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A Localization System for Autonomous Driving: Global and Local Location Matching based on Mono-SLAM

  • Tongji Univ. - Zhijun Xu, Sihan CHEN, Jie Bai, Libo Huang, Xin Bi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1610
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) technique was extended from the robotics to the autonomous vehicles for achieving the positioning. However, SLAM cannot obtain the global position of the vehicle but a relative one to the start. For sake of this, a fast and accurate system was proposed to obtain both the local position and the global position of vehicles based on mono-SLAM which realized the SLAM by using monocular camera with a lower cost and power consumption. Firstly, the rough latitude and longitude of current position was obtained by using common GPS without differential signal. Then, the Mono-SLAM operated on the consecutive video frames to generate the localization and local trajectory map and its accuracy was further improved by utilizing the IMU information. After that, a piece of Map centered in the rough position obtained by common GPS was downloaded from the Open Street Map. Finally, a searching process in the downloaded Map was executed by using chamfer matching algorithm to find a piece of path matched with the constructed trajectory…

Development of a Level 3 Autonomous Driving Vehicle System

  • Beijing Jingwei HiRain Tech Ltd. - junliang xue, guoqiang wan, Yanwu Ge, zhongfu zhang, lubin pan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1597
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
A level-3 autonomous driving system is developed in this thesis. Major sensors applied include a Mobileye camera, a Velodyne 16 channels LiDAR and five millimeter-wave radars (a long range and four short range). The camera is used to detect lanes, pedestrians, cyclists and cars. While the LiDAR is used to locate the vehicle, provide the free space and detect obstacles. Meanwhile, the radars are responsible for the surrounding perception. These three kinds of sensors are redundant with each other in obstacle detection. Besides, a navigation system including high-definition map is applied to guide the vehicle with a preplanned path. The software system is mainly composed of an environment perception module, a behavior decision module, a motion planning module and a longitudinal and lateral control module. The environment perception module fuses the sensors information firstly and then determines the most relevant obstacle, free space segment and lanes to the target path. The behavior decision module decides the vehicle behavior on the basis of its location and surrounding for the next period until a new decision is…

Millimeter-wave Automotive Radar Target Detection Algorithm Based on Spatial Compressive Sensing

  • SAIC Motor - zhen Chen
  • Tongji Univ - Yang Yin, Jie Bai, Libo Huang, Xin Bi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1621
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Millimeter wave automotive radar is one of the most important sensors in the advanced driver assistance system(ADAS) and autonomous driving system,which detects the target vehicles around the ego vehicle via processing transmitted and echo signals. However, the classical radar signal processing methods’ sampling frequency is very high, because the Shannon Nyquist sampling theorem which requires the sampling frequency of IF signal must be greater than the double of IF signal frequency is used to determine the sampling frequency of the IF signal. Besides, for the classical radar signal processing methods, the resolution of range, velocity and azimuth can’t meet the requirement of highly automated driving, especially azimuth. In order to solve these problems, a new novel MIMO(multiple-input multiple-output) radar target detection algorithm based on compressive sensing in the spatial domain is proposed in this paper. Because the radar target vehicles are highly sparse in the whole space background, therefore in the 3D space of range-doppler-azimuth, radar target vehicles are also highly sparse. So the problem of target detection of range, velocity and azimuth can be…

Automatic Azimuth Alignment for Automotive Radar

  • HUAYU AOTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS CO.LTD. - Jianying Guo, Shuangsuo Sun, Kun Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1606
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
The world has witnessed the rapid development of the Advanced Driver Assist System (ADAS) industry over the past few years. Radar, as one of the most important sensors in ADAS due to the high penetration, all-weather characteristic and low cost, is studied intensively and will be applied on a large scale. Automobile radar has many applications like ACC (Advanced Cruise Control) BSD (Blind Spot Detection), LCA (Lane Change Assistant), etc., and the accuracy of the radar target detection influences the performance of ADAS. In general, range, velocity, azimuth angle and other target attributions are measured by the automotive radar, and the accuracy of the azimuth angle is more easily affected by the environment than other attributions. For the automotive radar, it is usually equipped either near a front bumper, or near a left rear and right rear bumper. Due to the small accidents which happened frequently and/or vibration in the course of vehicle driving, it will regularly lead to a misalignment azimuth angle, and will cause significant performance degradation of ADAS. To effectively solve this…

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

  • Journal
  • V127-9EJ
Published 2018-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the Journal

Managing Increasing Exhaust System Variants for Passenger Vehicles

  • Eberspaecher Exhaust Technology GmbH - Jan Krueger, Peter Wink, Manfred Nicolai, Bernd Westerhoff
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1557
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

