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Design and Sustainability Assessment of Lightweight Concept for an Automotive Car Module

Benteler-Joern Toelle
Toyota Motor Europe-Martin Kerschbaum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0033
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Recently sustainability has become a priority for industry production. This issue is even more valid for the automotive sector, where Original Equipment Manufacturers have to address the environmental protection additionally to traditional design issues. Against this background, many research and industry advancements are concentrated in the development of lightweight car components through the application of new materials and manufacturing technologies. The paper deals with an innovative lightweight design solution for the bumper system module of a B-segment car. The study has been developed within the Affordable LIght-weight Automobiles AlliaNCE (ALLIANCE) project, funded by the Horizon 2020 framework programme of the European Commission. A bumper demonstrator, that is currently in series production and mainly consists of conventional aluminum materials, is re-engineered making use of 7000 series aluminum alloys. The design alternatives are described and assessed regarding the achieved weight saving. The study is complemented by a sustainability assessment of the different modules performed through the Life Cycle Assessment methodology. The analysis takes into account production, use and End-of-Life stages and the results are expressed in terms…
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Pixelated-LEDs Car Headlight Design for Smart Driving and CO2 Reduced Emissions.

University of Versailles-Sidahmed Beddar, Jean-Baptiste Millet, Yasser Alayli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0018
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The advent of Electroluminescent Diode (LED) technologies has been one of the major sources of energy reduction in the domestic lighting sector as well as in the automotive and aerospace fields. In vehicles, the use of LEDs allows a reduction of 110W to 40W useful for the function Dipped-beam is a gain of about 350W in energy consumption of the vehicle with a combustion engine (from 2 to 5g of CO2 per kilometer). In 2010, Adaptive Dipped Beam (ADB (also called glare-free high beam) appeared. The objective of the ADB is to adapt the beam to the presence of vehicles in both directions to improve the driver's long-range visibility without causing discomfort, distraction or glare to other road users. The ADB is a lighting function with high added value in terms of comfort and road safety. The new lighting technologies make this function more and more efficient and effective with a resolution and the number of pixels that increases Pixelated LEDs, by offering various advantages over other architectures, are gaining market shares. They are more…
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CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

Volvo Car Corporation-Andrzej Pietrzyk
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1575
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for a vehicle OEM, despite the fact that the development of the audio system is often left to a specialized supplier. Especially the questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The long term goal is to enable performing subjective evaluation of sound in a virtual car, and integrating audio evaluation in the NVH simulator. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications. The applications can be divided into the low frequency ones (concerning the installation of woofers and subwoofers), and the middle/high frequency ones (concerning the installation of midrange and…
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Noise-Vibration (NVH) Analysis & Reduction in Traction Motors-PMSMs at the Design Stage

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Vishwanatha K. Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1509
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Various electric propulsion systems are used in the industrial field. Recently, research focused on permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) because of their several advantages. There are various method to reduce Noise and Vibration of traction at the Design Stage of Motor. Noise reduction has constituted a difficult study point for the last years. A great part of this acoustic noise has electromagnetic origin. The harmonic spectrum of the PWM voltage supply is very rich and every frequency has direct effects on the motor acoustics and also Various Torques effect on the Motor, In this paper, the Design Stage of Electric Motor Describe the Design Specifications and Calculations For reduce Harmonics and unwanted Torque (Electromagnetic Forces) for NVH reduction. Such as two winding methods for the interior permanent-magnet synchronous motor for vehicle traction: concentrated winding and distributed winding. Both have merits and demerits, and both influences the motor’s performance. Also the paper presents and analyses the experimental acoustic noise of AC motors controlled by drives using different PWM techniques. Five criteria are taken into account: motor…
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Squeak&Rattle - New Equivalent Static Load (ESL) based on Dynamic Distortion in all Body Openings from both Test and Simulation

AFRY-Viktor Jönsson
CEVT China Euro Vehicle Technology-Jens Weber, Mohamed Zaben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1556
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The body stiffness has a major impact on the Squeak&Rattle (S&R) performance of a car. Since the body structure of electrical/automated cars will differ clearly from traditional bodies, an enhanced requirement is needed to limit the distortion in the closure openings. The new requirement can be derived from a complete vehicle simulation using the deformation of the diagonals in the closure openings. This simulation includes different test tracks by using the dynamic road load data which can be obtained from a multi body simulation of a complete vehicle. Since the requirement needs to be applied early in the development only an untrimmed body model (BIG) is available, which can be used for a simplified static load. This paper shows a new approach of defining an equivalent static load (ESL), which considers both the reduction from a complete vehicle to a BIG and from a dynamic load to a static load. The approach is based on the comparison of the deformation in the diagonals of all closure openings between the dynamic simulation of a complete trimmed…
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Simulating and Optimizing the Dynamic Chassis Forces of the Audi e-tron

