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General Industry (3)

Camera-Radar Data Fusion for target detection via Kalman filter and Bayesian estimation

  • Tongji Univ. - Zhexiang Yu, Jie Bai, Sihan CHEN, Libo Huang, Xin Bi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1608
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Target detection is essential to the advanced driving assistance system (ADAS) and automatic driving. And the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera could provide more accurate and complete information of targets and enhance the environmental perception performance. In this paper, a method of vehicle and pedestrian detection based on the data fusion of millimeter wave radar and camera was proposed. The first step is the targets data acquisition. A deep learning model called Single Shot MultiBox Detector (SSD) was utilized for targets detection in consecutive video frames captured by camera and further optimized for high real-time performance and accuracy. Secondly, the parallel Kalman filter was used to track the targets detected by radar and camera respectively. Since targets information provided by the camera and radar are different, different Kalman filters were designed to achieve the tracking process. Then, the targets of radar and camera were matched by using coordinate transformation. After that, fusion weight was calculated according to the tracking results. Finally, the targets data were fused based on Bayesian Estimation. At first,…

Embedding CNN-Based Real-Time Obstacles Detection for Autonomous Vehicles

  • Beihang University - Chaowei Hu, Yunpeng Wang, Guizhen Yu, Zhangyu Wang, Ao Lei, Zhehua Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1622
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Forward obstacles detection is one of the key tasks in the perception system of autonomous vehicles. The perception solution differs from the sensors and the detection algorithm, and the vision-based approaches are always popular. In this paper, an embedding real-time obstacles detection algorithm is proposed to efficiently detect forward diverse obstacles from the image stream captured by the monocular camera. Specifically, our algorithm contains three components. The first component is an object detection method using convolution neural networks (CNN) for single image. We design a detection network based on shallow residual network, and an adaptive object aspect ratio setting method for training dataset is proposed to improve the accuracy of detection. The second component is a multiple object tracking method based on correlation filter for the adjacent images. Based on precise detection result, we use multiple correlation filters to track multiple objects in every adjacent frame, and a multi-scale tracking region method is applied to improve the tracking accuracy at the same time. The third component is fusing the detection method and tracking method based…

Lane Detection System for Night Scenes

  • Chongqing University of Technology - Yuanzhi Hu PhD, Junsheng Liu
  • Tianjin University - Song Gao PhD
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1617
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Most of algorithms of lane detection mainly aim at the scene of daytime. However, the camera is very sensitive to the light which causes such algorithms are unstable for the lane detection at night. This paper proposed a lane detection algorithm that largely improves the lane detection’s performance when it used at night. Step one is image processing. According to the feature of lane’s color, we focus on the image’s white and yellow parts and transform the original image to grayscale image. When the image’s value of grayscale is relatively small, an image enhancement method will be used to improve the contrast between lane line and road. Then, extracting a region of interesting from image (ROI) according the fixed location of camera mounted inside the car. In ROI, we used a creative algorithm named Correlation filter to remove image noise and remain the feature of lane. In step one, the filter matrix looks like “[0 1 1;-1 0 1;-1 -1 0]”. Final, extracting the line by the Hough transform and acquiring the equation of lane…

Millimeter-wave Automotive Radar Target Detection Algorithm Based on Spatial Compressive Sensing

  • SAIC Motor - zhen Chen
  • Tongji Univ - Yang Yin, Jie Bai, Libo Huang, Xin Bi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1621
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Millimeter wave automotive radar is one of the most important sensors in the advanced driver assistance system(ADAS) and autonomous driving system,which detects the target vehicles around the ego vehicle via processing transmitted and echo signals. However, the classical radar signal processing methods’ sampling frequency is very high, because the Shannon Nyquist sampling theorem which requires the sampling frequency of IF signal must be greater than the double of IF signal frequency is used to determine the sampling frequency of the IF signal. Besides, for the classical radar signal processing methods, the resolution of range, velocity and azimuth can’t meet the requirement of highly automated driving, especially azimuth. In order to solve these problems, a new novel MIMO(multiple-input multiple-output) radar target detection algorithm based on compressive sensing in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. Because the radar target vehicles are highly sparse in the whole space background, therefore in the 3D space of range-doppler-azimuth, radar target vehicles are also highly sparse. So the problem of target detection of range, velocity and azimuth can be…

