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Design Consideration for Lightweighting With Ductile Iron Castings

Skuld LLC-Sarah Jordan, Mark DeBruin
Worcester Polytechnic Institute-Christopher Brown, Hudson Gasvoda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0656
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are opportunities for lightweighting with ductile iron castings. Current research shows ductile iron castings free of massive carbides can be achieved at under 2 mm (0.080”) through alloying or process changes which means that significant weight reductions are possible. In fact for aluminum components over 0.250” thick ductile iron may provide lightweighting opportunities at a cost savings. However, the conventional guidelines for casting design are inadequate when using ductile iron at dimensions less than the typical machine stock. This paper will discuss the current research on thin walled ductile iron, when it is superior to aluminum, design considerations, and current DOE SBIR funded research efforts to address these inadequacies.
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Coupled Weld-Rupture Analysis of Automotive Assemblies

ESI North America-Yogendra Gooroochurn, Ramesh Dwarampudi, Vijay Tunga
ESI US R&D-Megha Seshadri, Ravi Raveendra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1076
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight driven design in the automotive industry and the push for Electric Vehicles mandate the use of innovative materials such as Steel (HSS, UHSS, AHSS) and Aluminum alloys. For steel suppliers to meet the strength requirements of high strength steels, they often alloy the steel chemistry (depending on mill capability, rolling capacity, quenching capacity, etc.). When used in welded assembly constructions, these steels, as compared to traditional steels, behave differently. Depending on the welding heat input, the material chemistry and thickness, they either harden or soften in the heat affected zone. Similar behavior is observed with the most commonly used aluminum alloys (5000 and 6000 series) in the automotive sector. For both alloy types, different strengthening mechanism are used to meet their initial strength requirements (by work hardening and by heat treating respectively) but they both undergo softening in the heat affected zone during welding. Regardless of the alloys, the material in the heat affected zone is affected and so is the performance of the weldment during service. FE analyzes of Welding and Performance have…
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Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloys: A Novel Multi-Layered Steel Material for Exhaust Applications

Arcanum Alloys Inc.-Zachary Detweiler, David Keifer, Daniel Bullard
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Tony Quan, Winston Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1051
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloy (SODA) material has been developed and applied to exhaust systems, a very aggressive environment with high temperatures and loads, as well as excessive corrosion. Traditional stainless steels disperse chromium homogeneously throughout the material, with varying amounts ranging from 11% to 18% dependent upon its grade (e.g. 409, 436, 439, and 441). SODA steels, however, offer layered concentrations of chromium, enabling an increased amount along the outer surface for much needed corrosion resistance and aesthetics. This outer layer, approximately 70µm thick, exceeds 20% of chromium concentration locally, but is only 3% in bulk, offering selective placement of the chromium to minimize its overall usage. And, since this layer is metallurgically bonded, it cannot delaminate or separate from its core, enabling durable protection throughout manufacturing processes and full useful life. The core material may be of various grades, however, so this study employs interstitial free steel (low carbon), which offers not only commercial advantages, but also eases manufacturing operations, as it is more formable than stainless steel grades. The material and…
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Experimentation for design improvements for coil spring in the independent suspension

Automann Inc.-Viraj Dave
Kettering University-Yaomin Dong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0503
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this project is to analyze potential design changes that can improve the performance of helical spring in an independent suspension. The performance of the helical spring was based upon the result measure of maximum value of stress acting on it and the amount displacement caused when the spring undergoes loading. The design changes in the spring were limited to coil cross section, spring diameter (constant & variable), pitch and length of the spring. Using all the possible combinations of these design parameters linear stress analysis was performed on different spring designs and their Stress and displacement results were evaluated. Based on the results, the spring designs were classified as over designed or under designed springs. Next in this process, it was checked if the under designed springs can be optimized and classified according to a relevant application of the vehicles (racing cars or luxurious cars) and can they satisfy the requirements of fatigue life and vibration that helical spring suspension should under normal working conditions. The driving factor for this project was…
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Design and Development of an Ultrasonic Fatigue Testing System for Very High Cycle Fatigue

Concordia University Montreal-Paul Catalin Ilie, Xavier Lesperance, Ayhan Ince
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0183
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There has been growing demand for increased fuel efficiency, reduced emissions and improved power performance while maintaining reliability and durability of mechanical and structural systems in many different industries. The structural engineering components often experience long loading histories, typically ten million cycles or greater, i.e. high cycle fatigue (HCF) and very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regimes. HCF in the range of 106-108 cycles and VHCF in the range of 108-1010 cycles are key design criteria for aerospace, automotive, military, transportation and many other industries. However, fatigue characterization of metal alloys in the HCF and VHCF regimes is hindered by limitations of traditional fatigue testing machines due to time and cost constraints. The development of high power piezoceramic actuators enables efficient and reliable fatigue tests in the HCF and VHCF regimes within a very short time frame on the basis of ultrasonic fatigue testing approaches. A fully instrumented ultrasonic fatigue test machine operating at 20 kHz was designed and built to investigate HCF and VHCF behavior of lightweight metallic alloys. The fatigue testing machine went through…
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An integrated model for predicting the porosity effect on the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured Al-Si10-Mg alloy

Mississippi State University-Wenhua Yang, Zhuo Wang, Caleb Yenusah, Yucheng Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1075
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this work, the porosity effect on for additively manufactured Al–Si–Mg alloy was investigated, with the aid of an integrated multi-physics model. Specifically, first, a series of thermal simulations were performed to understand temperature field development under different AM operating conditions, including electron beam power, scanning speed, and preheating temperature. The porosity formation was then predicted based on thermal simulation results, which yield molten pool dimension information for predicting the lack-of-fusion porosity. Following that, with as-received microporosity data as input, a widely employed internal state variable (ISV) damage model was utilized to investigate the porosity effect on the mechanical behavior of additively manufactured Al-10Si-Mg alloy , e.g. in the form of stress-strain curves. Finally, the effective improvement of mechanical performance of AM product was analyzed through optimizing AM manufacturing conditions.
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Steel, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 0.95Cr - 0.20Mo - (0.30 - 0.35C) (4132)

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS6356J
  • Current
Published 2020-03-18 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an aircraft-quality, low-alloy steel in the form of sheet, strip, and plate.
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available
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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925°C (1650-1700°F). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790°C (1400-1450°F). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
Annotation ability available
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Copper Strengthens 3D-Printed Titanium

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36190
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Titanium alloys used in additive manufacturing often cool and bond together in column-shaped crystals during the 3D printing process, making them prone to cracking or distortion. And unlike aluminum or other commonly used metals, there is no commercial grain refiner for titanium that manufacturers can use to effectively refine the microstructure to avoid these issues.

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Ultrasound Helps Make 3D Printed Alloys Stronger

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36271
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new study shows that high-frequency sound waves can have a significant impact on the inner micro-structure of 3D printed alloys, making them more consistent and stronger than those printed conventionally.