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Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Analysis of a Highly-Constrained Single-Use UAV Wing

  • West Virginia University - Patrick H. Browning, Levi S. Hubbard, Philip Pennock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1958
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Unmanned aerial vehicle design aspects are as broad as the missions they are used to support. In some cases, the UAV mission scope can impose design constraints that can be difficult to achieve. This paper describes recent work performed at West Virginia University to support repeated flight testing of a single-use UAV platform with emphasis on the highly specialized wings required to help meet the overall airframe mass properties constrained by the project sponsor. The wings were fabricated using a molded polyurethane (PU) foam as the base material which was supported by several different types of rigid and flexible substructures, skins, and matrix-infused fiber elements. Different ratios of infused fiber mass to PU foam were tested and additional tungsten masses were added to the wings to achieve the correct total mass and mass distribution of the wings. Expected accelerations were applied to the wing designs analytically and numerically to establish appropriate test limits and explore potential structural loading aspects, and static and dynamic experimental tests were employed to determine the suitability of the wing designs for the UAV airframe. Likely wing design candidates that survived all experimental tests in the lab were subjected to final experimental tests on the UAV platform in outdoor high-G field launches. High speed cameras revealed several types of failure modes in these applied tests, indicating design sensitivity both in wing bending and in torsion under extreme acceleration. Because the wings were designed to eventually support a large number of single-use free flight experiments, the wing designs were also subjected to detailed cost analysis to ensure the final designs would meet the imposed economic as well as physical constraints. A final design with a steel-and-braided line-reinforced box-frame carbon fiber substructure, fiberglass-infused PU foam with >50% by mass fiber content, and fiberglass skin was found to exhibit the best combination of survivability, mass properties, cost, and ease of manufacturing.

Feedback on Application of MBSE Approach to an Avionics Subsystem

  • COMAC - Jian Tang, Shaofan Zhu
  • Samares-Engineering - Raphael Faudou, Jean-Marie Gauthier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1922
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides feedback on using a modelling approach to define an avionics subsystem in the frame of SAE ARP4754A aerospace recommended practices. Feedback concerns the practical use of models to support functional part of the following processes: “requirements capture”, “requirements validation”, and top-level part of “development of system architecture”. A Model-Based Systems Engineering approach has been proposed with a set of modelling tasks concerning views (diagrams, tables), patterns and transformations, and model checking rules. The goal of the approach is to structure functional needs and guide systems engineers in identification and definition of system functional interfaces and of system top level functions. This paper provides returns of experience on the application of that new approach on an industrial avionic case study known as the Onboard Maintenance System by a team mainly used to document centric approach until recently. After some presentation of the pilot case used as experiment, some results are given and there is discussion on several points: the lessons learned during and after application of the MBSE approach to identify use cases, to define black box scenarios and to build the top level functional architecture. Paper provides comments about the approach (e.g. use cases granularity, modelling stop criterion, communication between systems), before starting the design. Then it discusses advantages and drawbacks that were measured during this modelling approach with regards to traditional document centric approach. Paper also provides the challenges identified for wider adoption in the company and the remaining points of attention when extending approach on larger project.

Fully Electric Regional Airliner Feasibility and Design Study

  • Cranfield University - Craig Peter Lawson, Howard Smith PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1926
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents a design study for a fully electric regional airliner with a high wing, envisaged to enter service in 2035. The work reported includes the conceptual, preliminary and some detailed design of a 70 passenger twin propeller-driven vehicle, with a 46 passenger short take-off and landing capability also investigated. The design mission is to carry 70 passengers 300 nm with a take-off mass of 27 tonnes and at a cruise Mach number of 0.65. The power and propulsion system is reported in some detail. A step change in today’s battery technology is envisioned to be required to make such a pure-electric regional airliner feasible. Lithium-Air is a candidate cell chemistry and system sizing aspires to achieve a 900 Wh / kg battery energy density. Operational aspects have been studied and reported. Thermal management design is progressed, in particular considering the electrical power systems requirements and the two 4 MW motors driving the two propellers. Flight path performance is studied in detail and reference made to ACARE Flight Path 2050 targets, including for noise. In terms of aircraft structures, particular attention is paid to the wing design, considering the wing no longer needs to serve as a kerosene storage vessel. Structural design and systems integration is investigated, including using a detailed CAD model implemented in CATIA software. Certification in the context of Part 25 is given full consideration, with modifications and means of compliance to enable a pure-electric airliner proposed. This is approached by considering in some respects the battery and electrical power distribution system to be equivalent to the kerosene aircraft’s fuel system, while for the electric motor, the engine regulations are used in part as being analogous. Lessons learned and key challenges ahead to enable a fully electric airliner are reported.

