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26th SAE BRASIL Inernational Congress and Display
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Conceptual Analysis of Turbocompressor on Otto Cycle Engines

Fatec Santo André-Alvaro Cesar Garcia, Cleber William Gomes
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The turbocharger has unleashed a new era of highly efficient internal combustion engines and shows the right technology to meet global emissions laws. With a simple concept, the turbocharger can reduce the specific fuel consumption, increase engine power and torque by increasing its volumetric efficiency. By using the energy contained in the exhaust gases, the turbocharger compresses the atmospheric air, increasing its density, so that at the moment of combustion there is a more efficient burning of the fuel injected. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the internal components of the turbocharger and a computer simulation made in Ricardo Software's Waves to analyze differences in fuel consumption, volumetric efficiency, torque and in the power of a turbocharged engine compared to the same engine, but without the turbocharger installed.
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Application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) Superelement Technique for NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) Attributes on a Trimmed-Body Vehicle Structure in Order to Assist Supplier Commodity Development Based Also on NVH Requirements

Ford Motor Company-Gimaezio Gomes Carvalho, Luis Guilherme Mariano Viana Martins
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The business environment is ever changing, several innovations have allowed companies to transcend borderlines and become global entities. While the opportunities are numerous so are the challenges. In this fiercely competitive global marketplace, success requires companies to pay closer attention to supplier relations. The relationship between an automotive industry and its suppliers is an example of it, so the application of CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) superelement technique may improve, in terms of NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness), the vehicle development efficiency, without compromising confidentiality directives. Most of NVH requirements must be tracked through Transfer Functions (TFs) analyses at response points located on the Trimmed-Body Finite Element Model (FEM), as for example: Point Mobility, Vibration Transfer Function (VTF) and Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF). As the Trimmed-Body is an assembly of sub-systems, some of them developed in-house and other by external suppliers, FEM and TFs must be cascaded to all sub-system developers, including external suppliers. Confidentiality directives do not allow FE models sharing with external suppliers, precluding commodities development by suppliers to be driven by NVH attribute…
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Vehicle Integration, Gear Material and Heat Treatment Effects on Rear Axle Whining Noise

General Motors do Brasil Ltda.-Alexandre R. Pinho, Demetrio Vettorazzo Neto, George Ballardie, Rafael Coelho Martinez
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper will focus whining noise on rear axles applied in mid-size trucks.Vehicle integration changes during development affect directly the gear noise perception, in which it may be intensified.Also, gear material and heat treatment choices for the rear axle need to be done carefully, taking into consideration the integration changes and also the driver usage.A lessons learned collection over the diverse aspects of a rear axle whining noise will be the basis of this paper.
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Performance Comparison of Different Chamber designs for Ventilated Disk Brake

GM Brazil-Julio Cesar Lelis Alves, Flavio Koiti Maruyama
GM North America-Leonardo José Della Volpe
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
Environment concerns lead the automakers to invest resources and put research in engine downsize to reduce carbon emission. Turbo charge is a possibility due to its fuel consumption and emission reduction without compromise the performance. Nowadays, it is becoming common observe high performance small cars due to high torque and power available. In consequence, brake system need to dissipate more kinetic energy without adding mass or costs.Modern passenger cars require a high-speed brake system. To achieve proper brake system cooling, the rotor must be ventilated and designed to optimize the energy dissipated, which is generated by friction between pad and disk.Some approaches consider the rotor as a centrifugal air pump and the design rule is to improve the airflow inside the vanes. The approach considering a brake rotor similar to centrifugal air pump rotor may be considered as limited approach, once it simplifies the heat transfer phenomena inside chamber. The purpose of the rotor existence is not to pump air but, exchange energy with environment every time the braking process occurs.There is one divergence with…
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Multi-Cylinder Torch Ignition System Operating With Homogeneous Charge - Performance and CO2

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnologia de Minas Gerais-F. A. Rodrigues Filho
Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais-T. A. A. Moreira, G. S. Paiva, O. A. Anjos, T. S. Ferreira
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
Global trends in the development of spark ignition internal combustion engines lead to the adoption of solutions that reduce CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Downsizing is a well-established path for this reduction, but it is necessary to use other technologies in order to achieve these ever more rigorous levels. A homogeneous torch ignition system is a viable alternative for reducing CO2 emissions with a combined reduction in specific fuel consumption and increased thermal efficiency. Thus a prototype adapted from an Otto engine with four cylinders is used for analysis. The performance and CO2 emission reference data were initially obtained with the baseline engine operating with a stoichiometric mixture. Then for the same conditions of BMEP, angular velocity and gradual lean of the mixture from the stoichiometry, the results of the adapted system are obtained. The results obtained demonstrate a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, specific consumption and an increase of the thermal efficiency. The gains obtained are the result of a burning rate and consequently a lower ignition advance used, resulting in a…
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Proposal for Improving the Performance of Longitudinal Acceleration of a Land Vehicle

