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Design & analysis of 2 point aluminum upper control arm in modular multi link rear suspension system

ZF India Pvt Ltd.-Mayur Shamkant Kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2564
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In current automobile market, due to the need of meeting future CO2 limits and emission standards, demand for hybrid systems is on the rise. In general, the requirements of modern automobile architecture demands modular chassis structure to develop vehicle variants using minimum platforms. The multi-link modular suspension system provides ideal solution to achieve these targets. To match ideal stiffness characteristics of system with minimum weight, aluminum links are proving a good alternative to conventional steel forged or stamped linkages. Design of current 2-point link (Upper Control Arm) is based on elasto-kinematic model developed using standard load cases from multi body dynamics. CAD system used is CATIA V5 to design upper control arm for rear suspension. This arm connects steering knuckle & rear sub frame. For Finite Element Analysis we used Hyperworks CAE tool to analyze design under all load cased & further optimization is done to resolve highly stressed zones. An optimized solution presented with a balance of ideal stiffness & strength. A CAD model developed with aluminum forged alloy (6082 - T6) is compared…
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Aluminum Alloy, Extrusions 1.0Mg - 0.60Si - 0.30Cu - 0.20Cr (6061-T6511) Solution Heat Treated, Stress Relieved by Stretching, Straightened, and Precipitation Heat Treated

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4173G
  • Current
Published 2019-10-17 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of extruded bars, rods, wire, profiles, and tubing. These extrusions have been used typically for parts requiring moderate strength and where distortion during machining must be minimized, but usage is not limited to such applications.

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Critical Wear Assessment of AA8011/Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites with Surface Amendment Using Friction Stir Process

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shri Vignesh Ramachandran, Ramprakash Palanivelu, Saravanakumar Ramasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium-based alloy has been significantly revised through the last decade. Friction Stir Process can improve surface properties such as hardness, abrasion resistance, ductility, strength, fatigue life, corrosion resistance and formability without upsetting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nanoparticles through FSP. The main objective of the study is to improve the surface properties of AA8011 by adding nanoparticles such as SMA and silicon nitrate (Si3N4) through friction stir process. By the way, this experiment was carried out to obtain three set of samples like virgin AA8011, AA8011 with shape memory alloy and AA8011 along with shape memory alloy and silicon nitride during FSP under optimal process parametric condition. The nanoparticles distribution was improved after…
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Experimental Investigation on Turning Characteristics of TiC/MoS2 Nanoparticles Reinforced Al7075 Using TiN Coated Cutting Tool

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan, Budireddy Uday Kumar, Dhulipalla Anvesh, Varupula Akhil
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its excellent tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle has been studied. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate. The turning characteristics of the prepared samples are compared each other under L20 orthogonal array on CNC turning machine. The significant findings in the present study are: hardness of base aluminum alloy is found to…
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Characterization of AlSi10Mg Alloy Produced by DMLS Process for Automotive Engine Application

Turbo Energy Ltd.-Emmidi Thrinadh
Turbo Energy Private Ltd.-Kumaran Arun, Kumaran Aravindh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Considerable weight of an automobile is constituted by the engine and there is scope for improvement in fuel efficiency and emission control through optimization of weight in the engine. In this work, AlSi10Mg alloy produced by the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) is suggested for engine application which is a lightweight aluminum alloy. Mechanical properties like tensile strength, compressive strength, and hardness of both cast and DMLS manufactured alloy are compared followed by analysis of SEM images of tensile test fractured surfaces. Reciprocating wear test is carried out for one lakh cycles at 125°C temperature with SAE 40 grade oil as lubricant. Co-efficient of friction (COF), wear rate of the cast and DMLS manufactured samples are compared. Wear patterns are analyzed using SEM images of the wear tracks.
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Experimental Investigation of Mechanical and Corrosion Characteristics of Friction Stir Welded Aluminum Alloy 7075-T6

Assistant Professor-Deepankumar S
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a quite new solid-state joining process. This joining technique is energy efficient, environment friendly, and adaptable. In particular, it can be used to join high- strength Aluminium alloys and other metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding. Friction Stir Welding heats metal to the temperature below re crystallization. FSW avoids welding defects like porosity and hot cracking which are frequently in conventional welding techniques due to alloy’s very low re- crystallization temperature and higher heat dissipating nature. This process combining deformation heating and mechanical work to obtain high defect free joints. Aluminum alloy 7075-T6 is generally used in various industrial applications such as automobile, ship building and aerospace due to their light weight, good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance. In the present study, aluminum alloy 7075-T6 was successfully made by friction stir welding technique. The Corrosion, micro structure analysis and mechanical behavior of the welded joints were investigated at different welding parameters.
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Experimental Study on Forces and Surface Roughness in Peripheral Grinding of an Aluminum Alloy

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Politecnico di Torino, Italy-Eleonora Atzeni, Flaviana Calignano, Alessandro Salmi
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy-Elena Bassoli
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-03-0017
Published 2019-10-08 by SAE International in United States
Peripheral grinding of the aluminum alloy EN AB-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) using a vitrified silicon carbide grinding wheel was investigated in this article. The effect of grinding parameters, namely, grinding speed, feed and depth of cut, and grinding condition, up-grinding or down-grinding, on resulting forces, grinding energy, and surface roughness were analyzed. A 22 × 32 full factorial design of experiments was performed. The ground surface morphology showed evidence of rubbing and plowing effects, and ductile material removal was the main mechanism. Within the analyzed process window, the minimum value of surface roughness was 0.28 μm. The experimental evaluation highlighted that forces and grinding energy are directly dependent on chip thickness, and this relationship was further explored as a function of depth of cut and feed per grain. Conversely, an inverse dependence was observed in the case of surface roughness. Empirical relationships for a reliable prediction of the grinding force and the specific grinding energy were defined. On the contrary, the surface roughness could not be fully modelled by the variation of the kinematic factors considered, and only…
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Electrifying Long-Haul Freight - Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

University of Kansas, USA-Christopher Depcik, Anmesh Gaire, Jamee Gray, Zachary Hall, Anjana Maharjan, Darren Pinto, Arno Prinsloo
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-03-0017
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability. Lastly, a combination of different lightweight vehicle components manufactured from aluminum and magnesium alloys, carbon fiber composites, titanium, and high-strength steel presents a substantial reduction in overall vehicle weight. Overall, a comparison of a potential EHDTT with a standard Class-8 heavy-duty tractor-trailer (HDTT) reveals a possible reduction in the aerodynamic…
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Manufacturing Process for Aluminum Alloys

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35274
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An advanced manufacturing process was developed to produce nano-structured rods and tubes directly from high-performance aluminum alloy powder in a single step. Using a Solid Phase Processing approach, researchers eliminated several steps that are required during conventional extrusion processing of aluminum alloy powders and achieved a significant increase in product ductility (how far a material can stretch before it breaks).

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Aluminum Alloy, Alclad Sheet and Plate, 6.3Cu - 0.30Mn - 0.18Zr - 0.10V - 0.06Ti, Alclad 2219-T31; Sheet, Solution Heat Treated and Cold Worked, Alclad 2219-T351; Plate, Solution Heat Treated and Stress Relieved

AMS D Nonferrous Alloys Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS4095E
  • Current
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers an aluminum alloy in the form of sheet and plate 0.020 to 0.499 inch (0.51 to 12.67 mm) inclusive, in nominal thickness (see 8.4) alclad two sides.