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Where Are All the Children Seated and When Are They Restrained?

Jack Edwards, Kaye Sullivan
Published 1997-05-05 by SAE International in United States
The restraint usage and seating location of children in crash-involved passenger cars were estimated using National Accident Sampling System (NASS) data. Whether drivers of cars were restrained or not appears to play a dominant role in whether child passengers were likewise restrained or not.Most infant passengers were restrained irrespective of driver restraint usage. In contrast, the restraint usage of older children was dramatically influenced by the driver's restraint usage. If the driver was restrained, restraint usage by children dropped only slightly. If, however, the driver was unrestrained, restraint usage by children dropped by an order of magnitude This precipitous drop in restraint usage appears to have occurred by the age of five or six. Thereafter, the restraint usage of children riding with unrestrained drivers remained low and relatively constant.Unrestrained drivers-who had a considerably greater fraction of unrestrained child passengers-were likely to compound an already unsafe situation by placing their unrestrained child passengers in the front seat more frequently. Since the latest available NASS data are for the 1995 calendar year, it is too soon to…
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Field and Laboratory Measurement of ATV Vertical Motion Characteristics

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission-George F. Sushinsky
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the application of a video-based data acquisition and analysis system to examine the influence of suspension system design in field tests of the ride quality of All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs). Position coordinate (X-Y) time histories of targets on the rider and ATV were measured during obstacle encounter experiments using 14 vehicles and 3 riders. Target displacements, velocities, and accelerations were calculated from the data, and the results were compared to simplified two- and four-degrees of freedom vibrational analyses of the vehicles. These results were correlated to accelerometer data from a laboratory based whole vehicle drop test.
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Examination of ATV Tire Forces Generated on Clay, Grass, and Sand Surfaces

Dept. of Mech. Engrg. University of Maryland College Park, MD-D. C. Holloway, W. H. Wilson, T. J. Drach
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
A towed tire testing fixture suitable for use in testing all terrain vehicle tires is designed and built. Vertical loads on the tire under test can be varied from 100 to 400 1bf (445-1780N) and the camber and slip angles can be varied from 0 to 20 degrees. In addition, longitudinal slip measurements in braking are possible through the use of a disc brake assembly. Six strain gage loads cells are used to determine the force and moment resultants at the tire contact patch. Data acquisition and processing are done through a Daytronic 10KUD data pack and lap top PC.This system is used to test seven representative ATV tires operating on surfaces of hard packed clay. Two of these tires are also tested on short and tall field grass, and on beach sand. Information on the lateral force coefficient, and the rolling resistance coefficient, as functions of vertical load on the tire, and slip angle of the tire, are generated. For the two tires tested on clay, grass and sand, one quadrant of the friction…
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Electrically-Controlled Light Transmission Glazing for Automotive Applications Based on NCAP Technology

Ford Motor Co. Glass Division-Kenneth J. Gajewski
Taliq Corp-Peter van Konynenburg
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The first commercially available, large area, electrically-controllable glazing products based on nematic droplet/polymer film (NCAP) technology are described. The products, which are sold under the tradename VARILITE™, can be switched in milliseconds between a highly translucent state (for privacy and glare control) to a transparent state (for good visibility} with the application of an AC voltage. The optical and environmental properties are reviewed and future applications to automotive glazing are considered. The requirements for laminating large area, complex-curved shapes are discussed and some initial results are presented.
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Evaporative Emissions Under Real Time Conditions

Powertrain Control Center Current Product Engineering General Motors Corporation-Harold M. Haskew, William R. Cadman
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) are currently examining various proposals to modify the test procedures used to measure and regulate hydrocarbon evaporative emissions. The purpose of the proposed modifications would be to approximate the ambient conditions that vehicles can encounter on high temperature days, when many exceedances of the ozone air quality standard can occur. EPA has also developed an evaporative emissions model to support its evaluation of the proposed test procedure changes.GM has conducted tests to assess the performance of evaporative emissions control systems using the elevated temperature conditions under consideration by EPA. GM's tests used a real-time temperature cycle that extended over 24 hour time periods. The data from GM's tests indicate that on a real-time basis, evaporative emissions control systems perform better than predicted by the EPA model.
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Computer Simulation of Three Wheeled ATV in Constant Radius Turns

