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Tapered Hole Automation for Hard Metals – Enabling Producibility

Electroimpact Inc.-Russell DeVlieg
The Boeing Company-Trevor Hartnagel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0006
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Assembly of the F-15 wing utilizes the Taper-Lok fastening system which requires precise preparation of conical holes to enable tapered fasteners to provide a uniform interference fit. The controlled interference fit directly affects fastener preload to reduce stress and improve fatigue life. Traditional methods for generating tapered holes in thick aluminum and titanium structures require heavy duty tooling. Fixtures are clamped to aircraft structure which hold large power feed to complete the hole generation processes in multiple steps. Manual drilling for Taper-Loks is labor intensive, non-ergonomic, and requires extreme care to ensure quality holes are produced. Automated hole generation was a logical solution to the complex Taper-Lok fastening system, however replicating traditional drilling methods proved challenging. Extensive testing was completed to ensure hole quality generated with automation would meet or exceed existing power feed equipment. Once process capabilities were proven and equipment requirements were generated, an articulated arm-based drilling system was developed and implemented. The automation was designed to accurately position and complete the hole preparation process in a single pass by the use of…
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Integrated Electrical UAV Propulsion Design and Testing For High Efficiency

DARcorporation-Wanbo Liu, Drew Darrah, Joel Eppler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0053
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper covers the design, modeling and analysis of an electric ducted fan system for sUAV (<55 lb) and the verification of predicted performance with test data. Analysis shows that the operating condition of the motor can significantly affect performance and should be considered when selecting or designing a rotor and vice versa. Motor manufacturers usually provide a list of compatible propellers for a motor design with thrust at RPM data coupled with gram per Watt efficiency. However, the gram per Watt value is not constant across the range of operation and a better modeling is needed depending on thrust requirements. Many of the electrical losses can be difficult to calculate directly, such as flux and iron losses in the motor and switching losses in the ESC. Incorporating an estimation/approximation of such losses during the rotor design phase enables a more accurate performance predication and a better overall system efficiency. Two rotors are designed to work inside of the duct and both have identical geometry except for a small blade pitch changes to increase maximum…
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Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of A Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

Electroimpact Inc.-Mark Forbes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0010
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, demanding a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the FAL in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by its production capacity, versus its list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes. The most significant challenge faced was amount of front end engineering work required to develop detailed assembly processes and reconcile them with the customer, who remains the actual process owner. Other challenges include aircraft maturity delays, design changes due to process definition evolution, factory environmental conditions…
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Tool wear analysis on drilling process of Inconel 718 superalloy

Federal University of Sao Carlos-Pedro Cabegi Barros, Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Carlos Eiji Hirata Ventura
OSG Sulamericana-Gustavo Roberto Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0034
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The inconel 718 is an alloy based on nickel of high thermal and mechanical resistance, which allows its wide application in the aerospace industry, being generally implemented in aircraft tail cone and engine components. On the other hand, these features become a recurring problem when the machining of this material is performed. For example, in the drilling process of this superalloy, the cutting tools used exhibit excessive wear due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting edge. However, there are numerous parameters that can influence the cutting tool life, and when analyzed and well defined, determine the types of modifications needed to enable less wear, and consequently an increase of its useful life in service. Given this context and knowing that the study of tool life in the inconel 718 drilling process is extremely relevant in the aerospace sector, this paper presents a wear study in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of cutting tools used to drill the Inconel 718. It was accomplished by the combination of different cutting parameters…
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Performance of Isolated UAV Rotors at Low Reynolds Number

