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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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Impact of Automated Lane Change Assist on Energy Consumption

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Casey Troxler, Patrick Currier, Charles Reinholtz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0082
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated lane change assist combined with adaptive cruise control has the potential to reduce energy consumption and improve safety. This paper models adaptive cruise control combined with automated lane change assist to investigate the energy consumption improvements that such a system may provide compared to conventional adaptive cruise control. Automatically executing a lane change may improve efficiency, for example, when following a vehicle that is slowing to make a turn. Changing lanes while maintaining speed should be more efficient than staying in the same lane as the turning vehicle and reducing speed. The differences in such scenarios are simulated in a virtual environment using a cuboid model with idealized sensors. The ego-vehicle will detect scenarios, evaluate if a lane change is feasible, and possibly perform a lane change to reduce or eliminate required speed changes. The results of the simulations compare the energy content of the resulting drive cycle as an idealized method to measure energy consumption for each cruise control strategy. The simulations consider traffic laws, such as turn signal requirements that may dictate…
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Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or Delta-V undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. One common methodology in calculating motorcycle Delta-V utilizes measurement of the deformation to both the vehicle and motorcycle. In certain scenarios however, it becomes difficult to calculate the motorcycle Delta-V from analysis of deformation. For instance, if the front suspension becomes fractured or separated on the motorcycle, or the motorcycle collides with the wheel area of the vehicle, deformation measurement may be unfavorable. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle Delta-V or corroborating motorcycle Delta-V calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle Delta-V must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. In addition, comparisons were made between instrumented yaw rate and calculated yaw rate to account for the airbag control module (ACM) location. In this study, three crash tests were performed in which…
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Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network and Effect of Real World Signals on Prediction Window.

Colorado State University-Aaron Rabinowitz, Thomas Bradley
Western Michigan University-Tushar Gaikwad, Farhang Motallebiaraghi, Zachary Asher, Alvis Fong, Rick Meyer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0729
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Prediction of vehicle velocity is important since it can realize improvements in the fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety. Velocity prediction has been addressed in many publications. Several references considered deterministic and stochastic approaches such as Markov chain, autoregressive models, and artificial neural networks. There are numerous new sensor and signal technologies like vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication that can be used to obtain inclusive datasets. Using these inclusive datasets of sensors in deep neural networks, high accuracy velocity predictions can be achieved. This research builds upon previous findings that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural networks provide the highest velocity prediction fidelity. We developed LSTM deep neural network which uses different groups of datasets collected in Fort Collins. Synchronous data was gathered using a test vehicle equipped with sensors to measure ego vehicle position and velocity, ADAS-derived near-neighbor relative position and velocity, and infrastructure-level transit time and signal phase and timing. Effect of different group of datasets on forward velocity prediction window of 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds is studied. Developed algorithm is tested…
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A Study on the Effect of Debris Location on a Double Element Wing in Ground Effect

Loughborough University-Tom Marsh, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Dipesh Patel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0693
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multi-element front wings are essential in numerous motorsport series, such as Formula 1, for the generation of downforce and control of the onset flows to other surfaces and cooling systems. Rubber tyre debris from the soft compounds used in such series can become attached to the wing, reducing downforce, increasing drag and altering the wake characteristics of the wing. This work studies, through force balance and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, the effect a piece of debris has on an inverted double element wing in ground effect. The wing was mounted at a ride height determined to minimise separation from a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. The debris is modelled using a hard-setting putty and is located at different span and chord-wise positions around the wing. The sensitivity to location is studied and the effect on the wake analysed using PIV measurements. The largest effect on downforce was observed when the debris was located on the underside of the wing towards the endplates. The wake was most effected when the debris was…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Development of the Defrost Performance Evaluation Technology in Automotive using Design Optimization Analysis Method