Design, Development and Integration of a Wing-Morphing, Bimodal Unmanned Vehicle

  • Dian Guo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1960
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper relates to the design and development of a multi-modal UAV capable of aerial flight and underwater cruise. After traversing underwater, the multi-modal UAV could transit to the air by using the jet propulsion and help submarine carry the surveillance mission without exposing the submarine. A novel hybrid propulsion system has been manufactured and tested. Consisting of folding blades, the propeller has been optimised for propulsion both in air and water. The critical water to air transition phase is achieved by an additional impulsive thruster powered by a C02 cartridge. To decrease the drag in underwater cruise and reduce the potential damage when the vehicle impacts the water, a morphing wing has been developed. This consists of foam-carbon fibre lay-up constructed wings, which are driven by the linear servos, in a variable sweep configuration. An integrated prototype is constructed, using an unconventional, anhedral horizontal stabilizers to allow clearance for the morphing wing. Using a combination of data taken from wind tunnel testing, CFD simulation and analytic methods, models of the vehicles stability are developed with the aim of better understanding the dynamics of the vehicle during transition between the mediums. This will provide information for controller design in future design iterations and identify where modifications to the airframe and transition systems could be made in the optimisation of the vehicle.

Conceptual Design, Structural and Material Optimization of a Naval Fighter Nose Landing Gear for the Estimated Static Loads

  • K Suresh, C Senthil Kumar - Swagata Paul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1911
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The landing of naval aircraft on carrier is hard because of touch down, due to the shorter deck than the normal runway. The aircraft hit the deck at more than twice the vertical speed compared to typical landing on decent runway. Naval aircraft land by getting arrested with a metal rope or cable and brakes hard. They may also take-off with a catapult, which is some running device that pulls the nose gear forward at high acceleration. Most of the navy aircraft are equipped with tricycle landing gear mainly to withstand high landing load, ease of landing during cross winds and more stable motion in the ground. The navy Nose Landing Gear (NLG) structural assembly presents complex structural geometry and critical functionalities. The landing gear components are subjected to high static and dynamic loads, so they must be appropriately designed with materials of high mechanical characteristics that meet strength, stiffness and weight requirements. This paper contributes to the shape, size and material optimisation for the NLG of a supersonic naval fighter aircraft. Geometric design and modelling of NLG was done using the software SOLIDWORKS. The identical modal characteristics of the NLG assembly was obtained using ANSYS and by flight test data of an existing aircraft which literally proves the accuracy and suitability of finite element model. Static structural analysis is performed using ANSYS for the critical landing load cases. Iterations including shape, size and material optimisation were done in the NLG; the Reserve factor values are calculated to meet the required static, dynamic and mass characteristics for critical landing conditions.

The Fault-Augmented Approach for the Systematic Simulation of Fault Behaviour in Multi-Domain Systems in Aerospace

  • ESI ITI GmbH - Artem Kolesnikov, Maxim Andreev, Andreas Abel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1917
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
We introduce a fault library developed at ESI ITI for modelling faults in multi-domain physical systems which is based on the simulation of fault effects on the system’s behaviour. We outline the motivation of how and why to model faults and their combination systematically as well as a description of the Modelica-based library structure with a wizard supporting the semi-automatic augmentation process of faults. The fault types are classified into continuous and discrete with dedicated type definitions, such as intensity, activity, scalability, functional dependency, etc. The application of the fault library is exemplified in the field of hydraulic systems in aerospace. A hydraulic rudder control system is modelled and analysed with the fault augmented components. The rudder is controlled by two hydraulic actuators with independent power sources. The rudder drives are equipped with hydromechanical, electrical and digital systems for parrying failures, which should be tested at an early stage of design. To perform the tests, a multi-domain dynamic system model was created, wherein failures are systematically simulated using a special classification approach for faults. In addition, we demonstrate several complementary tests obtained by a variants simulation and analyse the results of simulations of the fault augmented model using supervised machine learning algorithms. The model output data are prepared for the fault analysis by using a helper library extracting the features (mean, max, fft, etc.) robustly. The future extraction acts as an intermediate step to calculate performance indicators excluding all possible uncertainties because of the numerical integration. The additional library of performance indicators has been developed to systematically check which faults or their combination lead to violation of pre-defined criteria and requirements.

Numerical and Experimental Analysis and Energy Model of a High Camber Wing

  • Sheffield Hallam University - Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1955
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a coupled numerical and experimental study of an unconventional wing profile such as cp-180-050-gn (Cambered plate C=18% T=5% R=0.78). This wing profile deals with low speeds and is not currently used on any aircraft model. Otherwise it presents interesting performances that can be exploited for design of low speed STOL or VTOL aircraft by mean of the very high lift that it can generate and it simplicity which can fit with VAWT, drones specifically designed for low speed operations and cyclorotors. After a preliminary CFD assessment of the wing a complete experimental characterization also at high angles of attack has been performed. The excellent agreement between CFD and experiments has allowed producing a complete analysis of the behavior of the wing profile both before and after stall conditions. This study has the key objective of analyzing the viability of such an unconventional wing in traditional or over-stalling conditions. A complete modeling of the specific wing is produced with the definition of its potential deployment into unconventional aircraft architectures and into both Darreius and Savonius wind turbines.