An Analytical Study of Buckling Behavior of Nanocomposite Beams

  • Research Scholar, JNTUK, Kakinada - Pramod Kumar Peyyala
  • Assistant Professor, VJIT, Hyderabad - Malathi Baddepudi
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0050
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
The structral members like beams and plates are often subjected a mode of sudden failure due to high compressive load which is charecterised as buckling. The buckling behaviour is one of the most important parameters needs to be considered while desingnig the structural members like beams. This paper studies the buckling behaviour of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) reinfocreced polymer composite beams by using Classical Laminate Plate Theory (CLPT) approach. The elastic constants obatained for the CNT reinforced polymer composite by applying Mori-Tanaka method are furthur used to analyse the effect of stacking sequence, CNT Volume fraction in the composite, and CNT radii on the critical buckling loads of an eight layerd nanocomposite beam. The Numerical results are also presentd and compared for various boundary conditionof beams like clamped-clamped and hinged-hinged. The main intension behind this study is to find the suitability of the nanocomposites as stuctural components like air-craft wings and ducts.

Design Optimization of Engine Cooling Unit Packaging For Commercial Vehicle

  • Prateek Sharma
  • VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd - Mahendra Parwal, Eshaan Ayyar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0013
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
Abstract An engine cooling system is required to maintain stable operating temperature for the engine and it prevents overheating. Thermal distortion of engine parts can take place if proper cooling is not maintained and engine may seize. Many vehicle manufacturing units are facing common problems to incorporate separate cooling systems for the different variants of engines (different power rating). A single optimized cooling unit is required to manage the entire range of engine rated power. On road cooling trials have been conducted to minimize the issue. The factors that affect the cooling system are front end grill opening area, air recirculation, location of snorkel inlet, fan diameter, radiator and intercooler core size; these need to be tuned to get appropriate results. Through virtual analyses, the above parameters are tuned to obtain appropriate results using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. In the next stage, on road cooling trials are performed and real time data is collected. A correlation is established between physical trials and CFD results which may be helpful in future projects as well.…

Development of Low Cost FEAD System with Stretch Fit Belt

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. - Md Tauseef Alam, Venkatesh Kumar PS
  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd - Anil Thakur, Sataya Ghadei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0064
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States

In Current scenario all Vehicle Manufacturer are looking towards cost effectiveness in their product development without compromising product quality and performance. With this reference, development of low cost FEAD (Front End Accessory Drive) system with stretch fit belt & idlers for multiple accessories has emerged as one of the alternative smart engineering solution against the FEAD with auto tensioner. The beauty of this low cost FEAD system is not only the cost saving but also the long lasting performance without affecting component life. In the current work, development of a low cost FEAD for 3 cylinder 1.5 litre diesel engine has been presented. It was one of the challenge to introduce stretch fit belt for 3 cylinder engine considering the high torsional vibration. The performance of this FEAD system was evaluated in terms of accessories pulley slip and belt flapping. The component durability was assessed both at engine as well as at vehicle level. The results was found satisfactory with slip was within acceptable limit of ±3% at transient conditions both at Engine & Vehicle level testing. Belt flapping was also observed to be within the limit (10% of the span length). The belt tension data taken on durability engine which was worst for FEAD system. Belt tension first decreased by around 15% of the initial within 20 hours of engine running and then remained almost constant till end of test. Post-test analysis of stretch fit belt & idlers also confirmed that both were still away from end of life. Based on these analysis and testing data's it can be concluded that low cost FEAD system with stretch fit belt is quite feasible for this size of 3 cylinder engine with multiple drive.

