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2019 SAE Brasil International Brake and Motion Control Colloquium and Exhibit
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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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Brake noise analysis on tractive axle of 6x2 tractor vehicle

CNHI - Iveco Latin America / UFMG – Programa de Pós-Graduaçã-Rafael Fortuna Pizzi
CNHI – Iveco Latin America-Getúlio Soares Júnior
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0008
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This study aims at analyzing the causes of noise in a heavy vehicle brake system (6x2 tractor) and proposing solutions to improve comfort during braking as it is known that, during the activation of the automotive brakes, noise can be generated in different frequency bands that can cause discomfort to the user and the study of how to reduce it is considerably important to bring more comfort in its use. As a working methodology, firstly, comparative analysis of dimension and material were performed between the axle assembly that presented noise and another axle assembly of a vehicle with no noise adopted as reference. This information was used as the basis for the frequency and acceleration virtual analysis that were validated with vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition. In parallel, vehicle tests with different brake friction materials were conducted. The answers of the dimension and material analysis from the axles assemblies highlighted the specificities of each of them but did not show great influence in the observed noise incidence. The vehicle instrumentation and data acquisition besides validate…
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Brake System Thermal Performance for Brazil Market Battery Electric Vehicles

General Motors, LLC-David Antanaitis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0019
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The discussion in the braking industry that has been ongoing for over a decade now on how to specify brake systems for regenerative-brake intensive vehicle applications has intensified considerably in the past few years as the automotive industry ponders a future where electric vehicles become predominant. Major automotive manufactures have announced plans to create dedicated electric-only vehicle architectures, from which to offer a full range of electric vehicle configurations. The time to really figure out the translation of Voice of the Electric Vehicle Customer to technical requirements and brake system content is approaching very rapidly. One of the major design decisions in the brake system is the sizing of foundation brake components for thermal performance. There is no question that regenerative brakes can significantly reduce the demand on the friction brakes in normal usage, sometimes by a full order of magnitude or more. Brakes no longer need to be sized for everyday use, rather, the sizing is driven by “limit cases” such as failure of the regen system, a full state of charge in the…
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A Coupled Approach Using CFD and FEA Solution for Solving the Cooling of Automotive Disk Brake

Siemens Industry Software-Joel Sanvezzo Junior, Douglas Dutra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0012
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The cooling efficiency of automotive disk brakes comprises an important area of development, since the system performance is directly related to the overheating level that is being achieved during the braking period. The heat generation occurs during the conversion of kinetic energy into heat. After this process, it is crucial an effective thermal dissipation in order to assure the decay of temperature levels. Such thermal dissipation results mainly from the interaction of the brake components with the external airflow in the wheel arch, where there are the occurrence of heat transfer mechanisms including conduction, convection and radiation. In this sense, through the application of simulation models, it is possible to predict the thermal- structural behavior by combining solutions in the fluid dynamics and structural areas. In this work, a one-way fluid-structure approach is proposed by combining conventional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) and FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models. The CFD modeling aim to solve the disk brake cooling during the airflow passage in the wheel arch and its interaction with the brake components. The FEA modeling…
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Validation of a numerical procedure for fatigue assessment of a 325mm brake shoe

Master Sistemas Automotivos-Vagner Nascimento, Giovanni Teixeira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0004
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The air brake system is still the most common brake system in use in heavy diesel vehicles. For safety and economic reasons it is imperative to understand the performance and durability (especially fatigue and wear) of every component of a drum brake, particularly the brake shoes. In applications where torque is lower than 20kNm brake shoes are made of ductile metals such as SAE 1030 steel. For such ductile materials Brown-Miller and Fatemi-Socie are the most recommended methods for fatigue crack initiation life prediction. The next pages discuss the validation of these fatigue methods in the case study of a 325mm brake shoe.
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Brake Pedal felling correlation with female shoe and feet position

(General Motors do Brasil)-Giorgia Buganza, Fernando Utyike, Fabio Raposo, Eduardo Godinho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0015
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The female market share has increase every year, for some segments we have a majority of female buyers. Working with this tendency we work to understand the impact and the dislikes that we may be facing in the near future due to the costumer habits, and also understand what can be done to improve this relationship.This paper will discuss the feeling correlation between the foot position, heel point, drivers knee and the feeling of the brake pedal.We need to consider the difference between different shoe sole design and the impact on the point of force apply and angles resulting a costumer perception of the brake feeling of the vehicle.Based on Market research, math model studies and simulation, experiments done at the vehicle and measurements considering different situations we will show that the felling can be affected using different shoes and the brake performance perception can be also affected.We conclude the paper with the comments on what should be consider guaranteeing the best driver experience feeling.
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More than a brake