Audi AG-Stefan Uhlar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1521
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
With battery electric vehicles (BEV), due to the absence of the combustion process, the rolling noise comes even more into play. The BEV technology also leads to different concepts of how to mount the electric engine in the car. Commonly, also applied with the Audi e-tron, the rear engine is mounted on a subframe, which again is connected to the body structure. This concept leads to a better insulation in the high frequency range, yet it bears some problems in designing the mounts for ride comfort (up to 20Hz) or body boom (up to 70Hz). Commonly engine mounts are laid-out based on driving comfort (up to 20Hz). The current paper presents a new method to find an optimal mount design (concerning the stiffness) in order to reduce the dynamic chassis forces which are transferred to the body up to 100Hz. This directly comes along with a reduction of the sound pressure level for the ‘body boom’ phenomena. Here we use multibody simulation along with a sophisticated tire model in the time domain in order to…
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Reinforcement of Low-Frequency Sound by Using a Panel Speaker Attached to the Roof Panel of a Passenger Car

Hyundai Motor Company-Munhwan Cho
Korea Advanced Inst of Science & Tech-Ki-Ho Lee, Jeong-Guon Ih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1570
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The woofer in a car should be large to cover the low frequencies, so it is heavy and needs an ample space to be installed in a passenger car. The geometry of the woofer should conform to the limited available space and layout in general. In many cases, the passengers feel that the low-frequency contents are not satisfactory although the speaker specification covers the low frequencies. In this work, a thin panel is installed between the roof liner and the roof panel, and it is used as the woofer. The vibration field is controlled by many small actuators to create the speaker and baffle zones to avoid the sound distortion due to the modal interaction. The generation of speaker and baffle zones follows the inverse vibro-acoustic rendering technique. In the actual implementation, a thin acrylic plate of 0.53ⅹ0.2 m2 is used as the radiator panel, and the control actuator array is composed of 16 moving-coil actuators. The shape of the desired speaker zone is an ellipse, and the required amplitude of this piston source is…
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Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Thorsten Koch, Jonathan Millitzer, Georg Stoll, William Kaal PhD, Matthias Schmidt
Hyundai Motor Company-Joong-Kwan Kim, Jinmo Lee, Kang-Duck Ih, ChiSung Oh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1535
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures. A simulation model of the installed windshield is gained from an experimental modal analysis of both the windshield in free-free condition as well as in its installed configuration. The experimental data serves the frequency domain model update process of a finite element model of the installed windshield. A…
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Squeak Noise Prediction of a Door Trim Panel Using Harmonic Balance Method

ARRK Engineering-Arno Fuchs
TUM-Chair of Vibroacoustics-Steffen Marburg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1577
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Squeak and rattle noise in a vehicle's interior is perceived as an annoying sound by customers. Since persistent noise (e.g. engine, wind, or drive train noise) has been reduced continuously during the last decades, the elimination of sounds, which have their origin in the vehicle's interior components, is getting more important. Therefore, noise prediction based on simulation models is useful, since design changes can be realized at lower costs in early virtual development phases. For this task, linear simulation methods are state of the art for the identification of noise risk, but in general without knowing if a sound is audible or not. First approaches have been developed based on the Harmonic Balance Method to predict squeak noise and assess their audibility. This paper presents vibroacoustic measurements at a door trim panel for squeaking and non-squeaking configurations. Vibrations are excited harmonically by a force controlled low noise shaker. The system response is measured in a semi-anechoic chamber by acceleration sensors and audibility is assessed. Additionally, a 3D finite element model is built and the Harmonic…
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Numerical Investigation of Tonal Noise at Automotive Side Mirrors Due to Aeroacoustic Feedback

Daimler AG-Alexander Schell, Mark Eiselt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1514
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In addition to the typical broadband noise character of wind noise, tonal noise phenomena can be much more disruptive, regardless of the overall interior noise quality of the vehicle. Whistling sounds usually occur by flow over sharp edges and resonant gaps, but can also be caused by the feedback of sound waves with laminar boundary layers or separation bubbles and the resulting frequency-selective growth of boundary layer instabilities. Such aeroacoustic feedback can e.g. occur at the side mirror of a vehicle and one compellingly needs the coupling of acoustic and flow field. A compressible large eddy simulation (LES) is in principle suitable but one has to take care of any numerical artifacts which can disturb the entire acoustic field. This paper describes the possibility to resolve aeroacoustic feedback with a commercial 2nd/3rd order finite volume CFD code. A zonal RANS/LES approach is used to ensure a realistic flow around the exterior side mirror mounted at a Mercedes-Benz C-Class. The provided compressible LES are using non-reflecting boundary conditions in combination with a sponge zone approach to…