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Modal Model Correlation of Commercial Vehicle Frame

Ashok Leyland Technical Center-Sivasankaran Sadasivam, Ekambaram Loganathan, Karalmarx Rajamohan, Saisankaranarayana Kuppili
Ashok Leyland, Ltd.-Aditya Palsule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0212
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Design decisions based on the virtual simulations leads to reduced number of prototype testing. Demonstrated correlation between the computer simulations and experimental test results is vital for designers to confidently take simulation driven design decisions. For the virtual design evaluation of durability, ride, handling and NVH performance, demonstration of correlation of structural dynamic characteristics is critical. Modal correlation between CAE and physical testing validates the stiffness and mass distribution used in the FE model by correlating mode shape and mode frequency in the desired frequency range. The objective of this study is to arrive at a method for establishing modal correlation between CAE and experimental test for a bare frame and thereby enabling evaluation of design iterations in virtual environment to achieve modal targets. In modal model correlation of frame, virtual simulation of the finite element (FE) model is carried out in free-free condition to extract the modal frequencies up to 100Hz. Based on the mode shape information of modes in this range, the optimum number of response and excitation locations for experimental test setup…

A Test Methodology for Vehicle Wind Noise Reduction and Acoustic Quality Improvement

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Swamy Mukkera, Senthilkumar Raamya Premkumar, Deshpande Samar, Prasath R
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0216
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Aeroacoustics of vehicles is becoming an important design criteria as it directly affects passenger’s comfort. The wind noise at highway speeds (>80KMPH) is a critical quality concern under normal and crosswind conditions and dominant factor in assessing acoustic comfort of the vehicle. Wind noise is caused by the vortex air flow around a vehicle body and air leakage through the sealing gaps of attached parts. This majorly contributes to high frequency noise (>250Hz). Accurate identification and control of noise sources and leakage paths result in improved acoustic comfort of the vehicle. In this paper, aero-acoustic quality characteristics of validation prototype vehicle are studied. The major wind noise sources and leakage paths in the vehicle are identified through in-house blower set up in the semi anechoic room. The overall wind noise level and articulation index of vehicle at various speeds are determined through on- road measurements. The improvement in the vehicle articulation index (AI) by 10% and reduction in noise level by 5 dB (A) are achieved through design modification of seals, door structure and trim…

Experimentation for Evaluation of Real Driving Emission Test Routes in India for LDVs

Automotive Research Association of India-A. P. Singh, A. N. Kulkarni, M. V. More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0150
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
With introduction of Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) norms from 1st April 2020, automotive industry will observe one of most stringent emission reform in India. This step is in the direction to bring Indian emission regulation in line with International standards. The Bharat Stage VI (BS VI) regulation also mandates for Real Driving Emission (RDE) measurement from 1st April 2020 for data collection and subsequently establishment of RDE compliance Factor (CF) by 1st April 2023. Indian RDE test procedure will be largely based on European RDE with minor changes in terms of climatic conditions, traffic pattern, speed limit, topography, and vehicle population. For performing a successful RDE trial one of the most critical part is selection of a route on which all RDE boundary conditions can be met. This technical paper summarizes the outcome of RDE experiments carried out on Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) and Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Pune, Mumbai, and Bangalore. The collected data was post processed using CO2 and work based Moving Average Window (MAW) method for LDV…

A Robust Structure Analysis on Automotive Door Armrest

FCA Engineering India Pvt Ltd.-Aswin Venkatesan, Sathish Kumar Sampath Kumar, Chandrasekhar Uppaluru
FCA US LLC-Mark Gratowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0006
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
An automobile door is one vital commodity which has its role in vehicle's function, strength, safety, dynamics, storage and aesthetic parameters. The door system comprises of door upper, bolster, armrest, main panel, map-pocket, handle and speaker grille. Among them, armrest is an integral part, which provides function and takes care of some safety parameter for the customers. The basic function of an armrest is to provide ergonomic relief to occupant for resting his hand. Along with this, it also facilitates occupant safety during a side impact collision by absorbing the energy and not imparting the reactive force on occupant. Thus an armrest has evolved as a feature of passive safety. The armrest design should be stiff enough to withstand required vertical load condition with-in the acceptable deflection criteria. On the other hand, armrest has to absorb the dynamic force by deflecting proportionally to the side impact. In this study the various structure of armrest was analyzed to strike an ideal zone between functional and safety parameters. The scope is to improve the functional requirement, i.e.,…

Optimisation of Scooter Frame for Target Life on 2-Poster Rig with Virtual Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Vikas Palve, Shyamsundar Kumbhar, Gyanendra Roy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0307
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive industry is giving lot of emphasis on the virtual validation to reduce the cost and turnaround time associated with product development cycle. In the initial design phases, it is important to do the frame evaluation through CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) based on available physical Two poster test data or standard service load conditions which cuts down the number of prototypes, time to market leading to business excellence. A time domain assessment of the vehicle structure is time consuming and expensive which made us to think about an equivalent, alternative robust approach as explained in this work. The paper describes the strength analysis of scooter frame with derivation of critical static load cases. The critical load cases are extracted from the load-time history while the vehicle was simulated on durability virtual test rigs which is equivalent to proving ground tests. This methodology gives the better accuracy in prediction of stress levels and to avoid the overdesign of components based on traditional validation technique. There is significant drop in stress levels using the critical load cases…

