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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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Reducing Cycle Times of Refill Friction Stir Spot Welding in Automotive Aluminum Alloys

Brigham Young University-Brigham Larsen, Yuri Hovanski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0224
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A major barrier, preventing RFSSW from use by manufacturers, is the long cycle time that has been historically associated with making a weld. In order for RFSSW to become a readily implementable welding solution, cycle times must be reduced to an acceptable level, similar to that of well developed, competing spot joining processes. In the present work, an investigation of the RFSSW process is conducted to evaluate factors that have traditionally prevented the process from achieving fast cycle times. Within this investigation, the relationship between cycle time and joint quality is explored, as is the meaning and measurement of cycle time in the RFSSW process. Claims and general sentiment found in prior literature are challenged regarding the potential for high-speed RFSSW joints to be made. The RFSSW weld design-as described by process parameters such as tool feed rate, tool rotational velocity, and plunge depth- is shown through experimentation to affect the loads and torques placed on RFSSW tooling and machines during the welding process. As cycle time is decreased, the load and torque on the…
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Coupled Weld-Rupture Analysis of Automotive Assemblies

ESI North America-Yogendra Gooroochurn, Ramesh Dwarampudi, Vijay Tunga
ESI US R&D-Megha Seshadri, Ravi Raveendra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1076
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight driven design in the automotive industry and the push for Electric Vehicles mandate the use of innovative materials such as Steel (HSS, UHSS, AHSS) and Aluminum alloys. For steel suppliers to meet the strength requirements of high strength steels, they often alloy the steel chemistry (depending on mill capability, rolling capacity, quenching capacity, etc.). When used in welded assembly constructions, these steels, as compared to traditional steels, behave differently. Depending on the welding heat input, the material chemistry and thickness, they either harden or soften in the heat affected zone. Similar behavior is observed with the most commonly used aluminum alloys (5000 and 6000 series) in the automotive sector. For both alloy types, different strengthening mechanism are used to meet their initial strength requirements (by work hardening and by heat treating respectively) but they both undergo softening in the heat affected zone during welding. Regardless of the alloys, the material in the heat affected zone is affected and so is the performance of the weldment during service. FE analyzes of Welding and Performance have…
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Innovative Additive Manufacturing Process for Successful Production of 7000 Series Aluminum Alloy Components Using Smart Optical Monitoring System

SenSigma LLC-Jay Choi, Alex Rice
University of Michigan-Jyoti Mazumder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft components are commonly produced with 7000 series aluminum alloys (AA) due to its weight, strength, and fatigue properties. Auto Industry is also choosing more and more aluminum component for weight reduction. Current additive manufacturing (AM) methods fall short of successfully producing 7000 series AA due to the reflective nature of the material along with elements with low vaporization temperature. Moreover, lacking in ideal thermal control, print inherently defective products with such issues as poor surface finish alloying element loss and porosity. All these defects contribute to reduction of mechanical strength. By monitoring plasma with spectroscopic sensors, multiple information such as line intensity, standard deviation, plasma temperature or electron density, and by using different signal processing algorithm, AM defects have been detected and classified. For composition analysis, the ratio of the maximum intensities of Mg(I)/Al(I) shows a strong trend with the amount of Zn and Mg in the powder, and the results are extremely promising regarding the ability to use the online spectra for real time determination of the composition of the AA7075 powders with…
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A New Approach to Comprehensive Modeling of Sheet Metal Tensile Test Data Using a Universal Exponential Expression

University of Colorado Denver-Luis Sanchez Vega
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0751
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to providing an improved fit to continuously describe tensile test behavior over arbitrary quasi-static regression fit techniques. The tensile test, commonly defined by elastic, transient, and exponential regions, is represented here by a continuous curve spanning from the unstrained state to the post uniform regions. Since the model is continuous, proportionality and yield points between regions are not defined. This continuous behavior is described by an exponential expression defined in the logarithmic stress-strain coordinate system, from which the model fit is determined. In this logarithmic scale, we found that the data is bound by segments of concave and/or convex curvatures which end approach asymptotically towards straight lines. The coordinates of the fit in the logarithmic scale are defined at the intersection of the asymptotes, and the material fits are found from the optimum regression fit. The accuracy of the fit was validated at quasi-static speeds for four different sheet materials: cold rolled deep drawing quality, dual phase DP590, and dual phase DP780 steels, and an aluminum alloy AA6916. The fitting accuracies improved…
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Experimental and Analytical Study of Drawbead Restraining Force for Sheet Metal Drawing Processes

