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National Aeronautic Meeting and 3rd International Simulation and Training Conference
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Reliability Assurance and the Concord Engines

Aero Div., Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd.-B. G. Markham
Published 1967-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This paper explains the background of the Concord engines and how a design specifically for civil operation has been derived from a military supersonic engine. It reports a study of the failure pattern of current engines, which shows that the traditional approach to reliability must be extended by all means available. Reference is made to the application of the disciplines of reliability engineering and the special design features to assure safety and reliability. The test program and some of the special test equipment required for a supersonic engine are described.
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The Urgent Need for Flight Simulators for Present and Future Aircraft

Trans World Airlines, Inc.-John Rhodes
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Training requirements of the current commercial subsonic jet programs and those of the manned space flight projects have dictated rapid expansion in the state of the art of simulation development.A concept of flight realism, before unknown, is being developed into our future simulators. These concepts are being formulated using past experience as a foundation to determine our needs; and technology developed in the space age to be our tools.The realization of training transfer to the high degree required will come with the further development of simulation environment, instrument presentation, motion systems with 6 degrees of freedom for “g” force inputs, and real world visual presentation. Many of these are already realized; the rest are in advanced development stages.
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Aerospace Concepts Applied to Deep Submergence Vehicle Simulation

Nortronics Div., Northrop Corp.-James D. Goff
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The methodology employed in the derivation of simulation equipment requirements for a Deep Submergence Vehicle DS/V is described, together with an outline of the hardware design concepts adopted or considered. The parallel is drawn between methodology and equipment used for a DS/V simulator, and that found in most aircraft or spacecraft simulators.In order to understand better the parallel, a brief discussion of the history and operation of a DS/V is included.
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Survey of Flight Simulation Computation Methods

Dept. of Aerospace Engrg., University of Michigan-Laurence E. Fogarty
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A historical review of developments in flight simulator computation methods indicates that the computation load has been increasing by about a factor of ten every ten years for the last thirty years. From a brief analysis of computation methods used on a typical modern digital flight simulator it is concluded that these methods are more than adequate for the simulation task as presently defined. Additional new simulation requirements such as computer-aided instruction methods and computer-based navigation techniques apparently will require very large additional simulator computer capacity in the near future.
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A Review of the Current Policy in the United Kingdom for the Use of Flight Simulators in Flight Crew Training and Checking

Board of Trade, Civil Aviation Department, England-W. E. B. Griffiths
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper covers the history of flight simulator acceptance in the United Kingdom. Two key years are 1951 and 1960. In 1951, the Ministry of Civil Aviation allowed the use of Redifon/BOAC Stratocruiser flight simulators to conduct Statutory instrument rating renewal tests. In 1960, the use of simulators was extended to biannual competency tests for pilots and flight engineers. The paper also explains why, with the advent of SSTs and jumbo jets, flight simulators will play an even larger part in pilot training and checking.
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Development of the Boeing SST Inlet, Control, and Power System

Supersonic Transport Div., The Boeing Co.-J. R. Moorehead
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Functional requirements and limitations of the Boeing supersonic inlet system are presented and several of the design considerations are discussed. Some trade studies are defined and examples of current hardware concepts are presented. The overall reliability program is discussed in terms of the test program, design objectives, and cost considerations.
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Flight Simulator Motion, Its Enhancement and Potential for Flight Crew Training

CAE Industries Ltd.-Frank H. Borlace
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with concepts of motion systems which have not been fully utilized for training flight simulators, and which promise to provide a more accurate motion system representation. An examination of the vestibular system is made and the information it gives to the pilot is shown to be of a “phase advance nature” Some programming considerations of motion systems are presented. The desirability of custom designing the motion system to aid in training the pilot for specific tasks is also discussed.
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Progress in the Development of High Strength Titanium Alloys

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, Div., United Aircraft Corp.-D. L. Ruckle, M. J. Donachie, R. A. Sprague
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Engineering development has always been restricted by the limitations of structural materials. In the development of large fan stage compressor blades, material of high strength to density and modulus to density ratios have been required. This paper discusses use of titanium in the 170 and 190 ksi yield strength alloys in these applications. Materials, procedures, and results of the Pratt & Whitney development program are discussed.The Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy appears most promising in meeting the desired 170 ksi yield strength while maintaining reasonable fracture toughness. The relationship between toughness, fatigue, and other mechanical properties is incompletely understood. However, with high tensile preloads, a strong positive correlation between toughness and fatigue strength seems quite probable.
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ADAM II Propulsion System and Internal Aerodynamics

Aeronautics Div., Aerospace Corp., Sub., LTV, Inc.-C. Todd Havey
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The author discusses the ADAM II (Air Deflection and Modulation) propulsion system as it is applied to LTV propulsive wing airplane configurations which house all or part of their propulsion system within the wing surface.Briefly mentioned are the original ADAM I configuration and its subsequent development to the present ADAM II, together with a discussion of the characteristics currently used for each of its components such as fan turbine set, gas generator, hot gas ducting, wing mounted turbofans, and mechanical cross shafting.The ADAM II concept is applicable to a full spectrum of subsonic aircraft and the propulsion system uses present day state-of-the-art technology which makes the feasibility of its development quite real.
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Low Cycle Fatigue Properties of Advanced Engine Materials

Taylor Forge and Pipe Co.-J. Slepitis
Wright Aeronautical Div., Curtiss-Wright Corp.-V. Mehra, J. Mogul
Published 1967-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Low-cycle fatigue is a term used to describe the thermal and/or mechanical loading conditions which cause premature failure of materials at less than 20,000 cycles. These cyclic stress conditions are prevalent during engine start-up or shut down and in severe flight maneuvers. From the design standpoint, it is important to assess and predict the behavior of compressor and turbine component materials under these severe conditions.This paper presents the low cycle fatigue data on six candidate materials which were considered for an advanced engine. The materials were investigated simultaneously by pull-pull and by modified rotating beam fatigue testing techniques. Results indicate that the candidate materials can sustain appreciable cycling at stress levels beyond design limit before fracture occurs by the low cycle fatigue mechanism. Of the materials investigated, Udimet 630 exhibited the optimum low cycle fatigue resistance.
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