Computational and Experimental Analysis of Head Injury Criteria (HIC) in Frontal Collision of Car with Pedestrian

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology-Dr. Dhananjay G Thombare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0016
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Road accident between pedestrian and motor vehicle causes severe injuries and even death of pedestrian. The accident statistics show that the possibility of injury to pedestrian is higher in case of collision with car on busy roads. In car and pedestrian collisions, the pedestrian’s head hits with car bonnet and suffer from multiple injuries such as skull fractures and brain injury. The role of car bonnet structural strength plays an important role in pedestrian head injury level. To provide enough structural strength the high bonnet thickness is provided with under bonnet stiffeners, however thick bonnet and stiffeners reduces deformation of the bonnet during collision and increases injury level to pedestrian. Hence optimum bonnet thickness, least number and geometry of stiffeners and enough structural strength is important for bonnet to reduce injury level. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of car bonnet thickness, number and arrangement of under bonnet stiffeners on head injury levels with the help of head injury criteria (HIC). Head Injury Criteria (HIC) is a measure of the likelihood…

Study for Manufacturing a Cost Effective, Light Weight, Single Piece Injection Molded Spoiler

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Tarun Gupta, Nilesh Rathod
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0162
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Today automotive sector has become very dynamic. There is renewed emphasis on safety through adoption of new regulations, electric vehicles are on the verge of replacing ever evolving engine technology, emission norms are getting stringent year by year & several companies are trying to make vehicles more efficient by adoption of new light weight or high strength materials and altering manufacturing methods. In one of the new vehicle programs there was focus on vehicle styling; in order to improve the styling back door spoiler was to be considered from design stage itself. Back door spoiler is added in high speed vehicles for creating a down force to improve the vehicle hold on road. However, now days in passenger vehicles that purpose has been subsided and spoiler is given in automotive vehicles for aesthetics only. For instance in our case it was given to augment aesthetics. This would have resulted in additional cost and weight. Hence, challenge was to introduce it in minimal cost and weight and still it should pass all performance criteria. Each and…

Lightweigthing of Automobile Hood Using Multistep Optimization for Composite Material

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Ashish Sathaye, Indranil Bhattacharyya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0168
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
: Emission norms across the world are getting more and more stringent day by day, in pursuit of saving the mother earth. Automotive industry is quick to respond to this huge challenge. One solution lies in making vehicles lighter. That's why scope of lightweight materials is more and more realized and explored. One of the front runners in the light weight material is Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP). CFRP comes with own challenges in its understanding, designing and engineering. For effective use of the CFRP from a design and mass point of view, it has to be optimized in such a way so that every section and layup is utilized to its maximum potential. Current paper demonstrates the multi-step optimization approach used in a design and development of car hood. Initial assessment of the hood suggested that few attributes were falling short of the requirement targets, and that too with mass penalty. After interaction with respective teams, scope for the optimization was realized. Topology optimization was utilized to derive the right structure from decided design…

Development and Prediction of Vehicle Drag Coefficient Using OpenFoam CFD Tool

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Kundan Biswas, Ganesh Gadekar, Sujit Chalipat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0235
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle aerodynamic design has a critical impact on fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Reducing aerodynamic wind resistance of the vehicle's exterior shape and reducing losses associated with requirements for engine compartment cooling through vehicle front openings plays key role in achieving desired aerodynamic efficiency. Today fairly large number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations being performed during the vehicle aerodynamic design and development process and it is rapidly increasing day by day. Vehicle aerodynamic design and development process involves mainly aerodynamic shape development, aerodynamic optimizations of vehicle external components (side view mirror, spoilers, underbody shield etc.) and number of” what if studies during preliminary design process. Licensing costs of the available commercial CFD simulation solver has significance impact on product development cost when numbers of aerodynamic simulations expand. To address this aspects, open source code “OpenFoam” CFD have become popular in the aerodynamic community. This papers summarizes CFD simulation results for three standard Mira body configurations (Notchback, Fastback and Estateback) using OpenFoam solver. In this study, steady state simulations with Realizable K-epsilon and SST K-omega…

An Investigation on Articulation Dynamic Loads of Wheel Loader

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Chandrashekar Ramanna Ananthpur, Mukunthan Saravanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0103
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Wheel loaders are heavy earth moving machines used in construction field for applications like truck loading, stockpiling and various other material handling operations. Wheel loaders are classified according to their operating weight and pay load capacities in the construction equipment market. Wheel loaders are equipped with articulated steering using two hydraulic cylinders connecting the front frame and the rear frame. The speed of steering is controlled by the steering control valve, which controls the hydraulic oil flow rate to the steering cylinder. The expansion and retraction of the two cylinders makes the wheel loaders to articulate with pin joint connecting the frames. The speed of the steering plays a critical role in loader stability and safety with loaded bucket. The impact force caused due to the steering influences the operator comfort, stability & durability of the structural components in the machine. It becomes important to understand these impact loads amplitude for a particular vehicle configuration .This paper attempts to investigate the impact forces triggered on the frames during the steering operation. The study focuses the…