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SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

  • Journal
  • V127-9EJ
Published 2018-06-15 by SAE International in United States
This is the electronic format of the Journal

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cooling Airflow for Different Front-End Designs of a Heavy-Duty Cab-over-Engine Truck

  • Chalmers University of Technology - Helena Martini
  • Volvo Group Trucks Technology - Peter Gullberg
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-9178
Published 2018-04-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the analysis of cooling airflow for two different front-end designs of a heavy truck. The first design is a cab-over-engine (COE) cab; the second is a Soft Nose (SN) cab, which in this case is basically an elongation of the grille area of the COE cab to obtain a smoother shape of the cab. The SN model used in this investigation was extended 200mm from the COE front. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used as the tool for examining the aerodynamic properties of the vehicle models. The configurations were evaluated both with inactive and active heat exchangers, in order to examine the effect of heating the air on the drag co-efficient and also to determine the cooling capacity of the different models. A sub- study was performed where different opening percentages of the grille area was investigated to determine the minimum percentage opening that would be needed to achieve a radiator Top Tank Temperature (TTT) value below a target limit of 100°C. The results show that there was potential for drag…

A novel ICE ON/OFF control strategy for hybrid electric bus based on route information

  • Shanghai Jiaotong University - Bin Yan
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-9075
Published 2018-04-13 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: ICE ON/OFF control strategy is critical for fuel economy in the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). The fuel cumsumption cut off at ICE is at OFF state when the vehicle stops especially at vehicle jams. It significantly profits for more fuel saving. Motor-only drive mode is rarely used in real-time control because of the power system meet the uncertain driver demand. Battery state of charge (SOC) balance also affects ICE ON/OFF control decision. ICE ON/OFF state optimization is still a critical problem that is rarely effectively resolved. Minimum Principle was used in real-time control and has a global optimization in many papers. However, there is no paper to apply this algorithm in ICE ON/OFF control optimization. This paper introduces a novel control method using Minimum Principle to select an appropriate ICE state, which extracts rules from the optimal results applied to real-time control based on predicted route information. Experiments prove proposed route-based control significantly improves the fuel economy. Compare to the conventional control strategy, route- based control has 18.0% fuel cut, very close to DP-based…

Design harmonization techniques to model vehicle lightweighting across diverse powertrains

  • Booz Allen Hamilton - Anne Marie Lewis
  • University of Michigan - Gregory Keoleian
  • Show More
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-9076
Published 2018-04-13 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle lightweighting and advanced powertrains, including hybrid electric systems and high efficiency engines, have the potential to increase fuel economy and decrease life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the energy and GHG impact over the entire vehicle life cycle is dependent on the energy and emissions required to produce lightweight materials and fuels. Recent work has used life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate diverse vehicles and fuels using a novel design harmonization technique. The current work describes this approach in further detail and provides an example of its application for a moderate lightweighting scenario for an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). This type of apples-to-apples comparison is enabled by functional equivalency metrics, which are defined as part of the design harmonization technique and held constant across all vehicles. The technique also establishes a process to account for mass and materials differences for conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. For instance, the structural support that is required for heavier powertrains is assessed and found to…

Challenges of Hydraulic Engine Mount development for NVH Refinement

  • Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd. - Chiranjit Ghosh, Aashish Parmar, Joydeep Chatterjee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0681
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
NVH refinement of passenger vehicle is essential to customer acceptance for premium or even mid-size segment passenger cars. Hydraulic engine mount is becoming common for these segments to reduce engine bounce, idle shake and noise transfer to passenger cabin. Modern layout of hydraulic mount with integrated engine-bracket and smaller size insulator has made it cost-effective to use due to reduction of cost gap from conventional elastomeric mounts. However the downsizing and complex internal structure may create some new types of noises in passenger cabin which are very difficult to identify in initial development stage. Main purpose of hydraulic mount is to provide high damping at low-frequency range (6~15Hz) and to isolate noise transfer from combustion engine to passenger cabin within wide frequency range (15~600Hz).This paper emphasizes on challenges and problems related to hydraulic mount development. Tuning of Hydraulic mount is required to avoid cavitation noise at low-frequency and also any abnormal noise due to hydraulic unit resonance at higher frequency. Design measures to curb NVH problems, e.g. cavitation noise, bump noise of mount stopper, resonance…

Development and Validation of a Submodel for Thermal Exchanges in the Hydraulic Circuits of a Global Engine Model

  • Universitat Politècnica de València - Alberto Broatch, Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Josep Salvador-Iborra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0160
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
To face the current challenges of the automotive industry, there is a need of computational models capable to reproduce the engine behavior at low-temperature and low-pressure conditions. Internal combustion engines are complex and interconnected systems where many processes take place and influence each other. In this work, different models were developed and set-up to make possible the simulation of hydraulic circuits and the heat transfer processes taking place among them and the other engine elements. After its development, the models were implemented in a global 0D engine model. Engine simulations were compared with steady-state tests and the WLTP cycle. Trends of coolant and oil temperatures and flow rates were correctly predicted.