Hyundai Mobis-Hyeonseok Seo, Jinwon Seo, Bongkeun Choi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0155
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we developed the defrost performance evaluation technology using the multi-objective optimization method based on the CFD. The defrosting is one of the key factors to ensure the drivers’ safety using the forced flow having proper temperature from HVAC during drive. There are many factors affecting the defrost performance, but the configurations of guide-vane and discharge angles in the center DEF duct section which are main design factors of the defrost performance in automotive, so these were set to the design parameters for this study. For the shape-optimization study, the discharge mass flow rate from the HVAC which is transferred to the windshield and the discharge areas in the center DEF duct were set to the response parameters. And then, the standard deviation value of mass flow rate on the selected discharge areas checking the uniformity of discharge flow was set to the objective function to find the optimal design. The results on the windshield from optimization analysis were quantified from some kind of standards to evaluate the defrost performance, in particular, the…
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Co-simulation Methodology for PHEV Thermal System Development

FCA US LLC-Rezwanur Rahman, Auvi Biswas, Craig Lindquist, Masuma Khandaker, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1392
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal development of automotive applications is a lot more complex than it used to be in the past. Specifically, for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), all the sub-systems are so intertwined that it’s hard to analyze them as sub-systems only. A system level solution is needed for proper sizing of components. For early thermal development, a co-simulation method can ensure that we take into account the inter-dependency of all the thermal features in the car. As for example a large PHEV battery may need to be passively cooled by refrigerant, which is in turns associated with the interior HVAC cooling system. For proper sizing of the condenser, chiller etc., one has to account for the battery cooling and cabin cooling as one system. There are also many thermal actuators on a PHEV, e.g. control valves, pulse-width-module (PWM) pumps, electric compressor, electric coolant heaters etc. Smart controls and calibration development early in the product development can impact sizing of front end cooling modules and other heat exchangers significantly. The design of hardware and software has to…
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A Research on Kinematic Optimization of Auto Flush Door Handle System

Hyundai Motor Group-Jungho Han, Kyoungtaek Kwak, Jinwoo Nam, Oktae Jung, Jinsang Chung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0623
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A fascinating exterior appearance is one of the most important values for customers so the realization of the innovative styling has been a major topic for car makers for several years. Also, since the base of autonomous driving and electric vehicle is being expanded recently, it is essential to not only create high-tech image on a vehicle but also realize the engineering design in reality. From that point of view, the auto flush handle can be unique sales point to enhance the degree of the completion of the exterior styling. The purpose of this study is to establish the kinematic system of auto flush door handle to overcome the exterior handicaps such as not only the excessive exposure of the internal area on the deployed position but also to determine the proper operating speed. In order to resolve these issues, the Scott-Russell mechanism is applied to the auto flush handle system. The mechanism is applied to realize the straight motion so exterior quality can be improved to minimize inner gap and prevent link exposure. In…
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A Design and Optimization Method for Pedestrian Lower Extremity Injury Analysis with the aPLI Model

Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.-Ruyi Chen
Chongqing University-Yue Fu, Huijie Xu, Guan Lin, Zhenfei Zhan, Ping Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0929
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As pedestrian protection tests and evaluations have been officially incorporated into new C-NCAP, more stringent requirements have been placed on pedestrian protection performance. In this study, in order to reduce the injury of the vehicle front end structure to the pedestrian's lower extremity during the collision, the advanced pedestrian legform impactor (aPLI) model was used in conjunction with the finite element vehicle model for collision simulation based on the new C-NCAP legform test evaluation regulation. This study selected the key components which have significant influences on the pedestrian's leg protection performance based on the CAE half-vehicle model, including front bumper, front-cover plate, upper impact pillar, impact beam and lower support plate, to form a simplified model and conducted parametric modeling based on it. The method proposed to apply parametric design in the optimization process of the vehicle front end structure greatly improved the development efficiency. The variable correlation analysis was carried out on the sample results obtained from the design of experiment (DOE), and the contribution analysis of design variables to the injury measures was…