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WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience
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Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine: Cold Start on Gasoline and Diesel

Wayne State University-Sampad Mukhopadhyay, Sunil Srinivas Badavath, Naeim Henein
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The superior fuel economy of direct injection internal combustion engines (diesel and gasoline) is related to use of a high compression ratio to auto-ignite the fuel and the overall lean combustible mixture. Two of the major problems in diesel engine emissions are the NOx and soot emissions, which are caused by the heterogeneity of the charge and the properties of the diesel fuel. Conventional Direct Injection Spark Ignition Gasoline engines don't have these problems because of the fuel properties particularly its volatility. However, its efficiency and specific power output are limited by the knock, knock produced preignition and the sporadic preignition phenomenon. The Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI) engine combines the superior features of the two engines by increasing the compression ratio and use of gasoline as a fuel. One of the main advantages of the GDICI engine is the low combustion temperature and associated low engine out emissions of NOx and Particulates.This paper presents results of an investigation using a high compression ratio, single cylinder, naturally aspirated, high speed, HATZ diesel engine modified…
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Impact of Hydrothermal Aging on the Formation and Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate on a Cu/zeolite SCR Catalyst

SAE International Journal of Engines

Cummins Emission Solutions-Nathan Ottinger, Yuanzhou Xi, Christopher Keturakis, Z. Gerald Liu
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0946
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Low-temperature (T ≤ 200°C) NOx conversion is receiving increasing research attention due to continued potential reductions in regulated NOx emissions from diesel engines. At these temperatures, ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium nitrate, ammonium (bi)sulfate, etc.) can form as a result of interactions between NH3 and NOx or SOx, respectively. The formation of these salts can reduce the availability of NH3 for NOx conversion, block active catalyst sites, and result in the formation of N2O, a regulated Greenhouse Gas (GHG). In this study, we investigate the effect of hydrothermal aging on the formation and decomposition of ammonium nitrate on a state-of-the-art Cu/zeolite selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst. Reactor-based constant-temperature ammonium nitrate formation, temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), and NO titration experiments are used to characterize the effect of hydrothermal aging from 600 to 950°C. N2 adsorption (BET) surface area and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments are also conducted in order to correlate the morphological effects of hydrothermal aging with concomitant changes in ammonium nitrate chemistry. The insights provided herein support the diesel aftertreatment communities’ ongoing…
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Fatigue Life Prediction of Induction Hardened Case Depth Specimens Made From 38MnVS6 Micro Alloyed Steel

Bharat Forge Ltd-Manoj R Ukhande, Girish M Shegavi, Raj Kumar Prasad Singh
Bharat Forge, Ltd.-Dattaprasad Lomate
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The application of induction hardening treatment plays a vital role for enhancing fatigue life of various automotive components. This will incorporate compressive residual stresses in the component at significant extent. In this paper, wide range of experiments have been carried out on Rotating Bending Fatigue (RBF) specimens made from 38MnVS6 micro alloyed steel with induction hardening up to three different case depths. The set of specimens are fatigue tested at fully reverse loading condition using rotating bending fatigue testing machine. Based on this study a surface treatment factor is evaluated. This surface treatment factor is used as an input for evaluating precise fatigue life of the specimen using FEA packages. The fatigue life evaluated using FEA is showing good agreement with the results obtained through tests on the actual specimens.
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Software Test and Calibration Using Virtual Manufacturing

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Claudio Mancuso
GM Powertrain-William Goodwin
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes how distributive computing along with statistical subsystem simulation can be applied to produce near production ready embedded vehicle software and calibrations. Coupling distributive computing and statistical simulation was first employed over a decade ago at General Motors to design and analyze propulsion subsystem hardware. Recently this method of simulation has been enhanced extending its capabilities to both test embedded vehicle code as well as develop calibrations. A primary advantage of this simulation technique is its ability to generate data from a statistically significant population of subsystems. The result is the acquisition of an optimal data set enabling the development of a robust design now including both embedded code and calibrations. Additionally it has been shown that there are significant economic advantages in terms of time and cost associated with this type of development when compared to traditional method. The following section will describe in detail using examples and data the advantages of this innovative approach to software testing and calibration.
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An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

Ford Motor Company-Jianbo Lu
University of Michigan-Tomas Poloni
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear. The estimated ERR are further processed to compute the unloaded tire radius (UTR). The UTR directly reflects the tread depth loss that the proposed on-board tire…
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On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

SAE International Journal of Engines

CTS Corporation-Alexander Sappok, Paul Ragaller, Andrew Herman
Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Leslie Bromberg
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0950
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions…
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Safety Modeling of High Voltage Cabling in Electrified Powertrains

