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Natural Gas: Meeting CO2 Emission Targets Here and Now

Westport Fuel Systems-David Mumford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0024
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Global energy consumption trends are running counter to the need to rapidly and drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The increasing demand for energy and associated growth in emissions means that we must deploy market-ready, commercially-available solutions now. Europe’s recently enacted heavy-duty CO2 regulations require truck OEMs to achieve a fleet average CO2 reduction of 15% (by 2025) and 30% (2030) from the 2019 industry baseline, with significant fines for missing these targets. OEMs are under considerable pressure to abandon the internal combustion engine (ICE) and move toward fuel cells and battery electric solutions. This drive away from ICEs has gathered considerable momentum, but also misses the short term reality – the infrastructure and overwhelming mass of existing product is built on the ICE, and it will take time and considerable investment to replace. In the automotive sector, the path to electric vehicles is already starting to evolve, however cost-competitive, commercially available production solutions are still in their infancy for the commercial heavy-duty trucking sector. This paper will focus on alternative fuel options for heavy-duty…
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Combustion Characterization of Neat n-Butanol in an SI Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Tie Li
University of Windsor-Navjot Singh Sandhu, Xiao Yu, Simon Leblanc, Ming Zheng, David Ting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission standards have promoted the interest in alternate fuel sources. Because of the comparable energy density to the existing fossil fuels and renewable production, alcohol fuels may be a suitable replacement, or an additive to the gasoline/diesel fuels to meet the future emission standards with minimal modification to current engine geometry. In this research, the combustion characteristics of neat n-butanol are analyzed under spark ignition operation using a single cylinder SI engine. The fuel is injected into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector. Two modes of charge dilution were used in this investigation to test the limits of stable engine operation, namely lean burn using excess fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The in-cylinder pressure measurement and subsequently, heat release analysis are used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the fuel under low load SI engine operation. Additionally, a comprehensive emission analysis is performed to study the combustion by-products. Furthermore, the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol fuel are compared to those of the gasoline fuel. Preliminary results highlight the effect…
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Combustion and Emission Characteristics of SI and HCCI Combustion Fueled with DME and OME

Ford Motor Company-Jimi Tjong
University of Windsor-Simon Leblanc, Xiao Yu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Meiping Wang, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1355
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
DME has been considered an alternative fuel to diesel fuel with promising benefits because of its high reactivity and volatility. Research shows that an engine fueled with DME will produce zero smoke emissions. However, the storage and the handling of the fuel are underlying difficulties owing to its high vapour pressure (530 kPa @ 20 °C). In lieu, OME1 fuel, a derivate of DME, offers advantages exhibited with DME fuel, all the while being a liquid fuel for engine application. In this work, engine tests are performed to realize the combustion behaviour of DME and OME1 fuel on a single-cylinder research engine with a compression ratio of 9.2:1. The dilution ratio of the mixture is progressively increased in two manners, allowing more air in the cylinder and applying exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The high reactivity of DME suits the capability to be used in compression ignition combustion whereas OME1 must be supplied with a supplemental spark to initiate the combustion. The results indicate that a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) is present during the combustion of…
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Analysis of Performance and Emission of Diesel Engines Operating on Palm Oil Biodiesel

University of South Australia-Saiful Bari, Chi Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0336
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fast consumption of fossil fuels is demanding researchers to find few potential alternative fuels that meet sustainable energy demand in the near future with least environmental impact. Future energy system needs to be cost-efficient, renewable, and safe to handle. Biodiesel is expected to be the future energy source that meets all the environmental norms. The use of biodiesel in Internal Combustion (IC) engines represents an alternative clean energy source compared to hydrocarbon fuels that generate emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), Sulfur Oxides (SO) and particulate matters (PM). This paper describes the importance of Palm Oil Diesel (POD) as an alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Simulations are carried out with ANSYS FORTE software with POD. The engine chosen is a 26-kW diesel-gen-set. The engine geometry is drawn in SOLIDWORKS using dimensions of the actual diesel engine. Then, the geometry is imported in ANSYS FORTE and simulations are carried out with diesel and compared with the experimental data which shows around 97% accuracy. Then, a CHEMKIN file is created…
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Onboard Ethanol-Gasoline Separation System for Octane-on-Demand Vehicle

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroshi Chishima, Daiko Tsutsumi, Toru Kitamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0350
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Bio-ethanol is being used worldwide as an alternative fuel because of CO2 emission reduction and energy sustainability. It is common knowledge that ethanol has an advantage of high anti-knock quality. It is also well known that enhancement of both fuel economy and high load performance for general gasoline engines are limited by knocking. In order to increase anti-knock performance, a fuel system was developed to separate ethanol blended gasoline fuel into high-octane number fuel (high-concentration ethanol fuel) and low-octane number fuel (low-concentration ethanol fuel) on a vehicle. The onboard fuel separation system, installed in the fuel tank, mainly consists of a pervaporation membrane module, a fuel supply pump for the membrane, heat exchangers for fuel heating, a condenser for the permeated fuel vapor and a vacuum pump to control the pressure on the permeation side. Vapor that was not condensed at the condenser is supplied to the engine through a canister purge line. In this study, it was revealed that the onboard fuel separation system has controllability sufficient for use in automobiles by evaluating the…
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A Quasi-Dimensional SI Burn Rate Model for Predicting the Effects of Changing Fuel, Air-Fuel-Ratio, EGR and Water Injection