Highly Efficient Civil Aviation, Now via Operations: AAR & Challenges

  • R K Nangia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1925
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Global civil aviation is on a resilient growth at 5+% yearly and this poses extreme environmental challenges to the aerospace industry. Advances have appeared gradually through developing improved aerodynamic shapes, using carbon fibres, and enhanced engines; however, as these technologies mature, direct efficiency advances require increasing developmental effort. Often Passenger convenience is forgotten e.g. the long-range air traffic has developed on hub-spoke basis. This system implies extra feeder flights, transit passenger inconveniences, capacity issues at hubs. Efficiency metrics emphasize "Why, How & What", with an understanding of the range sensitivities, operational concepts and performance goals via the important "X-factor". For given range, current aircraft are "greener" than previous generations. Aircraft for medium ranges are always greener than those for short or long ranges. However, currently, the major trend is for the latter: twin-aisle A350, A380, B787, B777X (10+% payload, 40+% fuel to MTOW). Shorter range single-aisle aircraft are "feeders" types or newer derivatives: A320, B737 class (20+% payload, 20+% fuel to MTOW). New technologies could be in future aircraft e.g. Natural Laminar flow, riblets, enhanced loads allevation, composite tailoring, morphing structures, distributed propulsion, bio-fuels etc. These may make significant improvements and lead to unconventional layouts e.g. blended wing bodies, high aspect ratio wings, oblique wings, and joined wings. We evaluate some of these in terms of efficiency metrics and practical usage. Additionally, significant environmental gains can be made via operations e,g AAR and Formation flying. Air-to-air refuelling (AAR) has been practised and perfected by the Military for over 80 years. Tankers are sky "gas-stations". The Military aims for mission success rather than fuel economy. Tankers accompany and refuel short-range aircraft over longer missions. AAR can be a strong enabler for the civil aviation. Small dedicated tankers (A320 size) can operate over short radii, refuelling longer range cruisers en-route. AAR will always retain top hierarchy over any technological advances, offering step change towards highly efficient aviation. We discuss the pros and cons of operational issues, routing and constraints, turbulence, air navigation and environmental impact. Replacing today´s inter-continental system with AAR gives fuel and CO2 reductions of 15-30% depending on range. Additionally, 30-40% weight savings lead manufacturers and operators focus on smaller aircraft. Major COC and DOC reductions of a similar order occur. Noise, emissions, wake effects are favourable, meeting ACARE / NASA goals. A by-product is that laminar-flow aircraft introduction can be eased. Increasing AAR benefits occur as the system of flying A to B replaces the hub-and-spoke system. The smaller AAR-cruisers imply ground-based opportunities: smaller airports making new connections, easing the transit passenger handling and reducing total travel time. For sustainable aviation growth and future urbanisation, short flights are replaced by other transport modes. The relief in capacity (fewer short flights) becomes available for long flights (only suitable for aviation). To maintain transport capacity, less AAR cruisers are needed as these operate at 20+% payload to MTOW. More likely is that the total airborne mass will be lower. Certification and Operational rules will need revision. New tankers or other multi-role types modified from civil aircraft already respect most CS-25 regulations. We aim for automatic refuelling (as demonstrated on US-UCAV). We need to bring such technologies into civil aviation. We allude to newer versatile twin-aisle cruisers with differing capacities that cruise world-wide ranges with AAR, blending with formation flying. All this should "spur/re-vitalise" Aviation. We should now aim for practical demonstrations. A game changer in sight!

Energy Optimization of High-Thickness High-Lift Wing for a Blended Wing Drone With Ducted Fan Propulsion and Boundary Layer Ingestion

  • Sheffield Hallam University - Michele Trancossi
  • Universidade Da Beira Interior - Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1961
To be published on 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to optimize an effective design of a blended wing drone with ducted fan propulsion and boundary layer ingestion. The wing profile has been optimized starting from a well known unified wing profile with high lift and high thickness. Three different wing profiles has been preliminarily evaluated: the classical Glenn Martin 2 and 3, and the Eppler 432. Different comparisons has been performed. The wing has been accurately adapted to ensure flight conditions between 0 and 5°. Optimal positioning of the EDF (Electric Ducted Fan) propellers has been evaluated for boundary layer ingestion according to first and second law of aerodynamics. Panel method and direct 3d simulations has been produced. The result has been the design of a UAS that can flight at airspeeds lower than 15 m/s. The design of he drone has been evaluated including additional Coanda surfaces that ensure VTOL operations. An effective blended wing drone design is produced.

Brake System Design for Dedicated BEV Architectures

  • General Motors LLC - Michael J. Shenberger, David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1870
To be published on 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
As fossil fuel dwindle and more and more electric vehicles enter the market, there is an opportunity to reevaluate the standard brake system as we know it. This paper will discuss and compare the differences in brake system sizing between a non regen internal combustion engine vehicle and a dedicated battery electric vehicle. It will use a model derived from component dynamometer testing and vehicle test data of a mid-size production vehicle modified for the mass and regenerative braking capabilities of a battery electric vehicle. The contribution of regenerative braking energy will be analyzed and compared to show its impact on component sizing, thermal sizing, and lining life. The detailed design study will calculate the parameters for caliper, rotor design, actuation, etc., that are optimized for 100% regen enabled vehicles.