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11th International Conference on Engines & Vehicles
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Performance and Emission Characteristics of Isobutanol-Diesel Blend in Water Cooled CI Engine Employing EGR with EGR Intercooler

Delhi Technological University-Anuj Pal, Manish V, Sahil Gupta, Naveen Kumar
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The increasing rate of fossil fuel depletion and large scale debasement of the environment has been a serious concern across the globe. This twin problem of energy crises has caused researchers to look for a variety of solutions in the field of internal combustion engines. In this current scenario the issue of fuel availability has increased the use alternative fuels, especially alcohol derived fuels. Alcohol-diesel blends can be been seen as a prominent fuel for CI engine in the near future. Previous research on the use of alcohol as an alternative fuel in CI engines is restricted to short branch alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol. Despite their comparable combustion properties longer chain alcohols, such as butanol, isobutanol and pentanol have been barely investigated. In the present study performance and emission characteristics of an isobutanol-diesel blend was studied. One of the major problems encountered by isobutanol in CI engines is its low cetane rating. The blending of isobutanol in diesel helps in overcoming this problem. This fuel shows several advantages, such as reduced CO, NOx…
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Assessment of a New Quasi-Dimensional Multizone Combustion Model for the Spray and Soot Formation Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Politecnico di Torino-Roberto Finesso, Ezio Spessa
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-24-0044
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
An innovative quasi-dimensional multizone combustion model for the spray formation, combustion and emission formation analysis in DI diesel engines was assessed and applied to an optical single cylinder engine.The model, which has been recently presented by the authors, integrates a predictive non stationary 1D spray model developed by the Sandia National Laboratory, with a diagnostic multizone thermodynamic model.The 1D spray model is capable of predicting the equivalence ratio of the fuel during the mixing process, as well as the spray penetration.The multizone approach is based on the application of the mass and energy conservation laws to several homogeneous zones identified in the combustion chamber. A specific submodel is also implemented to simulate the dilution of the burned gases.Soot formation is modeled by an expression which derives from Kitamura et al.'s results, in which an explicit dependence on the local equivalence ratio is considered.The model was used to analyze low load (BMEP = 2 bar at 1500 rpm) and medium load (BMEP = 5 bar at 2000 rpm) operating conditions in an optical single cylinder engine…
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Effect of the Shape of the Combustion Chamber on Dual Fuel Combustion

Universita del Salento-Teresa Donateo, Luciano Strafella, Domenico Laforgia
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The effect of the shape of the bowl on the combustion process and emissions of a Natural Gas - Diesel dual fuel engine is analyzed. The simulation of the dual fuel combustion is performed with a modified version of the KIVA3V code where diesel is treated as the main fuel and a further reacting specie is introduced as methane (CH4). The auto-ignition of the pilot is simulated with a modified version of the Shell model and the first stage of the combustion, related to the pilot burning process, is simulated with the Characteristic Time Combustion model. When the temperature of the mixture reaches a certain threshold, a kernel of combustion is initialized. Until the kernel reaches a nominal radius the combustion of CH4 is prevented. The combustion of CH4 is simulated with a turbulent characteristic time too. Numerical models were chosen as a compromise between accuracy and computational time. The model has been validated with comparison to experimental data including in-cylinder pressure traces and tailpipe emissions. The numerical analysis has been performed with respect to…
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Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

AVL List GmbH-P. Priesching
Universitat Politècnica de València-J.V. Pastor, C. Micó
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation.It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.The AVL FIRE CFD code has physical sub models for multi-component spray evaporation and multi-component combustion implemented. This work presents the validation of these models under realistic IC engine conditions. For this purpose five binary…
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Diesel Engine Combustion Optimization for Bio-Diesel Blends Using Taguchi and ANOVA Statistical Methods

AVL Powertrain UK Ltd-Bo Gao, Michail Soumelidis
David Lemon Consultants-David Lemon
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine emissions are directly influenced by the air fuel mixture within the cylinder chamber. Increasing concern over the environment impacts of the exhaust pollutants has enforced the setting of emissions legislation since the 1960s. In the last decades emissions legislations have become stricter which resulted to the introduction of multiple injection strategies and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in the cylinder in order to abate emissions produced. In this study, the effect of injection rate for double in-cylinder injection in combination with various EGR and bio-diesel fuel rates has been studied using CFD simulations. Taguchi orthogonal arrays have been used for reducing the number of simulations for possible combinations of different rates of injection quantities, EGR composition and bio-diesel quantities. Oneway analysis of variance technique (ANOVA) has been used to estimate the importance of the above factors to the emissions output and performance of the engine. Results showed that using statistical methods, the optimum parameters can be found for reducing the emissions output of the engine without reducing the IMEP. NOx and soot emissions for…
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Viking 45 Electric HybridDesign, Construction and Analysis: A Quest for the $10 million Progressive Automotive X Prize

