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Thoracic Spine Extension Injuries in Occupants with Pre-Existing Conditions during Rear End Collisions

Exponent, Inc.-Mathieu S. Davis, Jessica L. Isaacs, Martin A. Graber, Jacob L. Fisher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1222
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Certain ankylosing spondyloarthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) or diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) can significantly alter clinicopathologic spine biomechanics and injury mechanisms in rear end motor vehicle collisions. AS is an inflammatory disease which can lead to structural impairments of the spine secondary to flowing ossification along the spinal column, including ossification across the spinal discs, facet joints, and ligaments, and has been associated with diffuse osteoporosis of the spine. DISH is characterized by excess bone formation along the spinal column, encompassing the annulus and forming the thickest and strongest bridging of the vertebral bodies at the level of the disc space. In both conditions the spine is generally stiffer and more kyphotic than a healthy spine. This paper presents a series of case studies in which a front-seat occupant with ankylosing spondyloarthropathy experienced a moderate- or high-speed rear-end collision and sustained a thoracic spine fracture/dislocation, often with spinal cord injuries. Forward acceleration of the occupant by the seat back in each case resulted in straightening of the kyphotic thoracic spine and consequent extension…

TSCI with Wet Ethanol: an Investigation of the Effects of Injection Strategy on a Diesel Engine Architecture

SUNY-Stonybrook-Ziming Yan
Stony Brook Univ.-Brian Gainey, James Gohn, Mozhgan Rahimi Boldaji, Benjamin Lawler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1146
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Thermally Stratified Compressions Ignition (TSCI) is a new advanced, low temperature combustion concept that aims to control the thermal stratification in the cylinder in order to control the heat release process in a lean, compression-ignition combustion mode. This work in particular uses “wet ethanol”, a mixture of 80% ethanol and 20% water by mass, to increase thermal stratification beyond what naturally occurs, via evaporative cooling. TSCI with wet ethanol has previously shown the potential to increase the high-load limit when compared to HCCI. The experiments conducted in this paper aim to fundamentally understand the effect that injection strategy has on the heat release process in TSCI. TSCI employs a split-injection strategy in which an injection during the intake stroke allows the majority of the fuel to premix with the air and an injection during the compression stroke introduces the desired level of thermal stratification to control the heat release rate. Using a single injection at -350 deg aTDC was found to be the most effective way to introduce the fuel during the intake stroke. The…

Evaluation of Navigation in Mobile Robots for Long-Term Autonomy in Automotive Manufacturing Environments

Clemson University - ICAR-Jasprit Singh Gill, Mark Tomaszewski, Yunyi Jia, Pierluigi Pisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0505
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Thus far, the focus of autonomous mobile robot researchers has been primarily on developing the functionality and optimizing its performance. In recent times, a number of reference implementations of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and navigation techniques have been made publicly available via the ROS Community. Several implementations have transitioned to commercial products (vacuum robots, drones, warehouse robots, etc.). However, in such cases, in being specialized and optimized for their specific domains of deployment, they became a “black box”. In particular, their success criteria have been based primarily on mission completion and safety of humans around them. In this light, deployment in any new operational design domain (ODD) requires at least a careful verification of performance and often re-optimization. We seek the technological gaps that need to be addressed to ensure the mobile robots are fit for automotive manufacturing environments. Automotive final assembly environments pose significant additional challenges for mobile robot deployment. They are replete with relatively unstructured tasks with significant uncertainty, involve tasks with skills that require robots to work in collaboration with humans…

Prediction of Human Actions in Assembly Process by a Spatial-Temporal End-to-End Learning Model

Clemson Univ-Zhujun Zhang, Weitian Wang, Yi Chen, Yunyi Jia
Harbin Institute of Technology-Zhujun Zhang, Gaoliang Peng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0509
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
It’s important to predict the future actions of human in the industry assembly process. Foreseeing future actions before they have happened is an essential part for flexible human-robot collaboration and crucial safety issues. Vision-based human actions prediction from videos provides intuitive and adequate knowledge for many complex applications. This problem can be interpreted as deducing the next action of people from a short video clip. The history information needs to be considered to learn these relations between each time step for predicting the future steps. However, it is difficult to extract the history information and use it to infer the future situation with the traditional methods. In this scenario, a model is needed to handle the spatial and temporal details stored in past human motions and construct the future action based on limited accessible human demonstrations. In this paper, we apply an autoencoder based deep learning framework for human actions construction, merging into the RNN pipeline for human future actions prediction. This contrasts with traditional approaches which use hand-crafted features and different domain output. The…

Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1256
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but it’s energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve above problems, a heat dissipation method based on a heat pipe is proposed, and the heat pipe cold end is cooled by vehicle facing the wind. The purpose is to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the motor thermal management system under the condition of ensuring the normal temperature of the motor. Firstly, the motor heating model is established to analyze the position of the high temperature region when the motor is working, and the influence of the motor speed and torque on the temperature rise of the motor. Then the heat transfer model between the motor winding and the heat pipe cold end is established, and the influence of the working condition change of the heat pipe hot and cold end…

