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Development of a Reusable, Rate-Sensitive Abdomen for the Hybrid III Family of Dummies

Aerotek Scientific-Anthony Walbridge
First Technology Safety Systems-Ali M. Elhagediab
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
The objective of this work was to develop a reusable, rate-sensitive dummy abdomen with abdominal injury assessment capability. The primary goal for the abdomen developed was to have good biofidelity in a variety of loading situations that might be encountered in an automotive collision. This paper presents a review of previous designs for crash dummy abdomens, a description of the development of the new abdomen, results of testing with the new abdomen and instrumentation, and suggestions for future work. The biomechanical response targets for the new abdomen were determined from tests of the mid abdomen done in a companion biomechanical study. The response of the abdominal insert is an aggregate response of the dummy’s entire abdominal area and does not address differences in upper versus lower abdominal response, solid versus hollow organs, or organ position or mobility. While the abdomen developed has demonstrated good biofidelity in rigid bar, seat belt and airbag loading situations, some work remains to be done before it can be used in crash testing.
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Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Abdomen

Bioengineering Center, Wayne State University-Jong B. Lee, King H. Yang
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
Currently, three-dimensional finite element models of the human body have been developed for frequently injured anatomical regions such as the brain, chest, extremities and pelvis. While a few models of the human body include the abdomen, these models have tended to oversimplify the complexity of the abdominal region. As the first step in understanding abdominal injuries via numerical methods, a 3D finite element model of a 50th percentile male human abdomen (WSUHAM) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of side impact tests and a series of frontal impact tests. The model includes a detailed representation of the liver, spleen, kidneys, spine, skin and major blood vessels. Hollow organs, such as the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, gallbladder, bile ducts, ureters, rectum and adrenal glands are grouped into three bodybags in order to provide realistic inertial properties and to maintain the position of the solid organs in their appropriate locations. Using direct connections, the model was joined superiorly to a partial model of the human thorax, and inferiorly to…
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Material Properties for Modeling Traumatic Aortic Rupture

University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory-C. R. Bass, K. Darvish, B. Bush, J. R. Crandall, S. C. M. Srinivasan, C. Tribble, S. Fiser, L. Tourret, J. C. Evans, J. Patrie, C. Wang
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
Traumatic aortic rupture is a significant cause of fatalities in frontal automobile crashes. However, such ruptures are difficult to reproduce experimentally in cadaveric surrogates, and it is difficult to observe dynamic aortic response in situ. So, the aortic injury mechanism or mechanisms remains in dispute. This study is a staged investigation of the physical parameters and mechanisms of human aortic rupture. The investigation includes both experimental study of local and global viscoelastic properties and failure properties of aortas using aortic tissue samples, excised aortas in vitro, and whole human aortas in situ in cadaver thoraxes. This study is the first phase in a staged programme to develop a finite element computer model of aorta injury to examine the mechanisms of aorta injury in automobile crashes.The high-rate local biaxial properties of porcine aorta tissue are determined from samples taken from the isthmus region, the most common area of failure in traumatic aorta injury. Using porcine aortas, similar in structure and physical characteristics to human aortic tissue, biaxial oscillatory response is determined at large strains and high…
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Development and Evaluation of a New Rear-Impact Crash Dummy: The RID2

TNO Automotive, Delft, The Netherlands-H. Cappon, M. Philippens, M. van Ratingen, J. Wismans
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
Low severity neck injuries due to vehicle accidents are a serious problem in our society. In 1997 the European Whiplash project started with the aim to develop passive safety methodologies to reduce the frequency of neck injuries in rear-end impacts. This project has resulted, among others, in a rear impact crash dummy, the so-called RID2. The objective of this paper is present the design of this dummy and to present its performance in comparison with human volunteer and post mortem human subject (PMHS) tests. Also a comparison is made with the Hybrid III dummy in similar test conditions.In the comparison with human volunteers in a real car seat, both the RID2 and the Hybrid III showed realistic kinematics. Lower neck rotation as well as the typical S-shape in the neck were found in the RID2, but not in the Hybrid III dummy. Ramping up was not found in the Hybrid III, while the RID2 did show limited ramping up. The upper neck forces measured in both dummies were reasonably good in the regular car seat,…
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The Influence of Superficial Soft Tissues and Restraint Condition on Thoracic Skeletal Injury Prediction

Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers-Priya Prasad, Guy Nusholtz, Harold Mertz
University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory-Richard W. Kent, Jeff R. Crandall, James Bolton
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hard tissue injury -predictive value of various thoracic injury criteria when the restraint conditions are varied. Ten right-front passenger human cadaver sled tests are presented, all of which were performed at 48 km/h with nominally identical sled deceleration pulses. Restraint conditions evaluated are 1) force-limiting belt and depowered airbag (4 tests), 2) non-depowered airbag with no torso belt (3 tests), and 3) standard belt and depowered airbag (3 tests). Externally measured chest compression is shown to correspond well with the pre sence of hard tissue injury, regardless of restraint condition, and rib fracture onset is found to occur at approximately 25% chest compression. Peak acceleration and the average spinal acceleration measured at the first and eighth or ninth thoracic vertebrae are shown to be unrelated to the presence of injury, though clear variations in peaks and time histories among restraint conditions can be seen. The maximum viscous criterion is found to correspond with injury, but only because it increases with the maximum chest compression. A simple…
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A Comparison of the Hybrid III and BioRID II Dummies in Low-Severity, Rear-Impact Sled Tests

