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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0174
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2). Nevertheless, due to air quality and global climate change concerns (basically derived from the air quality non compliance, associated with cities' pollution hotspots, as well as greenhouse gas emissions) there is still a regulatory demand for further emissions control improvement. In this scenario, the heavy duty vehicle industry has pursued not only increasingly…
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Regulated Emissions and Detailed Particle Characterisation for Diesel and RME Biodiesel Fuel Combustion with Varying EGR in a Heavy-Duty Engine

DTU Nanolab, Fysikvej 307, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark-Kirsten I. Kling, Jens Kling, Martin Tuner
Division of Combustion Engines, Lund University, Box 118, 22-Maja Novakovica, Sam Shamun, Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2291
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates particulate matter (PM) and regulated emissions from renewable rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel in pure and blended forms and contrasts that to conventional diesel fuel. Environmental and health concerns are the major motivation for combustion engines research, especially finding sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and reducing diesel PM emissions. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), including RME, are renewable fuels commonly used from low level blends with diesel to full substitution. They strongly reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions. It is largely unknown how the emissions and characteristics of PM get altered by the combined effect of adding biodiesel to diesel and implementing modern engine concepts that reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Therefore, the exhaust from a single-cylinder Scania D13 heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine fuelled with petroleum-based MK1 diesel, RME, and a 20% RME blend (B20), was sampled while the inlet oxygen concentration was stepped from ambient to very low by varying EGR. Regulated gaseous emissions, mass of total black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA), particle…
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Modeling the Impact of Alternative Fuel Properties on Light Vehicle Engine Performance and Greenhouse Gases Emissions

Aalto University-Yuri Kroyan, Michal Wojcieszyk, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2308
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The present-day transport sector needs sustainable energy solutions. Substitution of fossil-fuels with fuels produced from biomass is one of the most relevant solutions for the sector. Nevertheless, bringing biofuels into the market is associated with many challenges that policymakers, feedstock suppliers, fuel producers, and engine manufacturers need to overcome.The main objective of this research is an investigation of the impact of alternative fuel properties on light vehicle engine performance and greenhouse gases (GHG). The purpose of the present study is to provide decision-makers with tools that will accelerate the implementation of biofuels into the market. As a result, two models were developed, that represent the impact of fuel properties on engine performance in a uniform and reliable way but also with very high accuracy (coefficients of determination over 0.95) and from the end-user point of view. The inputs of the model are represented by fuel properties, whereas output by fuel consumption (FC). The parameters are represented as percentage changes relative to standard fossil fuel, which is gasoline for spark ignition (SI) engines and diesel for…
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Combustion characteristics of oxygenated fuels Ethanol-and Butanol-gasoline fuel blends, and their impact on performance, emissions and Soot Index

IFP Energies nouvelles-P. Anselmi, M. Matrat, L. Starck, F. Duffour
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2307
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Oxygenated fuels are studied in spark combustion engines because of their potentially positive impact on greenhouse emissions, and as part of alternative renewable fuels. Furthermore, engine test results position them as a promising lever to reduce engine-out emissions, and most notably, particles. This study focuses on oxygenated fuel Butanol, which is a potential output of recent developments on Algae and Cyanobacteria harvest process. Its blending into gasoline and application into spark ignition engines is investigated. Blending levels of n-Butanol and iso-Butanol have been proposed based on standard gasoline’s octane number, RON, at two ethanol concentration levels, 10 and 25%. Fuel blend impact on combustion, and on regulated and non-regulated emissions is analysed. Fuel knock resistance properties, RON and MON, determine the knocking tendencies for ethanol and butanol at 2000 rpm. However, test results highlight different knocking sensibility behaviour at higher engine speed. Emission results also illustrate a strong advantage of Butanol on particle mass emissions. Soot indices, that are conventionally used to quantify the impact of a fuel over particle emissions, are studied and confronted…
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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Development of Dedicated Lubricant for Hydrogen Fuelled Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K A Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Verinder Kumar Bathla, Reji Mathai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2511
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hydrocarbon based fossil fuels are being used as the main energy resource, burning of which produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and other emissions harmful to environment. Moreover, CO2 is considered as the main contributor to global warming or greenhouse effect. These are the main drivers behind the ongoing research & development in the area of alternative energy sources. Among various alternatives, Hydrogen is identified as the most promising alternative fuel. Hydrogen is the cleanest fuel having some of the most attractive features such as various methods of production from renewable energy (solar, wind, biomass etc.), from fossil fuels etc. H2 as a fuel can be used in various applications such as spark ignition engine, fuel cells etc.Hydrogen has low ignition energy and ensures easy ignition of the ultra-lean mixture with air. The flame speed of hydrogen is about five times higher than methane and gasoline which allows hydrogen fuelled IC engines to have relatively reduced cyclic variations than that of with methane and gasoline. High flame speed also helps to make the combustion closer to constant…
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Effect of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends on GDI Engine to Reduce Cost of Vehicle Ownership

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Kartick Ramakrishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Karthikeyan N Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2379
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge for combustion engine development is to optimize the engine for improved fuel economy, reduce greenhouse gases. Stringent CAFÉ and emission norms require the customer to pay higher capital on vehicles. To offset the cost of ownership- cheaper and alternative energy sources are being explored. Ethanol blend with regular Gasoline, and CNG are such alternative fuels. Reducing the consumption of Gasoline also helps India’s dependence on import of crude oil.The study was carried on turbo-charged gasoline direct injection engine. The effect of ethanol on engine and vehicle performance is estimated and simulated numerically. The work is split into three stages: first the base 1D engine performance model was calibrated to match the experimental data. In parallel, vehicle level Simulink model was built and calibrated to match the NEDC cycle performance. Second, the thermal efficiency of the ethanol blend is calculated as a linear function of theoretical Otto cycle efficiency. The engine performance for varying compression ratio & ethanol gasoline blend is studied for vehicle level using a MATLAB code. Third, 1D code was…
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Modelling for Collective Effect of Muffler Geometric Modifications and Blended Microalgae Fuel Use on Exhaust Performance of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Lovely Professional University-Sumit Kanchan, Rajesh Choudhary, Chavagani Brahmaiah
University of Kashmir-Shahid Qayoom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2377
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures have to be adopted to reduce the levels of emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has a significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as an alternative fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from the exhaust.This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission form a four-stroke engine. In this exertion, the computational fluid dynamics model is developed to analyze the effect of muffler geometry modification on vital exhaust parameters of an engine. The engine is powered with a blend of chlorella…
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Optimization of Bio-Diesel Fuel Filter Size Media and Configuration for Longer Service Interval

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava, Sujit Gavade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2391
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Adaptation of Bio diesel comes with reduced maintainability and high maintenance cost. Blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel are most commonly used in automotive diesel engines. Biodiesel is most popular choice as an alternate fuel of fossil diesel due to its easy availability, eco-friendly nature and minimum change in existing diesel engine for retro fitment.In this paper efforts have been taken to optimize the life of Fuel filter for bio diesel application. For improving Fuel filter life, modifications carried out in Fuel filter media, size and configuration. Further, Fuel filter tested on Engine test bed and Vehicle to establish the life of filter in real world usage condition. Testing Results were compared with existing diesel fuel filter.
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