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Optimisation of assembly processes for Adhesive bonded Brackets onto the airframe structure

Airbus-Marco Chacin PhD, Ana De-Lozoya Nombela, Mark Burrows
Cranfield University-Jose Angel Gonzalez-Domingo, Philip Webb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1855
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft manufacturers use adhesive bonded brackets (ABB) to support wire harnesses, looms and sensors. Using ABBs eliminates the necessity to drill holes in the airframe and significantly reduces the assembly time. Such brackets are installed manually on the airframes in numerous locations using high strength epoxy based adhesives. In addition, the application of adhesive onto bracket is carried out manually. Thus it's time consuming and quality relies on operator’s skill sets to apply a certain quantity of adhesive using a predefined pattern, both of which are commonly not controlled. On the other hand, removing the damaged brackets by manual operations tend to cause dents and scratches in metallic airframes and delamination in composites. Prior research indicates that the brackets can be removed by heating them. But, they are not recommendable to aerospace manufacturers due to the longer process times. Therefore, it is vital to find a solution or methods to remove the ABBs without damaging any airframes. The scope of this research encompasses all the areas of design, technology and product development enabling a multi-disciplinary…
 

Differential expression of a new set of fluid dynamic equations in external aerodynamics

Sheffield Hallam Univ.-Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1866
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In former papers, a new set of fluid dynamic equations has been defined in the integral form. This set of equations accounts fluid dynamic phenomena in terms of Bejan number and the defined Bejan energy. In this paper, Navier Stokes equations have been formulated in terms of Bejan Number. A preliminary algorithm has been defined and automatic mesh criteria have been proposed. The solution is provided for the case of a fluid flow over a flat plane and in the case of a wing. Results have been compared against CFD and existing literature. An effective coincidence of the results has been obtained.
 

A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1963
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for airframe icing, the Messinger Model, by permitting a linear temperature gradient through the ice and water layers. This in turn allows prediction of the time over which water exists in isolation on an initially warm surface, before an ice layer forms. This is of particular interest to engine icing, as surfaces may initially be significantly above freezing temperature, before cooling on exposure to ice particles. The method is solved in a multi-step approach, where the overall exposure time…
 

Focus on challenges in SLD regime : reemitted droplets models

Dassault Aviation-Francois Caminade
Dassault-Aviation-Loïc frazza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2001
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A lot of studies have been carried out over the last decades on SLD ice accretion challenges. Many of them referred to modelling SLD physics like break-up, splashing, bouncing, etc… and rely on numerous physics experiments. Different models have been developed In Europe and North-America and have been implemented in several numerical tools, widely in 2D but more and more in 3D. As these tools are intended to be used increasingly among the community, deficiencies have to be deeper investigated. This paper provides some highlights on specific needs linked to SLD impingement and ice accretion, especially for 3D high fidelity computations. The computations presented in this paper are performed with the in-house code AeTher developed by Dassault Aviation. The special feature of this code is that it uses finite element method for solving the impingement and bouncing equations. This leads to some difficulties regarding the reemitted impingement. After presenting the models implemented within the droplet trajectory/impingement (Trontin & Villedieu, 2016), basic validation will be presented with direct impingement on classical geometries as NACA0012 and NACA23012…
 

Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1965
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry corresponds to the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA inhouse code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream. Predicted collection efficiency results are presented on various surfaces. The redistribution of particle sizes and mass…
 

SLD and Ice Crystal Discrimination with the Optical Ice Detector

Collins Aerospace-Kaare J. Anderson, Mark D. Ray
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1934
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent years have seen increased awareness within the aerospace community of icing hazards posed by conditions beyond those described by 14 CFR Part 25, Appendix C. Engine and airframe manufacturers are now required to certify their products for operation in the presence of supercooled large droplets (SLD) and high ice water content (HIWC) conditions, or alternatively, to implement a detect-and-exit strategy. The latter option implies a need for the capability of detecting Appendix C, SLD, and HIWC conditions, and to discriminate between them. The Optical Ice Detector (OID) technology under development at Collins Aerospace provides the ability to detect and differentiate Appendix C, Appendix O, and Appendix D conditions with a compact cloud lidar system. The OID’s ability to determine bulk cloud phase and water content has been previously demonstrated. Recent development efforts have focused on expanding the OID’s capabilities to also enable differentiation between small droplet clouds and bimodal clouds such as those described by Appendix O. This is enabled through statistical analysis of ensembles of individual lidar cloud reflection signals. Combined with the…
 