Members of the BioRID II Evaluation Task Group of the Occupant Safety Research Partnership/USCAR-A. Kim, K.F. Anderson, J. Berliner, C. Bryzik, J. Hassan, J. Jensen, M. Kendall, H.J. Mertz, T. Morrow, A. Rao, J.A. Wozniak
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
A BioRID II dummy and a Hybrid III dummy, each representative of a midsize adult male, were tested side-by-side in simulated rear-impact sled tests. In all tests the dummies were restrained by 3-point belt systems. The results of 4 test sets conducted at a nominal change in velocity (ΔV) of 16 km/hr are presented and discussed. In three of the test sets, bucket seats were used. The head restraints were placed in the up-position in two of the three test sets and in the down-position in the third set of tests. In the fourth test set, rigid seats without any head restraints were used. While analyzing the BioRID II data, the presence of an axial neck load acting on the head, which bypassed the upper neck load transducer, was discovered in all the reported tests. The implication of this observation is that the axial force and all the moments measured by the BioRID II upper neck load transducer could be erroneous. A second concern with the BioRID II data was the high frequency noise observed,…
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The Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Dummy

H. J. Mertz, K. Jarrett, S. Moss, M. Salloum, Y. Zhao
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
This paper describes the design and development of the Hybrid III 10-year-old crash test dummy. The size of the dummy was chosen to fill the gap between the Hybrid III 6-year-old and the Hybrid III small adult female dummy which is also about the size of a 13-year-old teenager. Characteristic dimensions and segment weights of the dummy are based on the anthropometry of the average 10-year-old. Biofidelity response guidelines for forehead, sternum and knee impacts and for fore/aft neck bending are scaled from the midsize adult male biofidelity guidelines taking into account the effects of differences in size, mass and material properties due to the age difference. The dummy is similar in construction to the other Hybrid III dummies except it has an adjustable lumbar spine which allows the dummy to slouch and its neck structure is aligned with its thoracic spine. Data are given showing the responses of the prototype dummy relative to its biofidelity guidelines. The prototype dummy was evaluated in out-of-position air bag tests and three-point belt tests to evaluate its durability…
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Investigation of Head Injury Mechanisms Using Neutral Density Technology and High-Speed Biplanar X-ray

Henry Ford Hospital Bone and Joint Specialty Center-Scott Tashman
Wayne State University Bioengineering Center-Warren N. Hardy, Craig D. Foster, Matthew J. Mason, King H. Yang, Albert I. King
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
The principal focus of this study was the measurement of relative brain motion with respect to the skull using a high-speed, biplanar x-ray system and neutral density targets (NDTs). A suspension fixture was used for testing of inverted, perfused, human cadaver heads. Each specimen was subjected to multiple tests, either struck at rest using a 152-mm-diameter padded impactor face, or stopped against an angled surface from steady-state motion. The impacts were to the frontal and occipital regions. An array of multiple NDTs was implanted in a double-column scheme of 5 and 6 targets, with 10 mm between targets in each column and 80 mm between columns. These columns were implanted in the temporoparietal and occipitoparietal regions. The impacts produced peak resultant accelerations of 10 to 150 g, and peak angular accelerations between 1000 and 8000 rad/s2. For all but one test, the peak angular speeds ranged from 17 to 22 rad/s. The relative 3D displacements between the skull and the NDTs were analyzed. The localized motions of the brain generally followed loop or figure eight…
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Mechanisms and Factors Involved in Hip Injuries During Frontal Crashes

Medical College of Wisconsin and VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI-Narayan Yoganandan, Frank A. Pintar, Thomas A. Gennarelli
US DOT, NHTSA, Washington, DC-Matthew R. Maltese, Rolf H. Eppinger
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
This study was conducted to collect data and gain insights relative to the mechanisms and factors involved in hip injuries during frontal crashes and to study the tolerance of hip injuries from this type of loading. Unembalmed human cadavers were seated on a standard automotive seat (reinforced) and subjected to knee impact test to each lower extremity. Varying combinations of flexion and adduction/abduction were used for initial alignment conditions and pre-positioning. Accelerometers were fixed to the iliac wings and twelfth thoracic vertebral spinous process. A 23.4-kg padded pendulum impacted the knee at velocities ranging from 4.3 to 7.6 m/s. The impacting direction was along the anteroposterior axis, i.e., the global X-axis, in the body-fixed coordinate system. A load cell on the front of the pendulum recorded the impact force. Peak impact forces ranged from 2,450 to 10,950 N. The rate of loading ranged from 123 to 7,664 N/msec. The impulse values ranged from 12.4 to 31.9 Nsec. Injuries were not apparent in three tests. Eight tests resulted in trauma. Fractures involving the pelvis including the…
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The Effects of Skull Thickness Variations on Human Head Dynamic Impact Responses

Ford Motor Company-Jesse Ruan, Priya Prasad
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
Variations in human skull thickness affecting human head dynamic impact responses were studied by finite element modeling techniques, experimental measurements, and histology examinations. The aims of the study were to better understand the influences of skull thickness variations on human head dynamic impact responses and the injury mechanisms of human head during direct impact.The thicknesses of the frontal bone of seven human cadaver skulls were measured using ultrasonic technology. These measurements were compared with previous experimental data. Histology of the skull was recorded and examined. The measured data were analyzed and then served as a reference to vary the skull thickness of a previously published three-dimensional finite element human head model to create four models with different skull thickness. The skull thicknesses modeled are 4.6 mm, 5.98 mm, 7.68 mm, and 9.61 mm.These models were impacted by a cylinder with a mass of 5.23 kg and an initial velocity of 6.33 m/s. Model responses were compared between models in terms of intracranial pressures, head impact accelerations, brain shear stresses, and skull von Mises stresses. It…
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