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Control of Automotive Sulfate Emissions

Exxon Research and Engineering Company-E. L. Holt, K. C. Bachman, W. R. Leppard, E. E. Wigg
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency-J. H. Somers
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A study has been made of potential methods for controlling SO4= emissions from oxidation catalyst-equipped vehicles. The methods considered included operating condition and catalyst changes, as well as the use of a vehicle trap for SO4=. Emissions of SO4= from non-catalyst cars were also measured.The only engine operating variable we found to significantly lower SO4= emission was exhaust gas O2 level. Limiting air pump use reduced SO4= emissions by factors of 5 to 7 over the FTP, and by factors of 2 to more than 10 at 96 km/h. Some increase in CO and HC emissions was observed when the greatest SO4= reductions were achieved, but it appears that properly modulated carburetion could overcome this problem. Limited excess air shows great promise as a means of minimizing SO4= emissions. Use of a three-way or oxidation catalyst system with closed-loop fuel metering control achieved very low levels of SO4=, while simultaneously controlling CO and HC, at the stoichiometric A/F ratio and slightly leaner than stoichiometric.Pelleted catalysts emitted lower amounts of SO4= during low speed operation than…
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Measurement of Exhaust Gas Velocity in an Internal Combustion Engine

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (India)-M. K. Gajendra Babu, P. A. Janakiraman, B. S. Murthy
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A method of measuring exhaust velocity with respect to crank angle in a 4-stroke spark ignition engine is described as is a new method of automatically selecting a crank angle in an engine under running conditions. The method of obtaining the exhaust velocity, using the selected crank angle, is also dealt with. The exhaust velocity measured for both motoring and firing conditions is included. The results provided for the firing conditions include different exhaust configurations. The cycle-to-cycle fluctuation is also provided for the above configurations.
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An Historical Review of Reductions in Fuel Consumption of United States and European Engines with MoS2

Climax Molybdenum Co.-T. J. Risdon, D. A. Gresty
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The paper provides details of dynamometer, track, fleet, and leased car tests sponsored or conducted during the period 1963-1974. The data show an average improvement of 4.4% in fuel consumption results from the proper dispersion of 1% weight molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in the engine oil.
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A Method of Distributing Unleaded Gasoline

The Standard Oil Co. (Ohio)-Raymond H. Klein, Walter R. Tuuri
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Faced with a Federal Regulation stating that all unleaded gasoline sold after July 1, 1974 must contain no more than 0.05 grams of lead and 0.005 grams of phosphorus per gallon, a study was made to determine how to distribute unleaded gasoline from the refinery to the customer without exceeding these contamination limits. This study showed that the handling procedures normally used for unleaded gasoline were inadequate.New handling procedures were developed and field tested. These field tests confirmed the validity of the new handling procedures which were then adopted on a company wide basis.Analysis of an extensive number of service station samples taken each month since imposition of the regulation on July 1, 1974 have confirmed that the new method of handling unleaded gasoline has enabled this Midwest refiner to meet the prescribed contamination limits on lead and phosphorus.
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Performance of a Stabilized Ruthenium NOx Reduction Catalyst

Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Linden, N. J.-M. W. Pepper, J. A. DeLuca, R. P. Rohdes, L. S. Bernstein
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
MgO has been found to stabilize Ru against volatilization and agglomeration under oxidizing conditions at temperatures up to 850°C (1560°F). However, before MgO stabilized Ru can be used as an automotive NOx reduction catalyst, it must be put in a form compatible with conditions in the exhaust system. This can be done by impregnating a cordierite honeycomb, which has been washcoated first with high surface area alumina then with MgO, with Ru. Such catalysts were tested under both engine dynamometer and vehicle conditions. Good activity maintenance was found in engine dynamometer tests, but activity was lost rapidly in the vehicle tests. This rapid loss of activity was probably caused by exposure of the catalyst to surface temperatures which exceed the temperature stability limit (∼900°C) of the RuO2-MgO surface bond in current versions of this catalyst. Such temperatures could be encountered on the AMA durability cycle used in the vehicle aging of these catalysts.
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Energy Conservation Optimization of the Vehicle-Fuel-Refinery System

