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General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent time. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques such as injection molding, casting etc., AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the material consumption of the produced parts. This paper reports case studies of 3D printed parts used in an Automobile plant’s production aids, which utilize computational methods(CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part in the most optimal way. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified by successfully passing…

Future hybrid Vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce Co2 emission

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt Ltd-Chandrakant Palve, Pushkaraj Tilak
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2487
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Future hybrid vehicles with advanced 48V electrified drive train technology to reduce CO2 emission. Chandrakant Palve* Pushkaraj Tilak * * Mercedes-Benz Research & Development India Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore. India. Key Words: 48V, CO2, P3 Hybrid, Electrified powertrain, AMT, emission, shift comfort, motor Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Global automotive industry is putting effort in moving from conventional powertrain technology to hybrid & electric powertrains. This efforts plays a vital role to achieve cleaner environment, improved performance, reduced fossil-fuel dependency, low noise for meeting regulatory & customer requirements. Automotive industry is facing a challenge of meeting stringent CO2 emission targets of 95g & 175g per kilometer for passenger cars & light commercial vehicles respectively. 48V is an important stepping stone in this direction. By taking motivation from this strategic challenge, advanced 48V P3 electrified powertrain technology has been proposed. The objective of this research is a novel electrified powertrain which offers Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) level of shift comfort in combine with CO2 benefit without additional cost and weight penalty. Methodology The present study describes a unique…


General Motors Technical Center India-RAMESH KAVALUR, Raghavendra Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2568
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES Ramesh Kavalur1, Raghavendra Rao 1 1 Body in White, Manufacturing Engineering, General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt. Ltd, India, Keywords - Additive manufacturing, assembly aid gauges, 3D printer. Research Objective - Automotive manufacturing impressively implementing 3D printed jigs and fixtures. Traditional manufacturing of metal assembly aid gauges have limitations such as lead time and causes dent and rough marks on the outer panel of the body. On the other hand, 3D printed jigs and fixtures, demands more time (depends on complexity), have low level of precision and they offer lower strength. It is observed that this occurs because of the inefficient design and manufacturing without understanding the functionality and capability of the 3D printer. The primary objective of this study is to examine, design & develop 3D printed jigs and fixture to optimize the product, achieve required precision and functionality with improvement in the strength of the product. Methodology - In order to examine, detail examination of existing 3D printed part were studied.…

Design of Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Component as FMVSS 201U Countermeasure

General Motors Technical Center India-Swaroop Kavi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2547
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questing/Objectives: Safety of the occupant in passenger cars is one of the regulatory requirements in many developed countries. This includes upper interior head impact load case of the unbelted occupant during crash (FMVSS 201U) as one of them. During a crash event the occupant head can collide with the interior parts of the vehicle, such as a headliner, pillar trim and other subsequent components in the loading direction. Injury on the head is quantified in terms of the Head Injury Criterion of a crash test dummy (HIC(d)) value which should be less than 1000 per standard. Several ways can be adopted to reduce the HIC(d) value. These include a change in the design of ribs in the safety plastic components, headliner profile change, use of countermeasure foam between headliner and the exterior sheet metal parts, or a combination of any of these to absorb the energy of impact. Recent developments in the field of manufacturing, such as the Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, have provided an opportunity to design and manufacture components with…

Topology Optimized Design Methodology to Suit Additive Manufacturing Process

Cyient, Ltd.-Sai Deepika Vemula, B.Suman Naidu, Bassetti Chandrasheker, Krishna Mylapalli, Prithviraj Mondal, Lasheer Shareef Md
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2597
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The selection of component material and design is an important topic in manufacturing industry to produce sustainable and competitive products. Efficiency of the system is directly related to the weight of the components in that system. Topology optimization is an optimization method that employs mathematical tools to optimize material distribution in a part to be designed. It is the subfield of structural optimization process which is widely usable in component development process. Conventional machining, which can be described as subtractive, imposes constraints on design and can hence be described as design driven by technology. Additive manufacturing (AM), on the other hand, can be described as technology driven by design. It is possible to manufacture any complex shape without technological constraints using AM. The cons aspect of additive manufacturing is its adaptability to mass production due to its repeatability. Realization of topology optimization through additive manufacturing provides full design freedom for the design engineers. This paper discusses the application of topology optimization to parts designed for AM, highlighting the main practical difficulties and opportunities along with…

