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Simulation of the Effect of Altitude and Rotational Speed on Transient Temperatures of Rotating Components

  • FCA US LLC-Dipan Arora
  • OPTUMATICS, LLC-Muhanad Hendy, AbdelRahman Hekal
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-01-0003
To be published on 2019-03-29 by SAE International in United States
During vehicle development process, it is required to estimate potential thermal risk to vehicle components. Several authors have addressed this topic in earlier studies [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. For evaluation of potential thermal issues, it is desired to estimate the component temperature profile for a given duty cycle. Therefore, the temperature and exposure time at each temperature have to be estimated for each vehicle duty cycle. The duty cycle represents the customer usage of the vehicle for a variety of vehicle speeds and loadings. In this article, we focus on thermal simulation of rotating components such as prop shaft, drive shaft, and half shaft boots. Though these components temperatures can be measured in drive cell or road trips, the instrumentation is usually a complicated task. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they either require physical contact or cannot withstand high-temperature environment in the vehicle underhood or underbody. In this article, a numerical transient thermal analysis for a rotating shaft in the presence of a radiation heat source is presented.…

Tests with a Dynamometer Related to the Determination of Energy Consumption, Dynamic Behaviour, and Slippage of Vehicles

  • University OAS Konstanz-Michael Butsch, Jonas Dettling, Carl-Gustav Ritz, Andreas Wizgall
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0352
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
At the University of Applied Sciences Konstanz, Germany, a modern electronically controlled dynamometer and several cars are available for tests. Numerous studies have been carried out, and the latest results will be presented. The paper is intended to explain different tests under load. One focus is the driving cycle WLTC (Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle) and the requirements for the proper conduct of investigation with this driving cycle. Two and three wheelers have a great importance for mobility in various Asian countries. But also in other countries, this segment is very important for the so-called First or Last Mile Vehicles. Because of this, a short explanation of the driving cycle WMTC (Worldwide harmonized Motorcycle Emissions Certification/Test Procedure) is given. The various possibilities for the operation of the dynamometer and for carrying out various experiments are shown. Other important figures that can be determined on a dynamometer are the wheel power, the power losses and eventually the engine performance. With the brake specific torque, the traction force at the propelled wheels, the maximum acceleration or…

Prediction and Resolution of Vehicle In-Cab Noise Due to Powertrain Induced Excitations

  • Tata Motors Ltd-Uttam Titave
  • Tata Technologies Ltd-Shailesh Lakshe, Kishore Chittilla, Manoj Raut
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0177
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle NVH is one of the critical performance quality parameter and it consists of vibration levels at tactile points and noise levels at ear locations for different vehicle running conditions. There are many sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle and powertrain is one of the main source. Therefore, it is important to understand and resolve powertrain induced noise and vibration issues at early design stage with efficient simulation techniques. The work presented here deals with the use of systematic CAE approach for prediction and resolution of structure borne in-cab noise due to powertrain excitations. During NVH testing of SUV vehicle, boom noise is observed at low frequency. Detailed full vehicle level simulation model consisting of Vibro-acoustic Trimmed BIW, Front and Rear Suspension and Driveline with Powertrain modal model is build. Powertrain forces due to Inertia and Combustion are applied at CG of Powertrain Modal model and in-cab noise at driver ear location (DEL) is predicted. Predicted 2EO in-cab noise shows good correlation with test. Root cause analysis carried out using various techniques such…

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

  • IAV GmbH-Andre Uhle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0140
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low cost AMT approach is equipped with a 48V electric motor and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A low number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric motor and an electro mechanic actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet the emission fleet targets of the future, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. Beside this low cost drivetrain approach, IAV has developed an electro mechanic AMT-kit to convert current manual transmissions easily into automated transmissions. Only this small technology change can cause a fuel consumption benefit of up to 5%. The advantage of an electro mechanic AMT-kit compared to today’s well-known hydraulic actuation systems is the easy-to-mount and…

Steering Control of the Off-highway Vehicles

  • IIT Bombay-Srikant Sukumar
  • John Deere India Pvt Ltd-Bharat Joshi, Vinit Jawale, Ojas Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0108
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Steering is integral system of any vehicle to achieve direction control. With driver's inputs, as steering wheel is turned, the steering mechanism is operated to turn the road wheels to route the vehicle on desired path. This Paper studies the different steering architectures and the learning is applied to improve the Off-highway vehicles' steering control. Off-highway vehicles have traditionally been using Hydrostatic Power Steering (HPS) mechanism with no feedback controls. This mechanism consists of inherent limitations to vehicle efficiency, reliability and control preciseness. In this paper, HPS is modeled using 1D simulation tools from the system parameters and derived equations. The results are plotted and discussed to acknowledge the merits and demerits of existing system which helped in proposing the alternate steering solution. Different steering architectures are evaluated and trade-off study performed to choose the Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS) architecture. The mathematical equations behind the Electro-Hydraulic steering system are derived and couple of control strategies (like PID controller and state-feedback controller) are applied to minimize the error between commanded and actual road wheel angle. Non-linear…

Effect of Engine Bush Stiffness and Damping on Engine Shake Performance Using Virtual Simulation (MBD DOE) Approach