Georgia Institute of Technology-Yashvardhan Tomar, Narayanan Komerath
Indian Institute of Technology-Dhwanil Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0046
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Vertical takeoff and landing vehicle platforms with many small rotors are gaining importance for small UAVs as well as distributed electric propulsion for larger vehicles. To predict vehicle performance, it must be possible to gauge interaction effects. These rotors operate in the less-known regime of low Reynolds number, with different blade geomety. As a first step, two identical commercial UAV rotors from a flight test program, are studied in isolation, experimentally and computationally. Load measurements were performed in Georgia Tech’s 2.13m x 2.74m wind tunnel. Simulations were done using the RotCFD solver which uses a Navier-Stokes wake computation with low-Reynolds number blade section data. It is found that in hover, small rotors available in the market vary noticeably in performance at low rotor speeds, the data converging at higher RPM and Reynolds number. This may be indicative of the high sensitivity of low-Re rotor flows to minor geometrical differences/imperfections in the rotors. It requires proper handling in computations. CFD results show a higher deviation from the experimental thrust data at low rotor speeds. While thrust…
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Friction Reduction of an All-aluminum Cylinder for Motorcycles by a Mirror Finished Bore with Dimples

Yamaha Motor Co., Ltd-Yuta Murase, Hideya Kumagai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0530
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the demand for fuel economy of small engines has been increasing for further improvement of product competitiveness. As a solution for this issue, a lot of developments on reduction of friction losses of engine components have been actively performed by engine manufacturers, especially the friction loss between the cylinder bores and pistons or piston rings is main issue to solve because these frictions highly contribute to the fuel economy for the small engines. In this study, focusing on the effect of the texture of the all-aluminum cylinder bore on friction loss, we verified the friction loss of all-aluminum cylinders having several kinds of surface textures by a floating liner method. For the evaluation, we prepared cylinders which have the texture of the following three types, 1) plateau type (having conventional cross-hatches), 2) mirror finished type (having no cross-hatches and no irregular surface characteristics), 3) dimple type (most of part is mirror finished but small dimples are given at a limited part). As a result of the evaluation, it was confirmed that FMEP…
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Development of Laser Welding Pressed-frame for Small Scooters Considering High Production Efficiency

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Sunao Kawano, Takeru Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0544
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The laser-welded pressed-steel frame made of the high-tensile-strength steel sheet and suitable for high efficiency production has been developed for small scooters. In majority of the conventional designs, the frame of small scooters is composed of a large number of steel pipes and stamped parts complexly welded together, requiring a number of welded joints. As a result, since the welding length increase and the dimensional error of the frame body after welding tends to be large, a correction operation in a post process is required. This has been one of the factors preventing further enhancement of production efficiency. In an attempt to cope with this issue, we have chosen to apply the pressed-steel frame construction using the high-tensile-strength steel sheet, which has been applied to small motorcycles, to small scooters. In addition, we replaced the spot welding with more efficient laser welding to further enhance productivity. The optimum cross section design taking advantages of the pressed-steel frame construction permits more gradual changes of cross sectional area than the conventional steel pipe frame, allowing dispersing of…
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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEXAGON EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, DRILLED, PD SHANK, SILVER PLATED, NICKEL ALLOY, UNS N07718, 185 KSI MIN, .4375-20 UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3254D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States

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BOLT, MACHINE - DOUBLE HEXAGON EXTENDED WASHER HEAD, DRILLED, PD SHANK, SILVER PLATED, NICKEL ALLOY, UNS N07718, 185 KSI MIN, .3125-24 UNJF-3A

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3252E
  • Current
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States

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Buzz Avoidance on Sunroof Light Sunshades: Design and Validation

Ford Motor Company-Douglas Demori, Marcos Paulo de Oliveira, Rosiane Viegas
MSX International-Douglas França
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0148
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Sunroof is placed in certain high-end vehicles to give user a better driving experience. All automakers are searching alternatives to reduce weight and cost in the vehicle, in which sunroofs are also impacted. Some alternatives are already applied, as a honeycomb paper used in some sunshades that presents benefits, as less weight and with a good cost reduction. Although, due the reduced weight for this part produced in this material, it shows more susceptibility to reproduce the vibration that vehicle propagates in movement, especially in bad condition roads. The sunroof assembly is dependent of the roof reinforcement and roof skin, but in this special case, the validation could be done in the components itself because the interaction of the sunshades is directly dependent of the other sunroof parts, as rails and front frame. These buzz noise in lights sunshades is perceptible when it is almost or totally close, since lighter material vibrates freely without rail anchorage, then clashing against the front frame surface. Considering the package, the key point is to design the sunshade to…
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