Your Selections

1975 Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Events

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Conservation of Resources-Organic Surface Coatings

Inmont Corp.-John B. Hemwall
Published 1975-02-24 by SAE International in United States
with the trend toward decrease in demand rather than an increase in supply, the present petroleum resources can fill the need of the automobile production industry, at least through 1975. Assuming, furthermore, that environmental and energy conservation legislation will continue pressuring industry, the automobile surface coating industry is taking steps to devise new methods of production to comply with these demands while still maintaining efficiency.Although the rising cost of other raw materials must also be considered, the surface coating industry foresees the use of water-based topcoats and primers as both an economically and environmentally safe technique. If humidity control cost seems to be more expensive than planned, powder-based coats and new curing methods could prove to be even more efficient.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Impact of the Energy and Materials Resource Problems on Powder Metallurgy

Metal Powder Industries Federation-Kempton H. Roll
Published 1975-02-24 by SAE International in United States
Before the rise of “stagflation” as the catchword of the times, American industry was struggling with another: “Energy.” Ecology and environmental protection also achieved stardom with the populace, aided considerably by the media. But “materials resources” or lack thereof has not succeeded in gaining this kind of public attention. “So what if we have only a 30-day supply of chromium? Automobiles could do with less gaudy trim anyway,” seemed to be the general attitude. Industry, however, especially the metalworking industry, has become well aware of the materials problem this nation is facing and the fact that it is indeed a real problem. Industry is also painfully aware of the other problems-ecology, environmental protection, energy conservation, and so on-because it too often finds itself being blamed as the cause.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Computer Program for Calculating Properties of Equilibrium Combustion Products with Some Applications to I.C. Engines

University of Wisconsin-Cherian Olikara, Gary L. Borman
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A computer program which rapidly calculates the equilibrium mole fractions and the partial derivatives of the mole fractions with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio for the products of combustion of any hydrocarbon fuel and air is described. A subroutine is also given which calculates the gas constant, enthalpy, internal energy and the partial derivatives of these with respect to temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. Some examples of the uses of the programs are also given.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Low-Sulfur Unleaded Gasoline Problem

Continental Oil Co.-Ronald G. Bruce
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
It has been reported that automobile exhaust resulting from gasoline containing sulfur can produce a potentially harmful sulfuric acid mist when passed through an oxidation catalytic converter. In response to an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) request, the National Petroleum Refiners Association conducted an industry survey to develop information concerning the impact of reducing the sulfur in unleaded gasoline to a maximum of 100 ppm. The survey showed that an estimated 361 new processing units would be needed at a cost of $3.7 billion. It further pointed out that it was probably beyond the capability of the already overloaded engineering/construction industry to complete such facilities within three years.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Dunlop Composite Energy Absorbing Bumper Systems

Dunlop Ltd., Polymer Eng. Div., U.K.-D. A. Newton
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the application of composite laminates consisting of bonded rubber and plastic layers to discrete energy absorber units and flexible bumper systems.These laminates are manufactured by the fusion bonding technique applied to injection moulding of discrete EA units and thermoforming of resilient EA bumpers.The two material construction allows greater design flexibility in unit and system design. The properties of the dual material system permit a high ratio of energy absorption per unit weight coupled with full recovery of pre-impact configuration.The performance and installation requirements of the ‘V’ shaped discrete bumper mountings is described in detail. Experimental developments in fully flexible bumpers are then discussed.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Techniques For Driving Digital Displays

George R. Seaton, David A. Wayne
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
With the growing importance of digital electronics, the need for methods for displaying digital information has grown. Several technologies for information display devices presently exist or appear to be likely prospects for future commercial development. The systems designer is often faced with the problem of providing an electronic interface between the digital system and the display device. This paper sets forth solutions to the problem of designing the interface electronic circuitry. Particular attention is paid towards integrated circuits available for this application.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Raw Material Sources for Automotive Plastics

General Motors Research Laboratories-Zack G. Gardlund
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The sources of raw materials available for production of the major automotive plastics have been determined. In order to do this, each polymer was broken down into its monomeric units, and the basic chemicals used in the commercial synthesis of each monomer were specified. Three alternate raw material sources are discussed. Coal is an excellent source of chemicals, especially acetylene, needed for polymer production. Oil shale retorting yields a large number of basic chemicals. Two major chemicals are also available from agricultural products and residues. Although each source has its disadvantages, there is no problem in the amount of chemicals that can be obtained.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Cost and Energy Conservation with Powder Metallurgy

Toyota Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan)-K. Imahashi, T. Suzuki, C. Tsumiki
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
The application of the P/M and P/F methods in the production of automotive parts was investigated and compared to the conventional methods of casting and forging, with special attention paid to the areas of cost and energy conservation.In relatively light parts weighing 200-500 grams, the use of P/M and P/F with pure iron powder resulted in a significant savings in both cost and energy consumption. In the heavier parts, however, this cost reduction was not realized because of the high cost for materials.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Catalytic Emission Control System Field Test Program

Donald L. Miles, Louis J. Faix, Harry H. Lyon, George W. Niepoth
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
A fleet of nearly 250 cars equipped with experimental catalytic converter systems were tested in taxi, police, state, and municipal fleets in various cities throughout the country. This provided a diversified range of customer service and altitude and climatic conditions. The objective was to evaluate the performance and durability in high mileage field service of experimental catalytic emission control systems. The fleet comprised groups of cars with hardware and calibration variations designed toward the 1975 Federal and California and more advanced emission requirements. The converter systems evaluated were primarily a 260 cubic inch underfloor converter and a 140 cubic inch manifold converter. Both bead and monolith substrate catalysts were examined.Test results showed that on the average the systems successfully controlled emissions to below the 1975 Federal and California requirements for greater than 50,000 miles. Engine misfire conditions did cause converter damage in some instances. Systems designed for the low emission requirements of .41/3.4/.40 grams/mile HC/CO/NOx exceeded those levels at relatively low mileage due to catalyst deterioration.
Annotation ability available
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Importance of Secondary Air Mixing in Exhaust Thermal Reactor Systems

General Motors Research Labs.-Ronald J. Herrin
Published 1975-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Automotive thermal reactors have obtained high conversion efficiencies on engines with very rich carburetion, but fuel economy and reactor durability have suffered. Improved mixing of exhaust gas and secondary air in the engine exhaust port was examined as a means of improving reactor efficiency at less rich engine air-fuel ratios. Three air-injection systems which span a broad range of mixing capabilities were examined. Mixing characteristics were deduced from anemometry measurements of instantaneous secondary airflow, and emission performance of each system was generalized by a test program employing four steady-state conditions.High-pressure, timed air injection provides the best mixing and the best reactor performance. Sparger (radial discharge) air injection tubes provide fair mixing and better performance than conventional open-ended air injection tubes, which exhibit poor mixing characteristics. Performance with sparger tubes is significantly poorer than with timed injection, but sparger tubes are more practical in terms of cost, complexity, and durability.
Annotation ability available