Oakland University-Natalia Reinberg, Ashutosh Mokashi, Saeid Nasheralahkami, Sergey Golovashchenko, Srecko Zdravkovic, Yurdaer Demiralp
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0753
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, implementation of aluminum alloys, advanced high strength steels and ultra high strength steels is quickly increasing in automotive components due to their superior structural performance and vehicle weight reduction capabilities. However, these materials often have more limited formability compared to broadly used mild steels. Design of the sheet metal drawing process requires accurate information about the restraining forces distribution usually accomplished by a set of drawbeads positioned along the perimeter of the die cavity. This study is targeting bringing together the results of analytical models, results of finite element analysis and experimental data in attempt to understand the most critical factors influencing the restraining force. The experimental study of the restraining force was performed using drawbead simulator tool installed into Instron tensile testing machine. Based upon the experimental results, it was observed that the restraining force of the given drawbead configuration is dependent upon the depth of bead penetration, friction between the drawbead surfaces and sheet metal as well as the clearance between the upper and lower die. This clearance is often…
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Design and Development of an Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing System for Very High Cycle Fatigue

Concordia University Montreal-Paul Catalin Ilie, Xavier Lesperance, Ayhan Ince
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0183
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There has been growing demand for increased fuel efficiency, reduced emissions and improved power performance while maintaining reliability and durability of mechanical and structural systems in many different industries. The structural engineering components often experience long loading histories, typically ten million cycles or greater, i.e. high cycle fatigue (HCF) and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regimes. HCF in the range of 106-108 cycles and VHCF in the range of 108-1010 cycles are key design criteria for aerospace, automotive, military, transportation and many other industries. However, fatigue characterization of metal alloys in the HCF and VHCF regimes is hindered by limitations of traditional fatigue testing machines due to time and cost constraints. The development of high power piezoceramic actuators enables efficient and reliable fatigue tests in the HCF and VHCF regimes within a very short time frame on the basis of ultrasonic fatigue testing approaches. A fully instrumented ultrasonic fatigue test machine operating at 20 kHz was designed and built to investigate HCF and VHCF behavior of lightweight metallic alloys. The fatigue testing machine went through…
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Fatigue Evaluation of Flow Drill Screw Joints Using the Equilibrium-Based Structural Stress Method

Engineering Mechanics Corp. of Columbus-Jeong Hong, Gery Wilkowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0189
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
According to the increasing demands for light-weight design in the automotive industry, the use of thinner and lighter materials such as aluminum alloys for automotive parts has led to significant weight reduction. The joining of these materials has required development of new technologies in joining/fastening rather than welding. Flow drill screwing is one of the latest technologies created to fasten sheet metal panels.This paper discusses results of an evaluation of fatigue characteristics of flow drill screw (FDS) joints based on experimental data and observations from the literature. It was observed that the important fatigue-related geometric parameters of FDS joints were the gap between sheets and the extruded (or bulged) zone during screwing. Major failure modes were observed such as sheet failures where cracks grow from the inner surface of the sheet and around the extruded zone.In this paper, the fatigue evaluation procedure for FDS joints using the mesh-insensitive equilibrium-based structural stress (ESS) method was used. The ESS-based simplified modeling procedure was used for the fatigue-evaluation procedure for FDS joints. The effectiveness and applicability of the…
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Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic, Sergey Golovashchenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
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Process Development of Dissimilar Clinch Joints in Cross-Tension Specimens of AA5052 and TP-CFRP Sheets

National Chung Cheng University-Pai-Chen Lin, Gavin Fang, Chia-Wei Lin
University of Malaya-Yern Chee Ching
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0225
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper studied the process development of dissimilar clinch joints in cross-tension specimens of aluminum alloy 5052-H32 (AA5052-H32)/thermoplastic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (TP-CFRP) sheets. The AA5052-H32 and TP-CFRP sheets with a thickness of 1.6 mm were used. The important processing parameters for AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints, such as the punching load, heating mode, heating temperature, and die depth, were considered. The failure loads, failure modes, and metallographic micrographs of AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints were analyzed to determine an available processing parameter set for fatigue tests. Finally, the fatigue performance and failure mode of AA5052/TP-CFRP clinch joints were obtained.