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Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Analysis of a Highly-Constrained Single-Use UAV Wing

  • West Virginia University-Patrick H. Browning, Levi S. Hubbard, Philip Pennock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1958
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design aspects are as broad as the missions they are used to support. In some cases, the UAV mission scope can impose design constraints that can be difficult to achieve. This paper describes recent work performed at West Virginia University (WVU) to support repeated flight testing of a single-use UAV platform with emphasis on the highly specialized wings required to help meet the overall airframe mass properties constrained by the project sponsor. The wings were fabricated using a molded polyurethane (PU) foam as the base material which was supported by several different types of rigid and flexible substructures, skins, and matrix-infused fiber elements. Different ratios of infused fiber mass to PU foam were tested and additional tungsten masses were added to the wings to achieve the correct total mass and mass distribution of the wings. Expected accelerations were applied to the wing designs analytically and numerically to establish appropriate test limits and explore potential structural loading aspects, and static and dynamic experimental tests were employed to determine the suitability of the wing designs for the UAV airframe. Likely wing design candidates that survived all experimental tests in the lab were subjected to final experimental tests on the UAV platform in outdoor high-G field launches. High speed cameras revealed several types of failure modes in these applied tests, indicating design sensitivity both in wing bending and in torsion under extreme acceleration. Because the wings were designed to eventually support a large number of single-use free flight experiments, the wing designs were also subjected to detailed cost analysis to ensure the final designs would meet the imposed economic as well as physical constraints. A final design with a steel-and-braided line-reinforced box-frame carbon fiber substructure, fiberglass-infused PU foam with >50% by mass fiber content, and fiberglass skin was found to exhibit the best combination of survivability, mass properties, cost, and ease of manufacturing.

Feedback on Application of MBSE Approach to an Avionics Subsystem

  • COMAC-Shaofan Zhu, Jian Tang
  • Samares-Engineering-Raphael Faudou, Jean-Marie Gauthier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1922
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides feedback on using a modelling approach to define an avionics subsystem in the frame of SAE ARP4754A aerospace recommended practices. Feedback concerns the practical use of models to support functional part of the following processes: “requirements capture”, “requirements validation”, and top-level part of “development of system architecture”. A Model-Based Systems Engineering approach has been proposed with a set of modelling tasks concerning views (diagrams, tables), patterns and transformations, and model checking rules. The goal of the approach is to structure functional needs and guide systems engineers in identification and definition of system functional interfaces and of system top level functions. This paper provides returns of experience on the application of that new approach on an industrial avionic case study known as the Onboard Maintenance System by a team mainly used to document centric approach until recently. After some presentation of the pilot case used as experiment, some results are given and there is discussion on several points: the lessons learned during and after application of the MBSE approach to identify use cases, to define black box scenarios and to build the top level functional architecture. Paper provides comments about the approach (e.g. use cases granularity, modelling stop criterion, communication between systems), before starting the design. Then it discusses advantages and drawbacks that were measured during this modelling approach with regards to traditional document centric approach. Paper also provides the challenges identified for wider adoption in the company and the remaining points of attention when extending approach on larger project.

Design, Development and Integration of a Wing-Morphing, Bimodal Unmanned Vehicle

  • Mark Simpson, Dian Guo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1960
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper relates to the design and development of a multi-modal UAV capable of aerial flight and underwater cruise. After traversing underwater, the multi-modal UAV could transit to the air by using the jet propulsion and help submarine carry the surveillance mission without exposing the submarine. A novel hybrid propulsion system has been manufactured and tested. Consisting of folding blades, the propeller has been optimised for propulsion both in air and water. The critical water to air transition phase is achieved by an additional impulsive thruster powered by a C02 cartridge. To decrease the drag in underwater cruise and reduce the potential damage when the vehicle impacts the water, a morphing wing has been developed. This consists of foam-carbon fibre lay-up constructed wings, which are driven by the linear servos, in a variable sweep configuration. An integrated prototype is constructed, using an unconventional, anhedral horizontal stabilizers to allow clearance for the morphing wing. Using a combination of data taken from wind tunnel testing, CFD simulation and analytic methods, models of the vehicles stability are developed with the aim of better understanding the dynamics of the vehicle during transition between the mediums. This will provide information for controller design in future design iterations and identify where modifications to the airframe and transition systems could be made in the optimisation of the vehicle.

ED-247 (VISTAS) Gateway for Hybrid Test Systems

  • dSPACE France SARL-Yannick Hildenbrand
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1949
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Testing a full Aircraft System that includes several on-board computers, physical I/O, and communication buses requires connecting the system to adequate test benches to stimulate or monitor the I/O in a suitable manner. Next generation benches are controlled by test scenarios that reproduce flight situations that occur in a real aircraft.

Numerical and Experimental Second Law Analysis of a Low Thickness High Chamber Wing Profile

  • Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Shivesh Sharma
  • Sheffield Hallam University-Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1955
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a coupled numerical and experimental study of an unconventional wing profile such as cp-180-050-gn (Cambered plate C = 18% T = 5% R = 0.78). This wing profile deals with low speeds. It is not currently used on any aircraft model. Otherwise, it presents interesting performances that can be exploited for the design of low-speed STOL or VTOL aircraft by mean of the very high lift that it can generate and can fit with different uses such as VAWT, cyclorotors drones, which are designed explicitly for low-speed operations. After a preliminary CFD assessment of the wing a complete experimental characterisation also at high angles of attack has been performed. The excellent agreement between CFD and experiments has allowed producing a complete analysis of the behaviour of the wing profile both before and after stall conditions. This study has the objective of analysing the viability of such an unconventional wing in traditional or over-stalling conditions. A complete modelling of the specific wing is produced with the definition of its potential deployment into unconventional aircraft architectures and both Darreius and Savonius wind turbines.

AS36100 Background and Development Record

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR36108
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) provides a record of the development by SAE AGE-2A Air Cargo Sub-Committee of Aerospace Standard AS36100, Air Cargo Unit Load Devices — Performance Requirements and Test Parameters, published 2005-02, and its revision A published 2006-04, intended as a technical reference for airworthiness approval of air cargo unit load devices (pallets, nets and containers) to be loaded with either baggage or freight on board civil transport aircraft, and to partly supersede previously used NAS 3610, Cargo unit load devices - Specification for — [ Revision 10, 1990, referenced in TSO C90(c) ].

Aircraft On Board Weight and Balance System Requirements

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1409C
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) establishes requirements for the function, characteristics, and installation of an aircraft On Board Weight and Balance System (OBWBS) for use on civil transport aircraft. This document is not intended to specify design methods, mechanisms, or material to accomplish the requirements set forth.

Minimum Standards for Valve, High Pressure Oxygen, Line Shut Off, Manually Operated

  • A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS1214B
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE AEROSPACE Standard (AS) covers all types of manually operated high pressure Oxygen line shut off valves utilizing either metallic or nonmetallic valve seats for use in general and commercial type aircraft.

Air Cargo Pallets and Nets Compatibility

  • AGE-2 Air Cargo
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP36104A
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides the criteria to be applied in order to determine compatibility with each other of an air cargo pallet and air cargo pallet net airworthiness approved under either NAS 3610 [TSO C90c] or AS36100A [TSO pending] performance and testing requirements.

Crew Member Oxygen Regulators, Demand

  • A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS8027
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) is intended to apply to those oxygen regulators which supply gaseous oxygen at breathing pressures to meet physiological requirements of aircraft flight crew members. It defines the minimum performance requirements and testing for aircraft demand type breathing oxygen regulators.