Texaco Inc.-W. T. Tierney, E. M. Johnson, N. R. Crawford
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Studies of several options available for future vehicular transportation powerplants have strongly indicated that it is necessary to optimize the vehicle, its fuel, and the refinery as a total system.It is the purpose of this paper to report the relative miles of transportation that can be obtained from a barrel of crude oil by using different types of engines and fuels.This concept is not new. The energy required to manufacture fuels has always been supplied by using part of the energy in the crude oil. However, the importance of the concept is compounded when one considers that large quantities of gasoline are lost due to processing requirements for producing unleaded gasoline octane numbers while concurrently, automotive emission controls and safety regulations increase gasoline consumption.Both of these effects cause a reduced efficiency in the use of crude oil. The only true measure of the impact on energy usage caused by changes in refinery operations and vehicular modifications is to relate the miles of transportation obtained to the energy available in the crude oil. This concept accounts…
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On the Problem of Predicting Burning Rates in a Spark Ignition Engine

Indian Institute of Technology (India)-B. S. Murthy
Karnataka Regional Engineering College (India)-B. S. Samaga
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, formulation of a mathematical model for flame propagation in a spark ignited reciprocating engine has been described. As against the common practice of assuming a laminar flame propagation model with a suitable multiplying factor for turbulence effects, a more logical approach has been adopted bringing in the concept of an engine Reynolds parameter as the criterion to determine the combustion acceleration due to turbulence. The laminar burning velocity is calculated from Semenov's thermal model for the instantaneous unburned gas condition during combustion and is augmented for engine gas turbulence through an empirical function of the engine Reynolds parameter assuming wrinkled flame model. The turbulent flame velocity thus obtained is then corrected for flame transportation due to the expansion of the burning gases. The empirical constants in the formula have been evaluated in correlation to results of extensive experimentation on a single cylinder variable compression ratio research engine.
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A Technical Report of the 1975 Union 76 Fuel Economy Tests

Union Oil Co. of California-D. T. West, T. Wusz, F. T. Finnigan, R. J. Askevold
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Union Oil Company of California tested 106 new 1975 domestic and foreign vehicles for on-the-road fuel economy using the Fuel Economy Measurement - Road Test Procedure - SAE J1082. This paper gives the results of the test and discusses vehicle selection, procurement, break-in, tune-up, instrumentation description and development, track procedure, and driver techniques. Each of the vehicles was tested for emissions following the 1975 CVS-CH Federal test procedure as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency. Included in the results are fuel economy figures for the three SAE J1082 cycles, as well as fuel economy figures obtained from the EPA dynamometer procedures. Complete vehicle specifications and emission figures are shown.
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Low-Temperature Engine Oil Pumpability in Full-Scale Engines

Gulf Research and Development Co.-R. M. Stewart
PARAMlNS Technology Div., Exxon Chemical Co.-M. F. Smith
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
ASTM Committee D-2 has undertaken a program to develop a laboratory test which correlates with low-temperature engine oil pumpability in field service. As the first step in this program, pumpability data were obtained using thirteen ASTM Pumpability Reference Oils in seven full-scale engines. The engines and oils were chosen to be representative of a wide range of commercial practice. Borderline pumping conditions, as defined by the ASTM Task Force, were determined for each oil-engine combination investigated. The mode of pumping failure in the engines and the times required to lubricate the rocker arms were also obtained.The results indicate that substantial differences in pumpability exist among both engines and oils. Possible reasons for these differences are suggested, based on engine oil pump inlet system characteristics and the viscometric properties of the oils.The full-scale engine pumpability data should provide the basis for the development of a laboratory bench test which will satisfactorily predict an engine oil's low-temperature pumpability characteristics in service.
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Emissions Patterns of Diesel-Powered Passenger Cars

United States Environmental Protection Agency-James N. Braddock, Ronald L. Bradow
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The gaseous and particulate emissions from a light-duty diesel powered passenger car were measured by a variety of chemical analysis techniques for three different fuels, typical No. 1 and No. 2 commercial diesel fuels and the Federal Register No. 2-D smoke test fuel. Hydrocarbon emissions were found to be inversely related to fuel molecular weight. The NO2/NO ratio was found to be much higher than for gasoline engines approaching 0.3 at low load. Particulate emissions were approximately 0.3 grams/mile for all fuels and driving cycles tested. Sulfate emissions were high, approaching that of some catalyst cars. Sulfate emissions decreased with decreasing fuel sulfur and increased by a factor of two in highway driving over urban driving. The potential pollution problems with such cars are worthy of further study.
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