  • Maruti Suzuki India Limited-Sumit Kakria, Joydeep Chatterjee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0175
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Engine Shake is low frequency phenomenon which causes vehicle vibration mainly in vertical direction leading to discomfort to the driver/passenger. This is caused by excitation due to small irregularities on smooth road surface. Engine mounting system design plays an important role in the Shake performance of the vehicle. This paper describes the Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) modeling and simulation study of the vehicle to analyze the Shake performance using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. In the study, a 16 DOF configuration system model of the vehicle system is built using Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) simulation software ADAMS. The effect of change in Engine bush stiffness and damping on Floor displacement has been analyzed by carrying out DOE study using ADAMS. This is done to optimize the Engine bush parameters for improved Shake performance of the vehicle. Static Equilibrium analysis is done on MBD model to check the correct load distribution in the vehicle according to test condition. The input loads for Shake test is given as constant amplitude sine sweep excitation at Tire contact patch…

Failure Analysis and Multi Frequency Swept Sine Testing of Automotive Engine Oil Sump

  • Ashok Leyland Ltd.-Obuli Karthikeyan Narasimman, Raguram Mohan, Sriraman Srinivasan, Karthik Lakshminarayanan, Srinivasa Chandra Vadlamudi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0354
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Automotive business is more focused towards delivering a highly durable and reliable product at an optimum cost. Anything falls short of customer expectation will ruin the manufacturer’s reputation. To exterminate this, all automotive components shall undergo stringent testing protocol during the design validation process. Nevertheless, there are certain factors in the field which cannot be captured during design validation. This paper aims at developing a validation methodology for engine oil sump by simulating field failure. In few of our vehicles, field failure was observed in engine oil sump near the drain plug location. Preliminary analysis was carried out to find the potential causes for failure. Based on the engine test bed results, multi frequency swept sine testing was carried out in laboratory. Field failure was simulated in the lab test and the root causes for failure were found out. After the design modification, new oil sump samples were validated and achieved an improved life over the earlier design.

Investigation of Cabin Noise While Accelerating on Low MU Track Through Simulation Approach Using Full Vehicle ADAMS/Car Model

  • Tata Motors, Ltd.-Tej Prasad, Harshit Srivastava
  • Tata Technologies-Vivek Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0179
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Cabin noise is a significant product quality criteria which enables the customers for product differentiation. There are various reasons which leads to cabin noise such as wind, structures(panels), engine, suspension, tire and roads. During product development phase, extensive tests has been conducted to minimize cabin noise. One of such test is accelerating vehicle on low mu or icy surface. While performing acceleration maneuver(tractions) on a low mu tracks, Cabin noise and Low tractive torque build-up is reported. A detailed simulation based study using ADAMS/CAR has been performed to assess the contribution of various full vehicle sub-systems, primarily suspension & powertrain sub-system towards the said problem statement. The dynamic interaction between road, suspension, Powertrain and BIW has been is the focus of study both in time and frequency domain. This simulation helped understand the factor effects and contribution levels and correlates well with the subjective feel observed on the physical vehicle on low-mu track. This model has been further used to provide design recommendation on the compliance parameters to overcome the issue at hand. Test has…

Design, Analysis, Simulation And Development of a Ravigneaux Gear-Train

  • ARAI-Enanko Moulick, Kiran Wani, Karan Kapoor, Ankit Rawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0250
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
With increased vehicular traffic density a trend has been observed where customers have started preferring automatic transmission in place of its manual version. This Automatic transmission not only shifts the gear automatically, with the help of sensors and actuators, but they are also tuned for better performance of the vehicle in terms of fuel efficiency and emission. This all comes at the cost of power consumption from the battery, increment in cost, weight and complexity. The main parts of an automatic transmission include Torque Convertor, Sensors, Actuators, Transmission Control Unit (TCU) with the epicyclic gear-train being the heart of it. In terms of use in the automotive, a system of epicyclic gear-train can provide only 2 gear ratios. Ravigneaux gear-train is the modified version of epicyclic gear-train where there are two set of Planet gears and Sun gears or Ring gears thereby capable of giving 4 gear ratios with a single system. This paper discusses the design analysis and optimization of Ravigneaux Gear-train. To compare it with Simpson gear-train, simulation of both the gear-trains are…

Diagnosis and Elimination of Vehicle Lateral Shake in Passenger Car Through Modification of Driveshaft Joints and Engine Mount System

  • Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sandip Hazra, Ajit Kharade, Sunil Thakur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-26-0214
To be published on 2019-01-19 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lateral shake during take-off is sensitively felt by customers when the vehicle is driven at a low speed under drive away acceleration. The take-off shudder is complained by customers during 1st and 2nd gear take off. Under an engine torque and half shaft angle, the drive-away shudder usually occurs during acceleration to a specific low speed at 1200 to 1600 engine rpm, which makes the vehicle shakes severely. A thorough investigation with possible design optimization of mounting system, drive shaft joint and lubrication is done to reduce the lateral vibration. This paper focuses on a passenger car, the take-off shudder of which occurs at the speeds between20Km/h and 30Km/h. The test vehicle is a monocoque construction with front wheel drive east west engine. Vehicle lateral shake is observed during the low gear power train run up in Wide Open Throttle (WOT) condition. The lateral shake is felt predominantly on the front half of the vehicle which is easily perceivable by passenger. The paper discusses the measurement and analysis procedures to identify the root cause…