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Digital Shaping and Optimization of Fuel Injection Pattern for a Common Rail Automotive Diesel Engine through Numerical Simulation

General Motors Global Propulsion Systems-Francesco Concetto Pesce
Politecnico di Torino-Francesco Sapio, Andrea Piano, Federico Millo
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Development trends in modern Common Rail Fuel Injection System (FIS) show dramatically increasing capabilities in terms of optimization of the fuel injection pattern through a constantly increasing number of injection events per engine cycle along with a modulation and shaping of the injection rate. In order to fully exploit the potential of the abovementioned fuel injection pattern optimization, numerical simulation can play a fundamental role by allowing the creation of a kind of a virtual injection rate generator for the assessment of the corresponding engine outputs in terms of combustion characteristics such as burn rate, emission formation and combustion noise (CN). This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of digitalization of pilot events in the injection pattern on Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), CN and emissions for a EURO 6 passenger car 4-cylinder diesel engine. The numerical evaluation was performed considering steady-state conditions for 3 key points representative of typical operating conditions in the low-medium load range. The optimization process was carried out through numerical simulation, by means of a suitable target…
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Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Different Thermal Insulation Strategies for a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

General Motors Global Propulsion Systems-Giancarlo Cifali, Francesco Concetto Pesce
Politecnico di Torino-Sabino Caputo, Federico Millo
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-24-0021
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
One of the key technologies for the improvement of the diesel engine thermal efficiency is the reduction of the engine heat transfer through the thermal insulation of the combustion chamber. This paper presents a numerical investigation on the effects of the combustion chamber insulation on the heat transfer, thermal efficiency and exhaust temperatures of a 1.6 l passenger car, turbo-charged diesel engine. First, the complete insulation of the engine components, like pistons, liner, firedeck and valves, has been simulated. This analysis has showed that the piston is the component with the greatest potential for the in-cylinder heat transfer reduction and for Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) reduction, followed by firedeck, liner and valves. Afterwards, the study has been focused on the impact of different piston Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) on heat transfer, performance and wall temperatures. This analysis has been performed using a 1-D engine simulation code coupled with a lumped mass thermal model, representing the engine structure. A time-periodic wall conduction model has been used to calculate the wall temperature swings along the combustion…
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An Investigation Into the Port Timing of a Burt-McCollum Sleeve Valve and Its Interaction with a Simple Variable Compression Ratio Mechanism

University Of Bath-James W.G. Turner, James P. Lewis Monsma
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Modern automotive engines almost exclusively operate on the 4-stroke Otto cycle and utilize poppet valves for gas exchange. This state of affairs has not always been the case, however, and one unusual and relatively successful technology that was once in mass production (albeit in piston aero engines) was the Burt-McCollum single sleeve valve. This paper investigates the timing and angle-area of a Bristol Centaurus engine cylinder, which utilized such a single sleeve valve for gas exchange, using some modern tools. A comparison with poppet valve angle-areas is made. Finally, the results are also used to study the potential of variable valve timing and the interaction with variable compression ratio of a single sleeve mechanism.An opportunity for the sleeve valve is provided by the fact that direct injector placement in the cylinder junk head is effectively completely free, and furthermore multiple ignition sites can be incorporated to increase the delivered ignition energy for dilute mixtures, for example. Furthermore, as there are no mechanical impact loads (as arise from poppet valves hitting their seats, for instance), theoretically…
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Composition Platform for Conventional and Hybrid Powertrains