Robert Bosch Ltda – Chassis Systems Control Unit-Emerson Batagini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0020
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive world is battling every day to provide innovation and product development without compromising the environment. The electrification of the engines can be a factor that divides eras into the market. The conventional brake system links the act of apply the brake pedal with the stop or deceleration of the vehicle. This is now possible thanks to the long-term use of the vacuum generated by the combustion engine or by auxiliary equipment (vacuum pump). New brake system technologies provides, without a vacuum source, more efficient and safer braking than the current power brake system. Embedded in technological developments, these systems interacts with other vehicle components (cameras, radars, ABS, ESC) bringing the driver advanced safety conditions.
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Regressions of brake pads compressibility from experimental data

TMD Friction do Brasil S.A.-André Garcia Lima Suetti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0014
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
One of the critical characteristics in a brake pad is its deformation when subjected to compressive loads. This deformation is called compressibility, which can be obtained quantitatively through compression cycles performed by a specific test bench. However, such testing is costly and long enough not to meet the demand of manufacturers of friction materials.To overcome this difficulty, this work presents regressions for the estimation of compressibility through the natural frequencies of the pads, since they can be obtained quickly and at low cost through a simple modal analysis. The theoretical basis for the correlation between compressibility and natural frequencies includes the theory of elasticity - which defines an inverse relationship between strain and stiffness - and the theory of vibrations, which defines the natural frequencies of a mechanical system as a function of its mass matrices and stiffness. Since the dependent variable (compressibility) and explanatory variable (natural frequency) are linked to stiffness, it is theoretically plausible to direct estimative.As additional explanatory variables, in addition to the experimental data of natural frequencies, the work uses the…
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Influence of Pads and Brake Disc wear on Brake Squeal Noise

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais / FCA - Fiat Chrysler A-Marco Túlio Batista dos Anjos, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez, Cláudio Junior Ferreto, Felipe Dornellas Silva, Lázaro Valentin Donadon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0005
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The present work aims to investigate the influence of wear of the pads and brake disc on the brake squeal behavior with the help of the Finite Element tool. Brake discs basically work by the pressure of the brake pads against a rotating disc. The friction between the pads and the disc causes the latter to decelerate, but it can also cause dynamic instabilities of the system giving rise to noises. Among the main noise in vehicle brake systems, there is the squeal noise, which is usually associated with the coupling of two neighboring natural modes. One possible way to identify unstable modes is by extracting complex eigenvalues from the system. An unstable mode can be identified when, in the result of the extraction of the complex eigenvalues, the real part of the eigenvalue is positive. In the present work, a brake system (disc and positioned pads and their respective materials and friction coefficients) was duly modeled and validated. The validation was done by means of a correlation between the frequency of the noises found…
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Development challenges of hydraulic brakes for commercial vehicles

Volkswagen Truck & Bus-Narã Vieira Vetter, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, Eduardo Henrique Souza Fontes, Felipe Nogueira, Guilherme Henrique Fonseca, Luis Fernando Nuss de Souza, Rodrigo de Oliveira dos Reis, Vangelo Cardoso Manenti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0013
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive research and development environment is increasingly challenging and complex, full of new technologies, regulations and customized customer needs. In addition, the cargo transportation market is very dynamic and competitive, becoming complex the strategies for companies in this segment. According to Anfavea (2018), this trend, especially in large urban centers, has driven the intention to use light commercial vehicles to capillize deliveries in destinations with a high demographic concentration and traffic limited to medium and heavy vehicles. In this scenario, the demand for diversified products is increasing in order to overcome the main tradeoff: “minimizing the size of the trucks and maximize the load capacity”. It brings the number of complex projects. The brake system is greatly impacted in these developments mainly because light commercial vehicles are situated in a weight range that we can call "identity crisis" if on the one hand they need an upgrade compared to a conventional car and use the hydraulic brake on the other one need a downgrade of a medium or heavy truck that brings robustness and…
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