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Bruno Silva de Lima, Rafael Megale de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira Moraes, Gustavo Abreu Araújo, Gabriel Mendes de Almeida Carvalho
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The present study introduces a proposal to improve the longitudinal performance of a land vehicle through the adoption of an unusual traction control system. The system is capable of improving the transfer of engine power to the ground and reduces the complexity of the task being performed by the driver. High-performance vehicles are able to achieve high levels of longitudinal acceleration and, sometimes, the power excess leads to the spinoff of the drive wheels, which decrease the ability of the tires to generate force, and consequently the vehicle acceleration.The proposed system acts in addition with the motor control, through the derivation of the motor speed signal, and its control by comparison with a predefined value. The control can delay or even suppress the ignition of the engine. Thus, the rate at which the engine gains speed, and consequently, the rate at which the vehicle accelerates, is limited. The benefits of the system are the low cost and the ease of application in a modern vehicle.
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Parameters Estimation of a Tire Model Based on Julien’s Theory

IME-André Noronha de Oliveira, Caroline Goulart Campos, Alejandro Oscar Peralta, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto, Aldélio Bueno Caldeira
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper uses an inverse problem approach to estimate parameters of a tire model based on Julien’s Theory (JT). The modeling process of an all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicle is presented in this work, as well as JT and Pacejka’s Magic Formula (MF) tire models. Numerical simulations of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics, considering MF, provide pseudo-experimental data to the inverse problem. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Random Restricted Window (R2W) and Differential Evolution (DE) are used to estimate the parameters of the JT tire model. Accuracy, computational time, efficiency and efficacy of the models are compared regarding the behavior of the performance responses of the vehicle. Throughout this process, Julien’s Theory is validated for use in future studies of vehicle dynamics.
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Development of a Commercial Truck Parabolic Leaf Spring Using CAE Simulation with Correlated Experimental Stress Analysis Results

Ford Motor Company-Milton Monteverde Belli
Rassini NHK-Ricardo Daldegan
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations. The initial proposed design was evaluated using ANSYS and the parabolic profile was modified for better stress distribution along all leaves, and then measured on real parts to guarantee the design and CAE models were robust enough before producing final parts for full vehicle accelerated durability tests on the proving ground. The correlation between CAE and real part measurements will be presented, showing that the mathematical model was robust…
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Improve Frame Assembly Flexibility with Low Investment

Ford Motor Company-Vitor Gutierrez, Winston Attrot
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
Commercial vehicles are being developed for long decades in Brazil creating a deep background on manufacturing process. With the current scenario a variety of different vehicles specifications (weight capacity, load distribution, torque, size, etc.) are being required by the market. Joints with bolts and nuts are the engineering solution for the most of the problems found in automotive engineering regarding commercial vehicles. Screw processes were made during the last 150 years.Nowadays current frame modifications on aftermarket are made with arc weld process that affects directly the material properties and the process needs to be performed by critical personal with training and capacity. In addition cost and timing does not fit for the best equation on how to proceed with the modifications.The solution proposed brings more flexibility on frame assemblies that can be extended to other products. It brings an open space applicability to many opportunities without great impacts to manufacturing process and machinery in line with low cost and investments.
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Viability of Application of the Double Layer Technique in Welding Multiple Passes for Vehicle Structure and Heavy Haul Machinery

Federal Institute of Pará Marabá Industrial Campus-Carlos Vinicius de Paes Santos, Daniel Rodrigues Oliveira, Everaldo Afonso Fernandes, Fabrício Paiva da Silva
Federal University of Pará-Alexandre Saldanha do Nascimento, Carlos Alberto Mendes da Mota, Humberto Aguirre Muños
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
The maintenance and manufacture of Chassis have been used of more noble materials in the welding applied to the most critical points. In this sense, this study presents the results of some researches developed with ASTM A182 F22 structural steel (a low alloyed steel) by the AWS ER 80S-G Wire. For the buttery, the double layer technique was used with "Higuchi" and "modified Higuchi " tests and the application of "decision diagrams" to refine the parameters to be used. In order to verify the efficiency of the mentioned techniques of fabrication, microhardness tests were carried out, the presence of carbides formed at the interface between the filling and buttery was observed, these responsible for microhardness alterations were also observed the presence of undesired structures such as Martensite in the analyzed ZACs. The welding process used was the GMAW with gas Ar2% O2. Results will be presented regarding the analysis of optical microscopy of the ZAC's in the buttery/ base metal interface.
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