Institute of Automotive Engineering-Haijun Chen, Lin Li, Mark Schudeleit, Andreas Lange, Ferit Küçükay
Institute of Internal Combustion Engines-Christian Stamme, Peter Eilts
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
In view of the rapidly increasing complexity of conventional as well as hybrid powertrains, a systematic composition platform seeking for the global optimum powertrain is presented in this paper. The platform can be mainly divided into three parts: the synthesis of the transmission, the synthesis of the internal combustion engine (ICE) and the optimization and evaluation of the entire powertrain.In regard to the synthesis of transmission concepts, a systematical and computer-aided tool suitable both for conventional und hybrid transmissions is developed. With this tool, all the potential transmission concepts, which can realize the desired driving modes or ratios, can be synthesized based on the vehicle data and requirements. As a result of the transmission synthesis, the detailed information of each transmission concept, including the transmission structure, the shifting logic, the estimated efficiency in each gear, and the estimated space arrangement of the transmission can be given out.The synthesis of transmission concepts is complemented by a comprehensive tool able to synthesize internal combustion engines of gasoline and gasoline/Atkinson type. The ICE synthesis precalculates frictional and thermodynamic…
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Experimental Investigation of Orifice Design Effects on a Methane Fuelled Prechamber Gas Engine for Automotive Applications

Technical University of Munich-Laura Sophie Baumgartner, Stephan Karmann, Fabian Backes, Andreas Stadler, Georg Wachtmeister
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
Due to its molecular structure, methane provides several advantages as fuel for internal combustion engines. To cope with nitrogen oxide emissions high levels of excess air are beneficial, which on the other hand deteriorates the flammability and combustion duration of the mixture. One approach to meet these challenges and ensure a stable combustion process are fuelled prechambers. The flow and combustion processes within these prechambers are highly influenced by the position, orientation, number and overall cross-sectional area of the orifices connecting the prechamber and the main combustion chamber. In the present study, a water-cooled single cylinder test engine with a displacement volume of 0.5 l is equipped with a methane-fuelled prechamber. To evaluate influences of the aforementioned orifices several prechambers with variations of the orientation and number of nozzles are used under different operating conditions of engine speed and load. The orifices and therefore the intermediate products of the combustion emanating the prechamber are either aimed towards the squish area of the main chamber or perpendicular to the piston surface. With a constant diameter of…
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Investigation of Knock Damage Mechanisms on a GDI TC Engine

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo, Lorella Ceschini, Eleonora Balducci
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, and knocking combustion mode has become one of the most relevant limiting factors. This paper reports the main results of a specific project carried out as part of a wider research activity, aimed at modelling and real-time controlling knock-induced damage on aluminum forged pistons. The paper shows how the main damage mechanisms (erosion, plastic deformation, surface roughness, hardness reduction) have been identified and isolated, and how the corresponding symptoms may be measured and quantified. The second part of the work then concentrates on understanding how knocking combustion characteristics affect the level of induced damage, and which parameters are mainly responsible for piston failure. For this purpose, steady-state tests have been conducted controlling different and constant levels of knock intensity (i.e., pressure waves oscillation amplitude) and thermal load (i.e., average temperature and pressure levels inside the combustion chamber). Since these parameters are strictly interrelated for a given engine operating condition and for a given fuel, fuels with…
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Simulation Research on the Combustion Characteristics of Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engine under Different Ignition Timings and Ignition Energies

Harbin Engineering University-En-Zhe Song, Shi-Chao Chu, Li-Ping Yang, Zhen-Ting Liu
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
A CFD model of natural gas engine was established, and working process from intake stroke to combustion stroke was simulated in this paper. Based on the validation of CFD model through experimental method, the combustion characteristics of lean-burn natural gas engine are studied under different ignition timings and different ignition energies. Results indicate that, the in-cylinder indicated mean effective pressure increases with the ignition timing advancing from 22°CA BTDC to 32°CA BTDC at the same load level. Meanwhile, the heat release rate is increased by 23.18J/°CA and its peak phase is advanced by 9°CA. The peak pressure is also increased by 45.95% and its phase is advanced by 4.5°CA. On the other hand, when the ignition energy decreases from 91.97mJ to 33.1mJ at the same load level, the in-cylinder indicated mean effective pressure decreases. Moreover, the heat release rate is decreased by 15.18J/°CA and its peak phase is delayed by 6.5°CA, the peak pressure is decreased by 22.46% and its phase is delayed by 4.5°CA. The advancing ignition timing and increasing ignition energy enlarge the…
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Dynamic Validation and Sensitivity Analysis of a NOx Estimation Model Based on In-Cylinder Pressure Measurement