Study on Effect of Laser Peening on Inconel 718 produced by DMLS technique

Vellore Institute of Technology-Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Kumar Raja, Subramanian Prabhakaran, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju, Sivaperuman Kalainathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0146
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In Additive manufacturing, Direct Metal Laser Sintering is a rapid manufacturing technique used for manufacturing of functional components. Finely pulverized metal is melted using a high-energy fibre laser, by Island principle strategy produces mechanically and thermally stable metallic components with reduced thermal gradients, stresses & at high precision. Inconel is an austenitic chromium nickel based super alloy often used in the applications which require high strength & temperature resistant. It can retain its properties at high temperature, e.g. Engine components in aerospace, exhaust system in automobile applications etc. Here we attempts to analyze the effect of laser shock peening on DMLS Inconel 718 sample. Microstructure shows elliptical shaped structure and formation of new grain boundaries. Surface roughness of the material has been increased due to effect of laser shock pulse & ablative nature. 13 % Increase in macro hardness on the surface. Depth wise micro hardness was investigated, found to be 17% increase on the sub layer of the material due to the effect of hardened matrix formed by precipitation hardening and grain size refinement…

Design of a novel Electro-Pneumatic gear shift system for a Sequential gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0011
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting(pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas pressurized cylinder, double acting cylinder, and single acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. Pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been…

Design Analysis and 3d Printing Of Non-Pneumatic Tyre

VNR VJIET-Prashanth Kannan, Amjad Shaik, Yogesh Kumar, Naga Sumanth Bareddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0059
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The major concern when implementing manoeuvres are acceleration, braking and steering for the safety control which ultimately depends on the road and tire surface friction. To withstand the vertical loads and maintain good traction with contact surface pneumatic tyres with high volume of pressurised air are required. To improve the comfort, handling and grip with low unsprung mass, non-pneumatic tyres are needed which are not reinforced with air pressure. The decreased effect of rolling resistance, added cushioning effect and better cellular shear band design increased the performance level than pneumatic tyres. Here, air is replaced by poly-composite spokes that eliminates the possibility of tyre going flat. This paper mainly discusses the environmental impact and stability issues of conventional pneumatic tyres and also focuses on the various possible design and components of an airless tyre. This paper also presents the modelling and analysis of non-pneumatic tyre followed by 3D printed sealed model using ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane). Honeycomb structured cellular shear band made of polyurethane are tested with different shear band angles…

Investigations on Dimensional Analysis of Fused Filament Fabrication of Wax Filament by Taguchi Design

Vellore Institute of Technology-Aditya Chandrakant Yadav, Nattudurai Navin Kumar, Kumar Raja, Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0133
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Experimental investigations were carried out on machinable wax filament using FDM 3D printing process. The printer used for conducting the experiments was Flash Forge guider 2. The filament material used for this study was machinable wax filament of 1.75 mm diameter. Experimental trials were carried out as per Taguchi L9 orthogonal array to determine optimum process parameter combination. The dimensional analysis of test samples were carried out in terms of change in volume of samples which is result of combine effect of deviations in all dimensions of test sample. Four factors each at three levels was used to obtain optimum printing parameters for better dimensional accuracy and proper printing. The four important printing parameters were taken as factor and set to analyze the significant factor affecting on printing. The complexity in printing of wax filament is taken in to consideration during the experimental study. The main effect plot for S/N ratio was plotted and ANOVA was carried out to determine the significant factor that was affecting dimensional accuracy of t printed test samples. The results…

Analogy of thermal properties of polyamide 6 reinforced with glass fiber and glass beads through FDM process

Sri Krishna College of Engg and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Hari Nishok Rangasamy Suguna Thangaraj, Aravind Kumar Vasudevan, Dharshan Karthick Shanmugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0137
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The essential target of this examination is to compare the thermal properties of two different polyamide composite blends with inventive thermal properties. The two combination of specimen was prepared by using polyamide-6 (PA6) reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 wt% glass fiber (GF) and glass beads (GB) respectively and these composite blends were extruded in form of wire through twin screw extrusion process. The experimental study illustrates to print the specimens by means of a commercial FDM three dimensional (3D) printer. The measure the responses like morphology, thermal conductivity and heat distortion temperature of composites was observed. The results associate that SEM morphology shows high dense homogeneous distribution and fine arrangement of particles in the printed samples. Moreover it reveals that increasing thermal properties of the printed specimen like TC and HDT with the enhancement of 30% glass fiber and bead content in PA6 composites than lower weight percentage composites. The glass fibers are highly crystalline material that can even improve the thermal properties of the polymer matrix and the glass beads are dimensionally stable…