FKFS-Michael Grill
IVK, University of Stuttgart-Sebastian Hann, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0574
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As a result of the shifted R&D focus from internal combustion engines to electrified powertrains, resources for the development of internal combustion engines are restricted more and more. With that, the importance of highly efficient engine development tools is increased. In this context, 0D/1D engine simulation offers the advantage of low computational effort and fast engine model set-up. To ensure a high predictive ability of the engine simulation, a reliable combustion model is needed. Considering the increasing interest in alternative fuels, the aspect of predicting the fuel influence on combustion is of special importance. To reach these targets, the change of engine combustion characteristics with changing fuels and changing air-fuel-ratios is investigated systematically in a first step. For this purpose, engine test bed data is compared with expected fuel-dependent flame wrinkling trends based on Markstein / Lewis-number theory. Furthermore, the possibility of influences caused by the Darrieus-Landau instability is evaluated. Based on these comparisons, an existing combustion model is improved by adapting the sub-models for laminar and turbulent flame speed as well as the approach…
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Hydrogen Fuel cell vehicle for Mexico City

Oxford Brookes University-Stephen Samuel
UNAM-Rogelio Gonzalez-Oropeza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1169
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The search for alternative fuel for transport vehicles and also replacement of internal combustion engines in order to reduce the harmful emissions have been forcing the vehicle manufacturers to develop, design and propose technology solutions for meeting the stringent legislative targets. Mexico’s commitment for de-carbonisation of transportation sector and meeting the environmental goals is shaping its policy towards this sector and favours the move towards electrification of the vehicles. Therefore, as an interim solution, the presence of hybrid vehicle is increasing in Mexico City. The aim of the present work is to numerically evaluate the possibility of replacing the internal combustion engines in the existing hybrid vehicles with the Hydrogen fuel cell. This work numerically modelled a Hydrogen fuel cell vehicle based on Toyota MIRAI and validated the fuel economy performance of the vehicle using experimental data. This validated model was used to estimate the fuel economy for real-world drive cycles generated in 2019 from Mexico City. It considered three different drive cycles representing real-world driving in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico.…
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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines - Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources.In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and butanol) addition of butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI.The most important findings are: with higher butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is lower torque at full load. With Bu30 the conversion rates of CO and HC in the oxidation catalyst (DOC) are slightly lower, light-off temperatures are a little higher and NO2 production is lower. The PM-emissions with…
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An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Dimethyl ether

University of Windsor-Li Liang, Hua Zhu, Navjot Singh Sandhu, Divyanshu Purohit, Xiao Yu, Ming Zheng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1354
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever-stringent emission regulations are a major challenge for the diesel fueled automotive industry. The application of alternative fuels and advanced after-treatment technologies is considered as a promising way to reduce exhaust emission from compression ignition (CI) engines. Using dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel has been extensively studied by many researchers and automotive manufactures since DME has demonstrated enormous potential in terms of emission reduction, such as low NOx and CO emissions, and soot and sulfur free combustion. However, the effects of employing DME in a lean NOx trap (LNT) based after-treatment system have not been fully investigated yet. In this work, an investigation of long breathing LNT with DME as a reductant is conducted on a heated after-treatment flow bench under simulated engine exhaust like conditions to gain an insight into using DME as a reductant for the LNT. Furthermore, the LNT regeneration performance with DME is compared with ethanol, n-butanol and diesel. The LNT regeneration performance is analysed in terms of NOx conversion and by-product formation (e.g. NH3 & N2O) for…
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The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Fundamental Characteristics of Premixed Methane/Air Flames

Michigan State University-Berk Can Duva, Yen-Cheng Wang, Lauren Chance, Elisa Toulson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0339
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent regulations of internal combustion engines emissions have increased focus on alternative fuels for transportation and emission reduction techniques, such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Natural gas is a promising alternative to conventional petroleum derived automotive fuels since it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher octane ratings, and better fuel economy. Although many studies have investigated fundamental combustion characteristics of methane/air flames diluted with either CO2, N2 or H2O in order to investigate the EGR effect, studies analyzing actual EGR content (CO2+N2+H2O) are very rare. In the present study, spherically expanding flames were employed to investigate the EGR effect on laminar flame speeds and burned gas Markstein lengths of premixed methane/air mixtures at 3 bar and 373 K through both experiments and numerical simulations. The EGR content was simulated with a mixture of 9.50 % CO2 + 71.49 % N2 + 19.01 % H2O and the EGR ratio was varied from 0% to 15%. Numerical results were obtained from CHEMKIN using the GRI-Mech 3.0, USC Mech II, and San Diego mechanisms. Numerical laminar flame speed…