Simulations of Thin Film Dynamics on a Flat Plate and an Airfoil

Baylor University-Jordan Sakakeeny, Stephen T. McClain, Yue Ling
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1938
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the present study is to investigate the dynamics of a thin water film on a flat plate and an airfoil using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The first case for a wetted flat plate is used to model previous experimental results and numerically investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film. The second case for a thin film on a NACA 0012 airfoil of chord length 0.5 m is used to numerically investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film on a curved surface. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the liquid film and the air shear-layer above the film. As the incoming airflow moves over the thin water film, instability is triggered at the gas-liquid interface. Interfacial waves develop and are advected downstream. The interaction between the air flow and the interfacial waves induces shedding vortices near the interface, which in turn perturb the liquid film farther downstream. Simulations are performed using the open source multiphase flow solver, Gerris. The Gerris solver employ a finite-volume approach and the interface is…
 

Experimental and Computer Model Results for a Carbon Nanotubes Electrothermal De-Icing System

Embraer-Rodrigo Domingos
Embraer SA-Gilberto Becker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2005
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Results from three-dimensional computer models of a Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) based de-icing system are compared to experimental data obtained at UTAS-Ohio Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT). A prototype of the CNT based de-icing system being jointly developed by UTAS and EMBRAER was installed in a section of a business jet horizontal tail and tested in the IWT for a range of conditions. The 3D numerical analysis tools used in the comparisons are AIPAC and FENSAP-ICE®. The former was derived from an anti-icing model developed at Wichita State University in 2010. AIPAC uses the finite volumes method for the solution of the icing problem on an airfoil leading edge (or other 3D surfaces) and relies on CFD solvers to obtain the external flow properties used as boundary conditions. The latter is a computer code for icing simulations currently commercialized by ANSYS®. Both tools are capable of predicting 3D multi-step ice shapes under rime, glaze and mixed regimes, and can also deal with the complex dynamics of cyclic ice accretion, melting, and shedding present in the realm of…
 

Frostwing Co-Operation in Aircraft Icing Research

Aalto University-Pekka Koivisto
Federal Aviation Adminstration-Thomas Bond
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1973
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Finnish Transport Safety Agency signed a Research Agreement in aircraft icing research in 2015 and started a research co-operation in frost formation studies, computational fluid dynamics for ground de/anti-icing fluids, and de/anti-icing fluids aerodynamic characteristics. The main effort has been so far on the formation and aerodynamic effects of CSFF. To investigate the effects a HL-CRM wing wind tunnel model, representing the wing of a modern jet aircraft, was built including a wing tank cooling system. Real frost was generated on the wing in a wind tunnel test section and the frost thickness was measured with an Elcometer gauge. Frost surface geometry was measured with laser scanning and photogrammetry. The aerodynamic effect of the frost was studied in a simulated aircraft take-off sequence, in which the speed was accelerated to a typical rotation speed and the wing model was then rotated to an angle of attack used at initial climb. Time histories of the lift coefficient were measured with a force balance. Time histories of the upper surface…
 

Motivation, Development and Verification of a Rapid 3D Lagrangian Impingement Code – Trajectory and Catch 3D+ (TAC3D+)

AeroTex UK-Ian Roberts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2011
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the motivation, development and validation of a rapid 3D Lagrangian impingement code, Trajectory and Catch 3D+ (TAC3D+). AeroTex’s motivation to develop a 3D Lagrangian method was primarily driven by the inherent mesh dependent dissipation effect found in their 3D Eulerian Water Catch code (EWC) [1]. Studies performed by AeroTex have shown that for geometries where there are aft impingement regions that are partly shadowed by a more forward impingement region, the level of water flux dissipation can be significant, particularly if the mesh is coarse and the impingement region is far aft. Examples of issues where this may be a particular issue would be impingement on a centerline aft mounted engine or the calculation of impingement on the wing root/belly fairing. The code has been developed around a modified version of the OpenFOAM Lagrangian solver. The analysis process consists of three main phases; a coarse droplet trajectory calculation to identify the region of interest, a refined trajectory calculation that is sufficiently refined to calculate local water collection and a surface water collection…