Politecnico di Bari - DMMM-Sergio Mario Camporeale, Patrizia D. Ciliberti
Università Del Salento-Antonio Carlucci, Daniela Ingrosso
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The incoming RDE regulation and the on-board diagnostics -OBD- pushes the research activity towards the set-up of a more and more efficient after treatment system. Nowadays, the most common after treatment system for NOx reduction is the selective catalytic reduction -SCR- . This system requires as an input the value of engine out NOx emission -raw- in order to control the Urea dosing strategy. In this work, an already existing grey box NOx raw emission model based on in-cylinder pressure signal (ICPS) is validated on two standard cycles: MNEDC and WLTC using an EU6 engine at the test bench. The overall results show a maximum relative error of the integrated cumulative value of 12.8% and 17.4% for MNEDC and WLTC respectively. In particular, the instantaneous value of relative error is included in the range of ± 10% in the steady state conditions while during transient conditions is less than 20% mainly.Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to understand how the model “answers” to any air and fuel parameter deviation.
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Development of a Gasoline Particulate Filter for China 6(b) Emission Standards

Changan Automobile Co., Ltd.-Shuxia Miao, Lin Luo, Yan Liu, Zhangsong Zhan
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
New emissions regulations of light-duty vehicles (China 6) will be implemented in China from July 1, 2020. This standard includes two stages, China 6a and China 6(b), in which the PM limits of 4.5 mg/km and 3.0 mg/km are introduced respectively; the PN limit is set to be 6×1011 #/km for both stages. The WLTC testing cycle will be implemented in China 6 regulation as well.In this study a light-duty vehicle satisfying China 6(b) emission standards was developed by improving the engine raw emissions, optimizing the calibration and adding a coated GPF to the after-treatment system. The impacts of ash content and consumption of engine oil and the fast ash accumulation to vehicle emissions and backpressure were analyzed through dynamometer testing. The vehicle after-treatment system was then designed and developed to meet China 6(b) emission standards. The characteristics of soot accumulated through mimicking routine driving under cold environments were tested. The critical conditions of passive regeneration and the controlling strategies of active regenerations of GPF were also studied.
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Chemical Kinetics and Computational Fluid-Dynamics Analysis of H2/CO/CO2/CH4 Syngas Combustion and NOx Formation in a Micro-Pilot-Ignited Supercharged Dual Fuel Engine

Northumbria University-Nearchos Stylianidis, Ulugbek Azimov
Okayama University-Nobuyuki Kawahara, Eiji Tomita
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
A chemical kinetics and computational fluid-dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to evaluate the combustion of syngas derived from biomass and coke-oven solid feedstock in a micro-pilot ignited supercharged dual-fuel engine under lean conditions. For this analysis, a reduced syngas chemical kinetics mechanism was constructed and validated by comparing the ignition delay and laminar flame speed data with those obtained from experiments and other detail chemical kinetics mechanisms available in the literature. The reaction sensitivity analysis was conducted for ignition delay at elevated pressures in order to identify important chemical reactions that govern the combustion process. We have confirmed the statements of other authors that HO2+OH=H2O+O2, H2O2+M=OH+OH+M and H2O2+H=H2+HO2 reactions showed very high sensitivity during high-pressure ignition delay times and had considerable uncertainty. The chemical kinetics of NOx formation was analyzed for H2/CO/CO2/CH4 syngas mixtures by using counter flow burner and premixed laminar flame speed reactor. The new mechanism showed a very good agreement with experimental measurements and accurately reproduced the effect of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio on NOx formation. In order to identify the…
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