A Study on Real Driving Emissions for India - An Experimental Approach

  • Maruti Suzuki, Limited - Himanshu Dinodia, Nitin Mahajan, Vipin Dwivedi, Vikram Khanna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0339
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States

Indian automobile industry is set to witness the biggest emission reforms of the last two decades with the implementation of BS6 emission norms from 1st April 2020 and Real Drive Emissions (RDE) from 1st April 2023. However, there are still a lot of unanswered questions regarding the test procedure of RDE for India. For India, adapting European RDE test procedure as it is may be a challenge because of the significant differences between India & Europe in terms of weather, geography, demography, road infrastructure, driving behaviour and fuel quality. This paper discusses the detailed experimental results of Real Drive Emission tests analyzing after-treatment system configurations (LNT, sDPF, ufSCR) considering different scenarios such as test routes, test days, driving behaviour etc. Variation in trip dynamics (Severity, Softness in driving), trip validity & normality and post-processed results are other key points of interests investigated. The overall activity provided great insights into various technical aspects of doing a Real Drive Emission Test in Indian Conditions, and the learning derived will be of immense value for future design & development.

Symmetric Negative Valve Overlap effects on energy distribution of a single cylinder HCCI engine

  • University of Alberta - Khashayar Ebrahimi, Charles Koch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1250
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine energy distribution and waste heat recovery are investigated using a fully flexible Electromagnetic Variable Valve Timing (EVVT) system. The experiment is carried out in a single cylinder, 657 cc, port fuel injection engine fueled with n-heptane. Exergy analysis is performed to understand the relative contribution of different loss mechanisms in HCCI engines and how VVT changes these contributions. It is found that HCCI engine brake thermal efficiency, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) power to heat ratio, the first and the second law efficiencies are improved with proper valve timing. Further analysis is preformed by applying the first and second law of thermodynamics to compare HCCI energy and exergy distribution to Spark Ignition (SI) combustion using Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). HCCI demonstrates higher fuel efficiency and power to heat and energy loss ratios compared to SI. The results are applicable for the development of micro-CHP systems work with HCCI engine operating at a constant engine speed with varying loads.

Strategies for Meeting Phase 2 GHG and Ultra-Low NOx Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

  • FEV Inc. - Mufaddel Dahodwala, Satyum Joshi, Erik W. Koehler, Michael Franke, Dean Tomazic
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-1429
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
When considered along with Phase 2 GHG requirements, the proposed ARB NOx emission limit of 0.02 g/bhp-hr will be very challenging to achieve as the trade-off between fuel consumption and NOx emissions is not favorable. To meet any future ultra-low NOx emission regulation the NOx conversion efficiency during cold start emission test cycles needs to be improved. In such a scenario, apart from changes in aftertreatment layout and formulation, additional heating measures will be required. In this paper, a physics-based model for an advanced aftertreatment system comprising of a DOC, an SDPF, a standalone SCR and an ammonia slip catalyst were calibrated against experimental data. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate different advanced aftertreatment systems comprising of an electrically heated catalyst, mini-burner, fuel dosing, passive NOx adsorber and ammonia injection. The advanced aftertreatment system capable of meeting the 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOx emission target with minimum fuel consumption penalty was then coupled to two advanced engine models. Both engine models met the 2027 Phase 2 GHG emission standards using advanced technology packages comprising of…

Modeling and Validation of Roots type Supercharger using GT-Suite

  • Bosch Ltd. - Pradhan S, Jeemon P. K.
  • Technical Paper
  • 2018-01-0164
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Superchargers are engine driven positive displacement devices which increase the air mass flow into the engine, thereby leading to better combustion. This gives an advantage of extracting more power from the same engine, thereby reducing emissions and achieving a better fuel economy. With emission norms getting more and more stringent, the need for boosting engine intake air becomes very important. The roots type supercharger works on the principle of backflow compression, where in, air in a plenum at higher constant pressure leaks into chambers which discharge air into this plenum. This discharge of air from chambers is effected by rotating members called lobes in a close toleranced housing, thereby forming chambers. Since the rotors rotate at high speeds, safe clearances must be maintained between housing and rotors. These clearances result in axial ad radial leakage paths between chambers which lead to a reduction in mass flow rate for the said pressure ratio. A 1-dimensional model of supercharger gives flexibility of choosing the right aspect ratio (length to the diameter of the rotor), deciding on the…