In all major markets, the legislation on emissions (CO2, NOx, and PM) and on pass-by noise limits have been drastically lowered over the last years and will be even lower in the near future. This will have an enormous impact on the design of future passenger cars, their powertrains, and finally their exhaust systems with an inherent cost penalty. Moreover, the individual market requirements in Europe, Asia and the Americas differ in some respect often calling for individual variants. The increasing number of vehicle models and platform derivatives e.g. sedan, hatchback, coupe, convertible, sports utility vehicle, cross-over etc. leads to a huge variety of exhaust systems even within a single OEM platform let alone a whole OEM product portfolio. This causes significant effort in development, tooling, manufacturing, part handling, and logistics. The Active Noise Cancellation technology (ANC) has been investigated in the automotive industry for many years. The basic principles are well understood and active engine mounts as well as in-cabin active noise cancellation are in series production for a few years. For exhaust muffler systems, several studies at prototype level have demonstrated technical feasibility and resulted in substantial benefits for acoustical performance and sound design. Moreover, advantages in package space, weight, and backpressure have been demonstrated for different engines. In this publication, an overview of different active exhausts compared to conventional cold-end systems will be given and the advantages in development time, reduction in the number of variants and possible cost impacts will be analyzed.

Development of Mass Producible ANC System for Broad-Band Road Noise

  • Hyundai Motor Company - ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih, Jinmo Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1561
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States

The mass producible broad-band ANC system for road noise is developed with fully digital control system. For this configuration, installation packages are intensively considered by minimizing size of the controller, simplifying wiring system and implementing virtual microphone techniques. Virtual microphone technique enables error microphone to be installed in remote position of driver’s ear, and therefore, increases installation degree of freedom significantly. To enhance noise control performance with the minimum latency, filter design of FxLMS algorithm is optimized while additional audio compensation techniques are applied to maintain audio performance of amplifier. The present ANC system is equipped to HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) new release of hydrogen driven vehicle, which is introduced in the technology promotion event in Pyeongchang Olympic 2018.

Experiences Tuning an Augmented Power Unit Sound System for both Interior and Exterior of an Electric Car

  • Ricardo UK, Ltd. - Matthew Maunder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1489
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A system for realistic augmentation of power unit sound has been applied to an electric car. Augmented interior sound has been shown to be a powerful enabler for the acceptance and appeal of electric cars. In some territories augmented exterior sound is a legal requirement, to provide a safe urban environment particularly for vision-impaired pedestrians. An accelerometer located on the electric motor casing provides a live-streamed signal from the power unit that conveys authentic and genuine information. The sound’s level and frequency content are modulated by acceleration demand and vehicle speed signals respectively, thus tapping into the existing ‘language’ of car sound. Inside the car, this enriches the dynamic driving experience during spirited driving, while retaining acoustic comfort under cruising. The sound's harmonic content can be enhanced and tuned to provide a variety of sonic timbres, reinforcing a wide range of brand and product images, although flexibility is limited to an extent due to the authentic sound source. Outside the car, a balance can be found between informing pedestrians effectively and avoiding environmental noise pollution.…

Stop whistling! A note on fluid driven whistles in flow ducts.

  • Escenda Engineering AB - Mikael Karlsson
  • KTH CCGEx - Mats Abom
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1524
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
The generation mechanism and possible counter measures for fluid driven whistles in low Mach number flow duct networks are discussed. The vortex sound model, where unstable shear layers interact with the acoustic field and act as amplifiers under certain boundary conditions, is shown to capture the physics well. Further, for the system to actually whistle an acoustic feedback to the amplifying shear layer is also needed. The demonstration example in this study is a generalized resonator configuration with annular volumes attached to a straight flow duct via a number of small holes, perforations, around the duct’s circumference. At each hole a shear layer is formed and the acoustic reflections from the resonator volumes and the up and downstream sides provides a possible feedback to them. The attenuation properties as well as the whistling frequencies at varying inlet mean flow velocities for this system are studied both numerically and experimentally showing that good quality predictive simulations are possible using the vortex sound theory. Finally a few countermeasures against whistling are tested. Both the feedback and the…

Localization of BSR Noise Source Using the Improved 3D Intensity Method

  • Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology - In-Jee Jung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1530
Published 2018-06-13 by SAE International in United States
A three-dimensional sound intensity probe is employed to identify the components generating the buzz, squeak, and rattle (BSR) noise in the vehicle interior. The 3D intensity probe is advantageous compared to the beamforming or TDOA method: compact overall size, small number of microphones, low-frequency detection capability. Although the 3D sound intensity has been not popular due to various bias errors, but the recent error compensation method is adopted in the work, improving the estimate precision substantially. The filtered cross-power spectral density is used to calculate the intensity avoiding the spectral bias error, and an error map for spatial angles is used to compensate the difference in directivity index around the microphone array. An intensity probe with an even microphone spacing of 30 mm in tetrahedral arrangement is selected for the source localization. The car interior space is a dead room in terms of absorption, but the reverberation effect cannot be neglected due to small space. Experiments are conducted to estimate the artificially generated noise representing the characteristics of each buzz, squeak, rattle noise. The estimated…