Method Development and Application of Thermal Encapsulation to Reduce Fuel Consumption of Internal Combustion Powertrains

Jaguar Land Rover-Richard Owen, Adam Price, Juan Diego Barril Boleto, Suresh Sivasankaran, Wilko Jansen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0902
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
During cold start of an internal combustion engine, fuel consumption (CO2 emissions) is higher due to increased engine friction (Friction Mean Effective Pressure) until the optimum operating temperature of the engine is achieved. With the introduction of the WLTP emissions drive cycle the impact of cold start is recorded twice; once at the start of the 23°C external ambient drive cycle, and a second time at the restart of the 14°C external ambient WLTP drive cycle after the vehicle has soaked for 9 hours at 14°C. By tackling the impact of the second cold start, the g CO2/km value for a vehicle can be reduced both on the cycle and in the real world. An approach is given to retain the heat generated during the first cycle and maintain engine and key fluid temperature (engine oil, transmission oil and engine coolant) until the start of the second cycle by using under bonnet thermal encapsulation. Alongside this, a CAE method was developed to simulate the temperature and movement of air within the under bonnet thermal encapsulation…

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms that Control1st and 2nd Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

Sandia National Laboratories-Mark Musculus
Univ of Wisconsin-Rolf Reitz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0543
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in diesel jets. Here, two n-dodecane axi-symmetric jets, injected into air, are simulated. One jet is injected into 900K air, which produces a classic-burning jet with a negative ignition dwell, -dwell. The other is injected into 760K air. It produces a more volumetric-appearing burn and a positive ignition dwell, +dwell. The way fuel begins to burn for both cases is similar: very early reactions begin off-axis; reaction rates increase as reacting gases flow downstream; once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, 1st stage heat release (HR) transitions to 2nd stage as the HR zone starts passing through the premixed charge a second time and the rise in premixed burn spike forms. The chemical and thermodynamic environment surrounding the early-2nd stage reactants for each case are very distinct. The +dwell initial 2nd stage…

Development of Plastic Region Tightening 1.6-GPa Ultra-High Strength Bolt with High Delayed Fracture Resistance

Daido Steel Co., Ltd.-Tomohiro Ando
Ikeuchi Seiko Co., Ltd.-Hitoshi Kodama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1116
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In our new Variable compression Turbo (VC-Turbo) engine, which has multi-link system to control the compression ratio (from 8:1 to 14:1 with this system), the high axial force is required for fastening of multi-link system which has the high input and down-sizing requirement. Therefore, it was necessary to develop the fastening bolts of the 1600MPa tensile length. The biggest issue of high strength bolt is delayed fracture with hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the quenched and tempered alloy steels were chosen for 1600MPa tensile strength bolt by taking into account mass production and low cost. To improve the delayed fracture resistance, we proceeded the optimization of chemical composition and heat treatment condition as follows, 1) high-C and high-Si steel as a base to obtain sufficient strength even at high tempering temperature (around 600 degree) to make the fine and spherical carbide microstructure, 2) combined addition of Si, Cr and Mo as alloying elements for increasing temper softening resistance, 1.5% or more of precipitation hardening type element Mo was required to achieve high temperature tempering. We…

Integrating a Proactive Quality Control Concept into Machining Operation of a Crankshaft Manufacturing Process

FCA US LLC-Loda Bazzi, George Dinicu
Lawrence Technological Univ-Badih Jawad, Vernon Fernandez, Sabah Abro, Liping Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0507
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Competition in the manufacturing industry is ever increasingly intense. Manufacturing organizations that want to grow and prosper must embrace a discipline of constant improvement. Their engineering departments are tasked with improving existing manufacturing processes in terms of quality and throughput, which is vital to competing on a global scale. Manufacturers strive to utilize technologies to extract efficiencies from their existing processes. Reducing scrap/rework is the paramount goal in increasing a processes’ efficiency. The purpose of this study is to analyze a production line to determine the quality status throughout the manufacturing process. The intention is to react to process instability before the production becomes non-compliant (scrap/rework). By incorporating the proposed technology into the production process, the desired achievement will be to spot process variables at the earliest stages so that counter measures can be taken to stabilize the process before production drifts into non-compliance. Furthermore, the technology will communicate with machining operations to initiate counter measures such as program offsets, tool changes and wheel dressings. The main goal of this study is to develop a…

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0869
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Particularly in connection with autonomously driving and parking vehicles, new fields of application and opportunities are emerging. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations and highlights the development and conception of a robot-based prototype for automated charging of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, Magna Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering of Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded the research project titled “KoMoT”. In the presented approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the charging cable is performed completely autonomously by a robotic arm. An essential aim of the research activities was to design the sensor technology and the robot system control in such a way, that even when using different vehicle types and vehicle positions no adaptations…