CADSI-Richard R. Kading, James Crosheck
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the modeling approach, control techniques, and results of a general purpose computer simulation program used to model an All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) in six different constant radius turns. The computer model allows complete nonlinear, large-displacement, rigid-body, dynamic analysis of the ATV. The results of the simulation include the position, velocity, and acceleration of all the rigid body centers of gravity, along with information about all forces acting on the ATV throughout the simulation. The normally difficult problem of maintaining a constant radius and speed during the turn was solved using three closed-loop feedback features in the computer model. Finally, variations of the computer model are descibed to demonstrate the broader range of problems that can be addressed.
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Oxygenated Fuels, A Remote Sensing Evaluation

University of Denver-Gary A. Bishop, Donald H. Stedman
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Remote sensing, a new way to investigate automobile emissions, has been used to study the effect of oxygenated fuels on carbon monoxide emissions from in-use vehicles. During the 1988 State of Colorado Oxygenated Fuels Program more than 60,000 vehicle emissions were measured at a local freeway on-ramp for periods before, during and after the mandated oxygenated fuel usage. The results show a small but significant decrease in average carbon monoxide emissions of 6 ± 2.5%. The distribution of emissions shows that 50% of the carbon monoxide was emitted by 7.2% of the vehicles.
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Steady-State Handling of Three-Wheeled All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs)

Dept. of Mech. Engrg. University of Maryland College Park, MD-S. Y. Chen, L. W. Tsal, J. Chen, D. C. Holloway
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the steady-state handling characteristics of three-wheeled All Terrain Vehicles (ATVs). A mathematical model, called the trim model which is based on the balance of forces and moments, has been developed for the dynamic analysis of the ATVs under steady, constant-radius turns. A numerical technique known as the continuation method has been used to solve the nonlinear simultaneous equations derived from the trim model. It is shown that the handling characteristics of an ATV are very different from those of an automobile. An ATV has a tendency to tip over under tight radius turns and should be handled with care. We believe that the results of this study can be used to design an ATV with improved handling characteristics.
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“Evaluation of the Drift of vehicle Inspection/Maintenance Emission Analyzers in use- A California Case Study”

California Bureau of Automotive Repair-Larry D. Sherwood
Engineering-Science, Inc.-Bruce S. Carhart, T. J. Moore, Thomas A. Peters
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
Quality assurance (QA) in motor vehicle emissions inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs is a continuing concern, especially in decentralized programs with hundreds or even thousands of licensed stations. The emissions analyzers used in such stations are an important focus of governmental QA efforts because of the central role of analyzers in determining which vehicles need to be repaired. Therefore, the In-use performance of I/M emission analyzers has a large impact on the quality of 1/M programs as a whole. This paper reports on the results of an investigation in California designed to determine in-use performance of emission analyzers in the field. The investigation was designed to evaluate both drift rates and the ability of analyzer systems with automatic gas calibration capability to correct analyzer responses outside of accepted tolerances.
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Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Fuels and Conventional Technologies for Reducing Transit Bus Emissions in Santiago, Chile

Sierra Research, Inc.-Christopher S. Weaver
Published 1989-05-01 by SAE International in United States
A study has been conducted of the feasibility, costs, and emissions benefits of a number of alternative-fuel and conventional technologies for controlling emissions from Diesel transit buses in the city of Santiago, Chile. Alternative fuels considered were methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane - using a variety of engine technologies. These were compared with each other and with conventional emission control approaches - an existing inspection/maintenance program, particulate trap-oxidizers, and low-emission Diesel engines. Cost estimates were developed for both new buses and retrofit of existing buses. Use of a consistent analytical framework and assumptions across all of the technologies allowed realistic comparisons between them. Overall, trapoxidizers and compressed natural gas in a lean-burn, converted Diesel engine provided the best combinations of cost and emissions reduction. Proper maintenance was also found to be a critical factor in reducing emissions - strengthening the existing inspection/maintenance program was recommended as a first priority.Diesel buses form a vital component of the transportation system in most cities of the developing world. The large numbers and high emissions levels of…
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