequency response function (FRF) phases from which the contribution of various excitations to a target quantity, typically cabin sound pressure, are determined. Blocked force TPA (also called in situ Source Path Contribution Analysis, in-situ TPA and component TPA) is a development of the classic TPA approach and has been attracting considerable recent attention. Blocked force TPA is based on very similar two stage measurements to classic TPA but has two major advantages: there is no need to dismantle the vehicle and the blocked forces obtained are an independent property of the source component and are therefore transferrable to different assemblies. However, despite the now widespread reliance on classic TPA, and the increasing use of blocked force TPA in the automotive sector, it is rare to see any evaluation of the associated uncertainties. This paper therefore aims to summarize recent work and provide a guide to the evaluation…
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Blocked Force Determination on Thin Plate Structures Including Applications

University of Kentucky-Keyu Chen, David Herrin
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transfer path analysis is commonly used to determine input forces indirectly utilizing measured responses and transfer functions. Though it is recommended that the source should be detached from the vibrating structure when measuring transfer functions, engineers and technicians frequently have a difficult time in doing so in practice. Recently, a substitute for inverse force determination via transfer path analysis has been suggested. The indirectly determined forces are termed blocked forces and are usable so long as the source and machine are not detached from one another. Blocked forces have the added advantage of being valid even if the machine structure is modified. In this research, a typical automotive engine cover is considered as a receiver structure and is bolted to a plastic source plate excited by an electromagnetic shaker. Blocked forces are determined at different locations, and the correctness of the calculated blocked forces is assessed by comparing the predicted and simulated responses at selected receiver points which were not used for determining the blocked forces.
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Advance Data Analytics Methodologies to Solve Diesel Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment System Challenges

Mercedes Benz Research & Development India Pvt Ltd-Mitesh Farsodia, Satyam Pandey, Gourav Ganguly
Published 2019-05-02 by SAE International in United States
Recent developments are making powertrain systems more complex day by day. Understanding such system complexities and addressing their specific issues requires advance methodologies. This paper will discuss the approach and implementation of such advance data analytics methodologies using the field of artificial intelligence. The application of artificial intelligence is widely accepted in solving intricate issues. This paper points out methodologies using machine learning and neural network techniques to solve such intricate challenges in diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system (ATS). Both the supervised and unsupervised learning methods have been used to solve specific powertrain challenges by taking cases from both “classification” and “regression” learnings. This paper discusses the step-by-step approach (from descriptive to predictive to prescriptive analysis) including feature extraction process to deal with such challenges using these advance data analysis methodologies. The following use cases will be discussed in this paper: (a) Self-learning methodology for analysis of powertrain parameters. (b) Prediction of a failure (fault/error code) in the system. (c) Prediction of exhaust temperature shoot-up events during active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration. (d) Diesel…
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Chemical Check Analysis Limits Titanium and Titanium Alloys

AMS G Titanium and Refractory Metals Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2249J
  • Current
Published 2019-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This specification defines limits of variation for determining acceptability of the composition of cast or wrought titanium and titanium alloy parts and material acquired from a producer.
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An Assessment of a Sensor Network Using Bayesian Analysis Demonstrated on an Inlet Manifold

Caterpillar-Leo Shead
Loughborough University-Rhys Comissiong, Thomas Steffen
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Modern control strategies for internal combustion engines use increasingly complex networks of sensors and actuators to measure different physical parameters. Often indirect measurements and estimation of variables, based off sensor data, are used in the closed loop control of the engine and its subsystems. Thus, sensor fusion techniques and virtual instrumentation have become more significant to the control strategy. With the large volumes of data produced by the increasing number of sensors, the analysis of sensor networks has become more important. Understanding the value of the information they contain and how well it is extracted through uncertainty quantification will also become essential to the development of control architecture. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify how valuable a sensor is relative to the architecture. By modelling the sensor network as a Bayesian network, Bayesian analysis and control metrics were used to assess the value of the sensor. This was demonstrated on charge mass flow estimation in the inlet manifold. Four control architectures modelled using a Bayesian network were compared: balanced sensors, redundant sensors, synergistic sensors…
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