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International Technical Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles
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Modelling and Control Strategy Development for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

DaimlerChrysler Corporation-Andreas Schell, Doanh Tran, Euthie Stamos
University of Michigan-Huei Peng, Chan-Chiao Lin, Min Joong Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0182
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
This paper describes a modelling and dynamic control design process that is applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). After an introduction to advanced propulsion technologies the development of FCEV at DaimlerChrysler is described, followed by a discussion on hydrogen as a fuel for FCEV and the challenges related to hydrogen storage. It is essential for advanced vehicles to obtain a range comparable to that of mass production vehicles sold today. Thus, there is a strong need to operate such vehicles with high efficiency and maximize the energy stored onboard a vehicle. A stochastic dynamic programming algorithm was developed and applied to the energy management of this FCEV, which allow fuel economy optimization while keeping a good driveability.

Minimum Variance Control of Cylinder Peak Pressure Position

The University of Liverpool-G. Triantos, A. T. Shenton, S. D. Carroll
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0077
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
Three linear controllers are designed and implemented on a Ford Zetec 1.6l spark-ignited, port-injected engine. The desired control result is to obtain Minimum Variance on one of the engine's four cylinders Peak Pressure Position (PPP) while regulating to a desired optimum setpoint. This regulation is achieved using ignition timing as the controlled input measured in terms of the Spark Advance (SA) angle. The spark setting obtained from the controller was implemented on all 4 cylinders of the engine. The controller was tested on the Liverpool University Powertrain Control Group low-inertia dynamometer and its performance and robustness were evaluated theoretically and experimentally.

Vehicle Dynamics Observer for a Scaled Test Vehicle

Ilmenau Technical Univ.-Torsten Bertram
University Duisburg-Essen-Jens Hilgert, Manfred Hiller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0032
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
The validation of vehicle dynamics results for future automotive systems, driver assistance systems up to autonomous driving systems, can be seen as major challenge within the development process. The main reasons are the high cost of driving tests and in conjunction with the increasing risk of damaging or destroying the test vehicle and the involved people depending on the degree of autonomy. One possibility for avoiding these problems and simultaneously to ensure good experimental results lies in the use of scaled model vehicles. In this paper a method based on similitude analysis for validation of driving tests for future autonomous vehicle systems is introduced and vehicle dynamics observer for a scaled test vehicle are developed.

H∞ Control of Automotive Semi-Active Suspensions

DEIS - University of Bologna-Carlo Rossi, Gianluca Lucente
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0124
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
This paper deals with the control of semi-active automotive suspensions using H∞ state-space optimization techniques. After the derivation of two standard models of the system, quarter car and half car model, three H∞ controllers are developed in the fully active case and then adapted to the non-linear real system using a sort of clipped control. The first controller is focused on ride comfort optimization, the second on both comfort and handling improvement, the third is a global controller derived from half car model. Performance indices related to ride comfort and drive safety are introduced to evaluate the proposed controllers. Simulations are performed to show that semi- active controlled suspensions succeed in achieving higher levels of ride comfort and drive safety with respect to a passive setting.

Contribution of a Tire Sensor to Improved Chassis Control

DaimlerChrysler AG-B. Bickel, D. Betz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0076
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
An improvement of today's antilock braking systems and vehicle stability systems is expected by accounting for tire friction information. Furthermore, knowledge about the state of friction at each wheel is anticipated to improve coordinated control of the chassis sub- systems braking, steering and suspension. A tire sensor measuring the strain field within the contact patch is suggested to provide the necessary information about the degree of utilization of the friction potential. A sensor system based on fiber optic Bragg gratings is proposed as this system features several multiplexing techniques to increase the number of sensing locations.

Disturbance-Observer-Based Active Control of Transmission-Induced Vibrations

Continental Automotive Systems-Christian Bohn
University of the German Armed Forces Munich-Konrad Kowalczyk, Ferdinand Svaricek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0080
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
This paper presents an alternative approach for active vibration control for systems with periodic disturbances of time-varying fundamental frequency. The motivation for this approach is active control of engine-induced vibration in automotive vehicles, where the fundamental frequency, i.e., engine firing frequency, goes from approximately 7 Hz at idle (840 rpm) to approximately 50 Hz (6000 rpm). In this approach, an observer for an input disturbance is designed based on a disturbance model containing all frequencies to be cancelled. The disturbance model part of the observer is time-varying since the frequency measurement is fed into this part. Based on the current frequency, an observer gain is selected from a set of pre-computed gains. The proposed approach is non-adaptive, where the frequency is used as a scheduling variable.

Closed-Loop System Identification of an HCCI Engine

Lund Univ.-Jan-Ola Olsson, Roland Pfeiffer, Per Tunestål, Bengt Johansson, Rolf Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0035
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a promising but challenging combustion engine concept. The potential for good fuel economy and low emissions is high but the transient performance required for automotive applications presents a few problems still to be solved. The focus of this work is identification of the process dynamics. An ARX type model is fitted to input-output data. A method applicable under closed-loop control is suggested and demonstrated. The resulting models are evaluated in terms of the repeatability of model characteristics, prediction accuracy, residual characteristics and comparison to spectral models is made.

Active Isolation of Driver Seat

Technical University of Liberec-Vaclav Zada
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0040
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
There are discussed some problems of active control of mechanical systems in this contribution. For control is used only one or two accelerometers as sensors. The control actions are non-linear. The controller is design as a quasi PI one for control of position. Dynamical disturbances that influence a controlled system are not known and for its reconstruction is used only one accelerometer. The classical linear methods cannot be used since the dynamical model of the controlled mechanism is non-linear and the influences of disturbances are very strong.

A Multiple-Model Approach to Payload Compensation Via Active Suspension Control

Georgia Institute of Technology-Joshua Vaughan, William Singhose, Nader Sadegh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0128
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
This paper presents an active suspension controller to compensate for vehicle payload changes and proposes a strategy to develop robustness to such changes. The aim of such a controller is to establish safe and consistent vehicle performance over a wide range of payloads. Such payload variations are common in heavy machinery and design is geared toward this application. However, similar effects occur to a lesser degree in passenger vehicles, especially light trucks. A half vehicle model is developed, and loading is simulated by increasing the mass and moving the center of gravity accordingly. A multiple-model approach is used in which models and controllers are developed for various points in the payload range and then blended into a single global controller. The multiple-model controller provides nearly constant vehicle performance and demonstrates significantly lower actuator demand across the range of payloads than a controller designed around a nominal payload.

Design of a Motorcycle Engine Control Unit Using an Integrated Control-Implementation Approach

DIEL, Università dell'Aquila-Maria D. Di Benedetto, Giovanni Girasole
Magneti Marelli Powertrain-Giovanni Gaviani, Claudio Grossi, Walter Nesci, Michele Pennese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2004-35-0132
Published 2004-04-19 by University of Salerno in Italy
The design of automotive control systems is becoming increasingly complex as the level of performance required by car manufactures grows continuously and the constraints on cost and development time imposed by the market become tighter. A successful design, without costly and time-consuming re-design cycles, can be achieved only by using an efficient design methodology that allows for component re-use and evaluation of platform requirements at the early stages of the design flow. In this paper, we illustrate the application of an integrated control-implementation design methodology, recently proposed by our group, to the development of the top few layers of abstraction in the design flow of an engine control system for motorcycles.