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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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Advancements of Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding of Titanium Alloys for Heat Critical Aerospace Applications

The Boeing Company-Eve Taylor Burkhart, Larry Hefti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0033
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Titanium’s high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance makes it ideal for many aerospace applications, especially in heat critical zones. Superplastic Forming (SPF) can be used to form titanium into near-net, complex shapes without springback. The process uses a machined die where inert gas is applied uniformly to the metal sheet, forming the part into the die cavity. Standard titanium alpha-beta alloys, such as 6Al-4V, form at temperatures between 900 and 925ºC (1650-1700ºF). Recent efforts have demonstrated alloys that form at lower temperatures ranging between 760 and 790ºC (1400-1450ºF). Lowering the forming temperature reduces the amount of alpha case that forms on the part, which must be removed. This provides an opportunity of starting with a lower gauge material. Lower forming temperatures also limit the amount of oxidation and wear on the tool and increase the life of certain press components, such as heaters and platens. A variation of this process is SPF combined with Diffusion Bonding (SPF/DB) of two or more titanium sheets to produce integrally stiffened structures with limited fasteners and less weight than…
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Advances in drilling Composites with PCD drills.

Facet Precision Tool GmbH-Jeremy Bunting, John Bunting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0035
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The use of PCD drills for drilling stack ups of CFRP/Titanium is reviewed. The effect of improvements in PCD micro structure. cutting edge drill design, and coolant flow are documented with improvements in cycle time, hole quality, and and exit burrs.
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A Systematic Approach to Development Assurance and Safety of Unmanned Aerial Systems

Textron Aviation-Cory R. Laflin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0043
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The unrestrained design space for unmanned aerial systems (UAS) presents challenges to accurate safety assessment and the assurance of development to appropriate levels of rigor within those systems. The established safety and development assurance standards and practices were developed for vehicles operating in highly controlled conditions with continuous oversight. The very nature of unmanned systems introduce new failure conditions, even in those systems operating within the strict rules of the National Airspace System (NAS), particularly failures of control and command, situational awareness, and control security. Beyond those, the new concepts of operation being conceived by UAS developers introduce their own new set of considerations with regards to operating in uncontrolled airspace, often in close proximity to bystanders. These new concepts require new technologies beyond those currently supported by the hardware and software development assurance processes. However, the established standards and practices of aircraft development assurance and safety assessment can be adapted for the broader world of UAS applications, provided that the considerations driven by the new concepts of operation can be identified and properly analyzed.…
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Tapered Hole Automation for Hard Metals – Enabling Producibility

Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
The Boeing Company-Trevor Hartnagel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0006
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Assembly of the F-15 wing utilizes the Taper-Lok fastening system which requires precise preparation of conical holes to enable tapered fasteners to provide a uniform interference fit. The controlled interference fit directly affects fastener preload to reduce stress and improve fatigue life. Traditional methods for generating tapered holes in thick aluminum and titanium structures require heavy duty tooling. Fixtures are clamped to aircraft structure which hold large power feed to complete the hole generation processes in multiple steps. Manual drilling for Taper-Loks is labor intensive, non-ergonomic, and requires extreme care to ensure quality holes are produced. Automated hole generation was a logical solution to the complex Taper-Lok fastening system, however replicating traditional drilling methods proved challenging. Extensive testing was completed to ensure hole quality generated with automation would meet or exceed existing power feed equipment. Once process capabilities were proven and equipment requirements were generated, an articulated arm-based drilling system was developed and implemented. The automation was designed to accurately position and complete the hole preparation process in a single pass by the use of…
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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Through the substitution of some aircraft structural components with power storage and generation devices that possess adequate structural strength and stiffness, flight endurance time and performance of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) may be increased by reducing the parasitic weight penalties of the power systems. This innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’ along with energy generation devices such as structural solar cells, thermo-electric generators, and vibration induced power generators are integral to creating a flying structure that will be more efficient and more useful to the electric powered commercial and hobby markets. This paper discusses plans and the progress toward achieving potential endurance and efficiency increases in unmanned aerial vehicles through laboratory and eventual model flight experiments of novel structural designs for graphene super-capacitors, solar cells, and other power generation devices.
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Item level serialization and traceability of aerospace fasteners based on individual inherent surface patterns

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock, Jens Harde, Juergen Roesing PhD, Nils Murray, Torsten Timpe
fraunhofer-Tobias Schmid-Schirling PhD, Norbert Saum lng, Daniel Carl PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0012
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Item level serialization traceability, defined as the ability to track and trace products, items or components through the supply chain from product manufacturing all the way to the end of life service, has significant value in the aerospace industry. Many items become susceptible to counterfeiting when their origin and authenticity cannot be verified and Item level serialization and traceability fosters supply chain integrity. Data Matrix and radio-frequency identification (RFID) are two common methods that enable detailed information about the manufacturer. However, these methods are not generally compatible with fasteners due to the small size of the fasteners and the cost of these methods. Fasteners are the most commonly used parts on an aircraft and rely on lot level traceability associated with packaging to provide a level of supply chain risk management. However, the association of individual fasteners to parental lots is often lost once the fasteners are removed from packaging. We demonstrate a completely new approach to develop item level serialization traceability for aerospace fasteners. It is demonstrated that this label-free traceability can be realized…
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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An Approach to Verification of Interference Concerns for Multicore Systems (CAST-32A)

Rapita Systems, Inc., Ltd.-Steven H. VanderLeest, Christos Evripidou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0016
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The avionics industry is moving towards the use of multicore systems to meet the demands of modern avionics applications. In multicore systems, interference can affect execution timing behavior, including worst case execution time (WCET), as identified in the FAA CAST-32A position paper. Examining and verifying the effects of interference is critical in the production of safety-critical avionics software for multicore architectures. Multicore processor hardware along with aerospace RTOS providers increasingly offers robust partitioning technologies to help developers mitigate the effects of interference. These technologies enable the partitioning of cores for different applications at different criticalities and make it possible to run multiple applications on one specific core. When incorporated into system-design considerations, these partitioning mechanisms can be used to reduce the effects of interference on software performance. In this paper we describe a novel approach to verifying the effectiveness of RTOS interference mitigation on the final hosted software. We showcase the use of the proposed approach on the NXP T2080 multicore board. The approach follows a V-model based methodology in which high- and low-level requirements…