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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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Experimental Study of Additive-Manufacturing-Enabled Innovative Diesel Combustion Bowl Features for Achieving Ultra-low Emissions and High Efficiency

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Giacomo Belgiorno, Andrea Boscolo, Gennaro Dileo, Fabio Numidi, Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo
Istituto Motori CNR-Roberto Ianniello, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0003
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In recent years the research on Diesel thermodynamics has been increasingly shifting from performance and refinement to ultra-low emissions and efficiency. In fact, the last two attributes are key for the powertrain competitiveness in the automotive electrified future, especially in European market where 95gCO2/km fleet average and Euro6d RDE Step2 are phasing in at the same time. The present paper describes some of the most innovative research that GM and Istituto Motori Napoli are performing in the field, exploring how the steel additive manufacturing can be used to create innovative combustion bowl features that optimize the combustion process to a level that was not compatible with standard manufacturing technologies. In particular, an innovative highly-reentrant sharp-stepped profile featuring radial-lips has been studied on a 0.5l single-cylinder engine, coupled to a state of art 2500bar fast-acting fuel injection system, with the objective to demonstrate the full potential of optimized fuel stratification and spray separation enabled by the radial mixing zone concept. The results confirm that excellent reduction of engine-out emissions vs a Euro6-b design could be achieved…
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High Speed Camera Based 3D Experimental Modal Analysis

University of Ljubljana-Domen Gorjup, Janko Slavic, Miha Boltezar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1569
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
High-speed camera systems in vibration measurements are typically limited to identifying motion perpendicular to the optical axis. Depth information, lost in the imaging process, can be recovered by using the recently introduced frequency domain triangulation and consequently full 3D deflection shapes can be obtained. This research presents the required theoretical background where the multiview image data is used for spatial small harmonic motion identification. Vibrations of an arbitrary-shaped specimen can be identified in the frequency domain using only a single, moving high-speed camera, extending the field-of-view of the established image-based vibration measurement methods. Real test cases are also presented.
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Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

Odenwald-Chemie GmbH-Michael Feist-Muench
dBVibroAcoustics-Denis Blanchet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1527
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to. It has shown unique vibro-acoustics performance when tested on a German car manufacturer flagship vehicle and provides the ability to reduce the space needed for sound package component compared with classical solutions.
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Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

Duke University-Johann Guilleminot
Ecole des Ponts ParisTech-Michel BORNERT
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1526
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples. The corresponding effective material parameters, including the permeability, the tortuosity and the viscous characteristic length are computed by applying a numerical homogenization approach. All the numerical data are presented, discussed and further compared with experimental results.
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Dynamic Characterization of FDM 3D-Printed Parts

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Manuel Bopp, Matthias Behrendt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1561
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
With substantial progress in additive manufacturing (AM) technology in the recent years, AM parts are on the verge of becoming an economical option for small series manufacturing and on-demand spare parts. Especially Filament-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) has found widespread use in industrial as well as in private applications due to its many advantages like multi material manufacturing, its wide range of available materials, low overall cost and easy handling. Depending on the specific application, the dynamic behavior of a structure can be critical, for example when designing resonating absorber elements, to avoid unwanted resonance-coupling with other parts, or regarding the general vibrational and acoustic behavior. To predict the dynamic behavior of a structure, two of the most important parameters are the storage modulus and loss modulus of the material. In polymers these parameters are typically frequency-dependent and in the case of FDM manufactured parts they are also strongly anisotropic, due to the layer- and path-wise fabrication process. In this study different samples of FDM 3D-printed ABS parts are investigated. First the effect of various slicing and printing…
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Simulation of Hybrid Packed Desiccant beds for De-humidification and Drying

Vellore Inst. of Technology, Vellore-Selvaraji Muthu, Sekarapandian N
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0019
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The conventional vapour compression refrigeration cycle based air dryers are used widely for the applications requiring pressure dew point temperature ranging between 2°C to 3°C. However, for the industrial and pneumatic applications, the required pressure dew points are as low as between -10°C to -75°C. This kind of low pressure dew points can be achieved by the adoption of adsorption based packed bed desiccant dryer technology. In this paper the numerical investigation of the performance of a packed bed desiccant dryer containing homogenous mixture of multiple desiccant types along the vertical axial direction using an in-house finite volume based CFD code is presented. The developed code has the capability to model the coupled heat and mass transfer taking place in a packed hybrid bed desiccant dryer during the adsorption and desorption phases. The numerical results obtained for the base model are validated against relevant experimental data for exit air temperature and moisture content available in the literature and found to have good agreement. Subsequently using the validated numerical model, the improvement in moisture removal capacity,…
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A detailed study of prominent factors affecting evaporator frosting in a mobile air conditioning (MAC) system

Tata Motors Ltd-Prasanna V Nagarhalli, Shrikant M Awate, Mubeen Syed
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Anurag Maurya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0014
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In an automotive air conditioning system, evaporator is well designed for effective heat transfer between refrigerant and air flowing over the evaporator. Hence, the better cooling and dehumidifying the incoming air. Sometimes, at the low ambient temperature and higher relative humidity conditions a frost is observed. It is accumulated over the evaporator and often become thicker enough to block the flow of air completely passing through the evaporator resulting in a rise in vehicle cabin temperature. Current work presents the probable causes of frost formation and their effects on the performance of evaporator and hence, the performance of the automotive air conditioning system. There are four major factors, thermistor poor response, undercharged and overcharged system, clogged air-filter, and also the type of compressor causing frost formation over the evaporator are considered for analysis. Current work presents the experimental analysis of the evaporator performance in the low ambient conditions with the above factors in different iterations. With the above analysis new methods and guidelines can be generated in order to avoid frost formation over the evaporator.
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Effect of Variable Geometry Fin in Automotive Condenser using Analytical and CFD Approach

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Ram Anandan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0028
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Due to stiff competition among the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM's), the Comfort, Fuel efficiency & Safety are the key factors that drive the vehicle business, from that context Air Conditioning for a car plays a pivotal role in the area of comfort of the passengers and fuel efficiency point of view. In addition, condenser plays a pivotal role in Power train cooling system & air conditioning system. Therefore, it is a big challenge for the automotive engineer to propose an innovative design that can improve the thermal performance of Condenser without not compromise the package size. Also, it's a challenge for the OEM's to select the optimal heat exchanger from the supplier basket during the design phase of product development cycle. The objective of this paper to focus on analytical calculation or frame work was developed using excel tool considering the variable geometry of fin which includes louver pitch, louver angle and louver length in a multi-pass condenser. Further this theoretical calculation was validated using experimental data and CFD simulation. This theoretical excel tool can…
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Unsettled Topics on the Feasibility and Desirability of Using AM in the Mobility Industry

The Barnes Global Advisors-Kevin Slattery
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020009
To be published on 2020-04-24 by SAE International in United States
Depending on the industry and application, views on additive manufacturing (AM), or “3D printing,” range from something that will transform an industry to it being another over-hyped technology that will only find niche applications. Most views fall somewhere in between, with the most common one being that it depends on the application and technology. Because of the ability to directly produce parts from a digital file, views often include dependence on when and where the part is needed. This introduces the crux of the matter, which is how to determine when the use of AM is feasible and desirable, which is made all the more complicated by the fact that not only is AM technology in general changing quickly, but the merits of the each AM technology relative to the others is also changing. Finally, non-AM technologies are continually improving, and are increasingly adding AM-like capability. As the opening report of a four-part series of SAE EDGE™ Research Reports on AM, this paper discusses unsettled issues pertaining to the benefits, drawbacks, and trade-offs, as well…