Ford Motor Company-Amar Marpu, George Garfinkel, Patrick Maguire
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Modeling of High Voltage (HV) wires is an important aspect of vehicle safety simulations for electrified powertrains to understand the potential tearing of the wire sheath or pinching of HV wiring. The behavior of the HV wires must be reviewed in safety simulations to identify potential hazards associated with HV wire being exposed, severed, or in contact with ground planes during a crash event. Modeling HV wire is challenging due to the complexity of the physical composition of the wire, which is usually comprised of multiple strands bundled and often twisted together to form the HV electrical conductor. This is further complicated by the existence of external insulating sheathing materials to prevent HV exposure during normal operating conditions.This paper describes a proposed method to model and characterize different types of HV wires for usage in component- and vehicle-level safety models. The resulting approach enables the Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) analyst to visualize the 3D behavior of HV wire during a crash event simulation. In addition, this paper provides steps needed to validate the model via simplified…
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Steady-State and Transient Operations of a Euro VI 3.0L HD Diesel Engine with Innovative Model-Based and Pressure-Based Combustion Control Techniques

SAE International Journal of Engines

FPT Motorenforschung AG-Gilles Hardy
Politecnico di Torino-Ezio Spessa, Stefano D'Ambrosio, Daniele Iemmolo, Alessandro Mancarella, Roberto Vitolo
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0695
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, different combustion control strategies have been experimentally tested in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. In particular, closed-loop pressure-based and open-loop model-based techniques, able to perform a real-time control of the center of combustion (MFB50), have been compared with the standard map-based engine calibration in order to highlight their potentialities. In the pressure-based technique, the instantaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure signal is performed by a pressure transducer, from which the MFB50 can be directly calculated and the start of the injection of the main pulse (SOImain) is set in a closed-loop control to reach the MFB50 target, while the model-based approach exploits a heat release rate predictive model to estimate the MFB50 value and sets the corresponding SOImain in an open-loop control.The experimental campaign involved both steady-state and transient tests. The three control techniques were compared in steady-state tests under various conditions, featuring standard as well as PCCI combustion mode, different kinds of fuels, a disturbance added to the pressure signals from in-cylinder transducers (to simulate the effect of…
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Novel Approach in Vehicle Front-End Modeling for Numerical Analyses of Pedestrian Impact Scenarios

Brano a.s.-Radek Valasek
IDIADA CZ a.s.-Tomas Moser
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a novel approach in developing a simplified model of a vehicle front-end is presented. Its surface is segmented to form an MBS model with hundreds of rigid bodies connected via translational joints to a base body. Local stiffness of each joint is calibrated using a headform or a legform impactor corresponding to the EuroNCAP mapping. Hence, the distribution of stiffness of the front-end is taken into account. The model of the front-end is embedded in a whole model of a small car in a simulation of a real accident. The VIRTHUMAN model is scaled in height, weight and age to represent precisely the pedestrian involved. Injury risk predicted by simulation is in correlation with data from real accident. Namely, injuries of head, chest and lower extremities are confirmed. Finally, mechanical response of developed vehicle model is compared to an FE model of the same vehicle in a pedestrian impact scenario. VIRTHUMAN model of a 13-year-old boy (150 cm, 40 kg) is chosen to represent the pedestrian and the lateral impact at 45…
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The Role of Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction in Simulating End-of-Injection Combustion Transients in Diesel Sprays

Georgia Institute of Technology-Sayop Kim, Dorrin Jarrahbashi, Caroline Genzale
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates the role of turbulent-chemistry interaction in simulations of diesel spray combustion phenomena after end-of-injection (EOI), using the commercially-available CFD code CONVERGE. Recent experimental and computational studies have shown that the spray flame dynamics and mixture formation after EOI are governed by turbulent entrainment, coupled with rapid evolution of the thermo-chemical state of the mixture field. A few studies have shown that after EOI, mixtures between the injector nozzle and the lifted diffusion flame can ignite and appear to propagate back towards the injector nozzle via an auto-ignition reaction sequence; referred to as “combustion recession”. Because combustion recession occurs in the near-nozzle region, where characteristic fuel jet scales are on the order of the injector nozzle diameter, typical engine CFD simulations with relatively large grid scales may not accurately capture sub-grid scale turbulent mixing and mixing-chemistry interactions in this phenomenon. In this study, CFD simulations of combustion recession in diesel spray flames are executed to explore this topic. The Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) model with a multiple flamelets approach is employed to account…
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