Western Washington Univ.-Eric C. Leonhardt, Edoh Amiran
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Faculty and undergraduate students at the Vehicle Research Institute developed the parallel electric hybrid Viking 45 to compete in the Progressive Automotive X Prize. The contest challenged auto manufacturers to build vehicles that could achieve a gasoline equivalent fuel efficiency of 2.35 liter per 100 km while meeting a subset of U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emission standards. The contest offered a $10 million purse to encourage participation.Viking 45 features a 50 kW, three cylinder gasoline engine coupled with a 23 kW electric motor. A 9.6 kWh lithium polymer battery pack allows the vehicle to travel more than 100 km at 100 km/hr. Carbon fiber composite vacuum assisted resin transfer techniques were developed to demonstrate the potential for low volume (10,000 units/year) production. The monocoque chassis demonstrated carbon fiber honeycomb for impact attenuation structures to manage front and side impacts. These materials enabled the test weight of the vehicle, with driver to be 789 kg. The vehicle achieved a top ten finish out of 136 vehicles entered.
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Design - Cost and Energy

CSI/IDMEC - LAETA, Portugal-Joao M. C. Sousa
IDMEC/IST, Portugal-Joao Pinto Ribau, Carla Silva
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this study is to optimize the powertrain of a fuel cell powered hybrid electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, aiming to minimize the cost, minimize fuel consumption, and maximixe all-electric range (AER). A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to perform single objective optimization, and a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to perform multi-objective optimization. Both algorithms were programmed in MATLAB. The cost, fuel consumption and AER were optimized by the GA individually, and the couples cost and fuel consumption, and cost and AER, were evaluated by the NSGA-II. In order to optimize the vehicle powertrain, not only the fuel cell, electric motor, and battery, are sized but different component models are also considered, including different battery chemistries (Lithium and Nickel-metal hydride). The battery charge sustaining level is also an optimization variable. The vehicle design is evaluated by a vehicle simulation software, ADVISOR which is connected to the optimization algorithms. The designed vehicles are simulated in a real measured driving cycle in Lisbon downtown (LisbonDt) and in the official European driving cycle…
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Experimental Investigation of a Methane-Gasoline Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Small Displacement Optical Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Silvana Di Iorio, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
In this paper the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion was investigated. Gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel), while methane was injected in the combustion chamber (DI fuel), in order to reproduce a stratified combustion. The combustion process and the related engine performance and pollutant emissions were analyzed.The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe. Optical measurements were performed to analyze the combustion process with high spatial and temporal resolution. In particular, optical techniques based on 2D-digital imaging were used to follow the flame front propagation and the soot and temperature concentration in the combustion chamber. The regulated and unregulated emissions were characterized by means of gaseous analyzers, a gas chromatography and an opacimeter at the exhaust. The measurements were performed under steady state conditions at fixed engine speed at different dual fuel ratios. The measurement showed that dual fuel operation permit to improve the quality of…
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Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

Magneti Marelli Powertrain SPA-Matteo De Cesare, Federico Stola
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Giorgio Mancini, Enrico Corti, Davide Moro
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions.In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).The proposal of the underlying work is to investigate and identify optimal exhaust line heating strategies, to provide a fast activation of the catalytic reactions on SCR. The main constrain is to limit the potential fuel consumption increase, and possibly to even increase global efficiency, and the chosen…
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Influence of Ethanol-gasoline Blended Fuels on Cold Start Emissions of a Four-stroke Motorcycle. Methodology and Results

Universita di Napoli-Paolo Iodice, Adolfo Senatore
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ethanol-gasoline mixtures on cold emissive behavior of commercial motorcycles. For the newly sold motorcycles, equipped with a three-way catalyst and electronic mixture control, CO and HC cold additional emissions, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, represent an important proportion of total emissions. On the other hand, ethanol is known as potential alcohol alternative fuel for spark ignition engines, which can be blended with gasoline to increase oxygen content and then to decrease emissions. From this explanations, a research on cold start emissions of motorcycles using ethanol-gasoline mixtures was conducted. In this specific study, a motorcycle (belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category) was operated on a chassis dynamometer and driven according to the ECE driving cycle to analyze the exhaust cold extra emissions of CO and HC, while the ethanol was mixed with unleaded gasoline in three different percentages (10, 20 and 30 % v/v). Results of the tests and the application of a calculation procedure, designed to model the cold start transient…
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