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Higher Cruise Speed Commercial Aircraft Evolution

Director-New Product Development, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, Seattle, Washington-A. J. Anderson
Published 1986-11-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper addresses the technology developments and business conditions necessary for launching subsonic commercial transports in today's business environment. The possibilities for a second-generation SST and the potential economic payoff using evolving technology are discussed. The evolution of the first-generation high speed commercial transports is reviewed by looking back at the Concorde and U.S. SST development activity. Then, the technical requirements and evolution necessary for a second-generation SST are reviewed and, finally, observations of technology challenges facing hypersonic commercial transportation are made.
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Hydraulic Component for High Pressure Hydraulic Systems

Vickers, Inc.-John Halat
Published 1986-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Design considerations that 8000 psi and non-flammable fluids have upon aircraft hydraulic pumps and motors are presented. The influence of one non-flammable fluid, chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) is discussed.The employment of variable displacement pressure scheduled pumps and variable displacement motors is shown to provide significant savings in power and heat generation.The paper includes a summary of the high pressure and non-flammable fluid operating experience on both pumps and motors. A review of a unified method in presenting test data at high pressure is presented.The paper concludes with an update summaries of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base contract for three 40 gpm, 8000 psi CTFE pumps as well as the test time for Model PV3-047 pump operating at 8000 psi on the Navy Lightweight Hydraulic System (LHS) test.
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Tire and Runway Surface Research

NASA Langley Research Center-Thomas J. Yager
Published 1986-11-01 by SAE International in United States
The condition of aircraft tires and runway surfaces can be crucial in meeting the stringent demands of aircraft ground operations, particularly under adverse weather conditions. Gaining a better understanding of the factors influencing the tire/pavement interface is the aim of several ongoing NASA Langley research programs which are described in this paper. Results from several studies conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility, tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and some recent aircraft accident investigations are summarized to indicate effects of different tire and runway properties. The Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program is described together with some preliminary test findings. The scope of future NASA Langley research directed towards solving aircraft ground operational problems related to the tire/pavement interface is given.
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Supersonic Cruise Technology Roadmap

NASA Headquarters Washington, DC-Roger L. Winblade
Published 1986-11-01 by SAE International in United States
One of the three National Aeronautical R&D Goals of the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy was the attainment of long-distance supersonic cruise capability. NASA was asked to lead the development of a “Technology Roadmap” for this goal. The roadmap identified critical technology elements that need to be pursued and provided an outline of the most effective approach for achieving technology readiness. The effort, briefly addressed in this paper, was intended to provide a first top level framework to support the preparation of more detailed technical plans through the combined efforts of private and public sectors of the aeronautics community.
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Aircraft Fire Safety Overview

Civil Aviation Authority-Lionel C. Virr
Published 1986-11-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides an overview of the design precautions utilized by aircraft designers to minimise the risk of fire in transport category passenger aircraft, as a means of demonstrating compliance with the relevant airworthiness standards.
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A Situation Display of Traffic Information

Air Line Pilots Association-Jack D. Howell
Published 1986-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The need for an effective airborne collision system has already been established. In response the FAA has developed a three-member family of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems for use by the full spectrum of aircraft. The performance of the systems depends upon the presentation of the TCAS information to the crew in such a way that it can be used effectively in an operational environment. These presentations need to be easy to comprehend and representative of real-world relationships--in a word, intuitive.This paper discusses the need for intuitiveness in the TCAS display. It reviews fundamental principles of perception, critiques the existing TCAS II display, and urges the application of innovative techniques in the design of future systems.
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Versatile Simulation Testbed for Rotorcraft Speech I/O System Design

Psycho-Linguistic Research Associates, Menlo Park, CA-Carol A. Simpson
Published 1986-10-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design for a versatile simulation testbed for rotorcraft speech I/O system design. This design will be implemented in the U.S. Army's Crew Station Research and Development Facility (CSRDF) under the direction of the Crew Station Research and Development Office, Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, OS Army Aviation Research and Technology Activity, NASA Ames Research Center. This testbed will be used to study alternative implementations of synthesized speech displays and speech recognition controls for the next generation of Army helicopters, including the LHX.
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The Advantages of a Primary Flight Display

International Federation of Air Line Pilots Associations (IFALPA)-J.E. Hutchinson
Published 1986-10-13 by SAE International in United States
With the advent of CRT displays in the cockpits of civil transport aircraft, the opportunity is now here to provide pilots with more meaningful information than could be done with the old electro-mechanical instruments. If this is done in an intelligent and well-researched manner, a significant advance in safety and operating efficiency can be gained. There is no advantage in simply reproducing the conventional attitude indicator and flight director on the CRT screen.The object of this presentation is to describe the innovative features of one type of primary flight display (PFD) with which the author has experience and to discuss the advantages it provides over conventional instrumentation from the viewpoint of a line pilot and flight instructor. This PFD is one component of the electronic flight instrument system'(EFIS) which is standard on the current series of Airbus models.
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Presentation of Information on Multifunction Displays: Abnormal and Emergency Spacecraft Operations

McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co.-Gary Gershzohn
Published 1986-10-13 by SAE International in United States
The capability of a multifunction display system to present data regarding malfunctioning manned spacecraft systems is illustrated. The development of formats for abnormal operations is based on the correspondence between cognitive requirements of the crewmember and displayed information. Three different stages of cognitive processing are identified and associated spacecraft formats are developed. System architecture provides for the display of required information tailored to crewmember requirements in identifying, understanding, and solving malfunctions via a simple multifunction display interface.Two sets of formats were produced which illustrate traditional display strategies and cognitive representations. Formats were presented to subjects using a slide projector and data were collected to identify any significant differences between the two methods of information display. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in performance which were attributed to use straightforward failure modes and effects. Cognitive representations are expected to be associated with superior performance for complex malfunctions.
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Flying Complex Approach Paths Using the microwave Landing System

NASA Langley Research Center-Charles E. Knox
Published 1986-10-13 by SAE International in United States
A piloted simulation study was conducted to examine the requirements for using electromechanical flight instrumentation to provide guidance for manually controlled flight along complex, curved approach paths within the microwave landing system signal coverage. The data from these tests indicated that flight director guidance is required for the manually controlled flight of a jet transport airplane on complex, curved approach paths. Each of the three guidance algorithms tested could be used to fly the paths. However, pilot comments indicated that the use of guidance based on capturing the next straight path segment may not be acceptable since full-scale lateral deflections normally resulted during turns. Pilot comments indicated that all the approach paths tested could be used in normal airline operations. Approach paths with both multiple, sequential turns and short final path segments were demonstrated.
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