Experimental Study and CFD Analysis of an Aerofoil Structure for Automotive Body Design

  • VIT Universtity - M SENTHIL KUMAR
  • VIT University Vellore - C D Naiju
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-28-0091
Published 2018-07-09 by SAE International in United States
A study of an aerofoil structure used for automotive body design is being conducted and an experiment has been performed to determine the lift and drag forces produced by it by varying its Angle of Attack. The NACA0018 and NACA0015 aerofoil with a chord length of 16 cm were used for this study. Then an analysis was done with the help of (CFD) computational fluid dynamics. The results obtained by CFD analysis where compared by the experimental results which was performed on wind tunnel using NACA0018 aerofoil. The results are then presented graphically, showing pressure and velocity distributions lift and drag coefficients for the different cases which will be useful for design of automotive body structures.
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Localization of BSR Noise Source Using the Improved 3D Intensity Method

  • Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology - In-Jee Jung
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

A three-dimensional (3D) sound intensity probe is used to identify the trim components generating buzz, squeak, and rattle (BSR) noise in a vehicle interior. The 3D intensity probe has the advantages of compact overall size, small number of microphones, and low-frequency detection capability. Although the 3D sound intensimetry has been not popularly applied in practical problems due to various bias errors, a new error compensation method is adopted in this work, substantially improving the estimate’s precision. Linearization of the phase function of the cross-spectral density function between a set of two microphones is used to calculate the intensity avoiding spectral bias error, and an error map for spatial angles is used to compensate for the difference in directivity index around the microphone array. An intensity probe with an even microphone spacing of 30 mm in tetrahedral arrangement is used for the source localization. The interior space is usually a nearly dead room in terms of absorption, but the reverberation effect cannot be neglected due to the small space. Experiments are conducted by using the artificially generated and edited signals pertaining the typical characteristics of each BSR noise. Various source positions are selected, such as the instrument panel, door hinge, seat, etc., and the sound levels of the source and background are changed. The estimated bearing angles of the noise sources are analyzed on a two-dimensional plot. It is found that the localization error is generally less than 6°, which demonstrates the full possibility of using this improved 3D intensity technique for the localization of BSR noise sources in the real time.

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A Case Study of a Full Inverse Poroelastic Characterization of an Open-Cell Porous Material Using an Impedance Tube: The Need to Properly Prepare the Material and to Control the Measurement

  • Mecanum Inc. - Kevin Verdiere
  • Université de Sherbrooke - Noureddine Atalla, Raymond Panneton
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

This paper presents a case study on the full inverse characterization of the material properties of an open-cell poroelastic foam using impedance tube measurements. It aims to show the importance of controlling the lateral boundary condition in the impedance tube, and selecting an appropriate acoustic model to obtain the most accurate material properties. The case study uses a four-inch thick melamine foam and a 100-mm diameter tube. The foam is mechanically cut to fit within the circular tube. However, the cutting process is not perfect and a tiny lateral air gap exists between the material and the tube (i.e. the foam diameter is 99.5 mm for a 100-mm diameter tube). The typical characterization procedure is to mix direct and indirect measurements to retrieve the material properties of the foam. First, open porosity, bulk density, and static airflow resistivity are directly measured. Second, tortuosity, viscous and thermal characteristic lengths, and elastic properties are identified by inverse characterization using impedance tube measurements. The inverse characterization uses different choices of frame behavior models (rigid, limp, or elastic), and lateral boundary conditions (with and without lateral air gap). The paper discusses the effects of the choice of the frame behavior model and lateral boundary condition. Notably, it shows that the tiny air gap can seriously affect the inversely characterized material properties. Moreover, the choice of the frame model impacts less the quality of the inversion, but allows or not the characterization of the elastic properties. Finally, the paper concludes with recommendations and guidelines to improve the accuracy of the inverse characterization procedure, and discusses its limitations.