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Development of Finite Element Human Model for Events of Frontal Impact

Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association-Koichi Kamiji, Tuyoshi Yasuki
Japan Automobile Research Institute-Susumu Ejima, Yoshio Zama, Jacobo Antona, Koji Mikami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0193
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Finite element human models (FE model) are developed worldwide to assess injury mechanisms caused by collisions by using numerical simulations. Bio-fidelity of the model is important in order to clarify the injury mechanisms with the model. In this report, a full body human FE model to assess injuries in an event of front impact is presented. Chest of the model was validated based on experimental results from component tests and table-top tests with Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). Moreover, kinematics of full body of the model has been evaluated by results of impact sled tests with PMHS.
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A Study on the Improvement of a Dirt Contamination Phenomenon in a Heavy-Duty Truck

Hyundai Motor & Kia Motors-Minho Kim, Sunggu Kwon, Wooseok Kim, Jeonghwan Choi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0372
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The aerodynamic characteristics of heavy-duty trucks have become more and more important in recent vehicle designs. Hence, detailed knowledge of the flow field around vehicle is essential to improved fuel efficiency and reduced dirt contamination on the vehicle body surface. Especially, in the case of trucks driving off-road and on a wet road, dust generated by tire/soil interaction spoils not only the vehicle appearance, but also safety of the field of view because of adhesion to the body surface, side window, and exterior mirror. In this study, in the first step, full scale wind tunnel test was performed to verify the effectiveness of digital wind tunnel. In this stage, prediction results on the aerodynamic coefficients and surface pressure on the front face of trailer were compared with those of wind tunnel test. In the second step, simulation process concerning dirt contamination was also established by using digital wind tunnel with high accuracy. As a result of this study, it is confirmed that the digital wind tunnel results regarding surface pressure and drag force agrees well…
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Influence of Optical Flow Image on Road Width Perception

Kansai Univ.-Takafumi Asao, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hiroaki Awai, Ryosuke Shibata, Ken Horii, Kentaro Kotani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0018
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Drivers tend to decelerate their vehicles while driving through narrow roads for fear of accidents, even if there is no such risk. In this study, it is hypothesized that drivers tend to underestimate the road width under a radical flow image condition as compared to under a stationary image condition. This hypothesis has been verified by performing alley experiments in VR environments. In these experiments, distortions of participants' visual space against the physical Cartesian coordinate space are measured. Results of these experiments show that the visual space under the radical flow image condition deflects inward as compared to that under the stationary image condition.
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Influence on the Plane Engine Bearings by Using Bio-Diesel Fuel

Taiho Kogyo Co., Ltd.-Yoichiro Tsuboi, Takashi Tomikawa, Yasuhiro Hikita, Yoshitaka Miyahara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0197
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, the use of the bio-fuel is promoted for reducing CO₂ emissions. The bio-fuel and/or the combustion products are mixed with engine oil through gap between piston ring and cylinder liner. In that case, it is feared that the mixed oil has negative influences for the plane engine bearings. The influences are decrease in seizer resistance and acceleration of corrosion. In this paper, we describe the results of seizure test and corrosion test of the plane engine bearings by using the bio-diesel fuel.
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Natural Wind Influence on Fuel Consumption for Highway Heavy Trucks (Part 2)

Kurume Institute of Technology-Yasuo Ide, Shigeru Ikeda, Kohichi Kajiyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0376
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The quartered mean wind directions in the real wind model which was previously applied to (a) flat body (vacant) of heavy trucks by us is here similarly applied to (b) flat body with freights and (c) box body of heavy trucks (80 km/h (22.2 m/s)) to obtain the short-term wind influence on fuel consumption (WIF), βfi, for the mean head wind (i=1, ⎟θ⎟≺45°), the mean side wind (i=2 and 4, 45°≺⎟θ⎟≺135°) and the mean tail wind (i=3, ⎟θ⎟≻135°) where θ denotes wind direction, after the wind tunnel data of aerodynamic drag coefficient, CD to yaw angles obtained by Naysmith (1982) are wholly referenced and studied for approximations of yaw property, rcd for each body. It is shown that the (c) box body trucks have larger WIF of 14-23%, or the larger fuel loss due to the natural winds of head winds as well as side winds of 3 m/s.
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Effectiveness of Mechanical Turbo Compounding in a Modern Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Timothy J. Callahan, David P. Branyon, Ana C. Forster, Michael G. Ross, Dean J. Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0340
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Over the years, multiple engine manufacturers have offered mechanical turbo compounding on some engine models as a means to improve the efficiency of diesel engines. In theory, converting exhaust energy which would otherwise be wasted to shaft work seems like a technical path that no manufacturer should ignore especially in today's world with the uncertainty of future CO₂ emission regulations or fuel economy standards. This paper offers an independent examination of the effectiveness of the most recent implementation of mechanical turbo compounding on the Detroit Diesel (Daimler) DD15.
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Development for Digital-Type Ultrasonic Sensor Self-Developed Tuning Tool (First Report)

Hyundai Motor Co.-Jeong Hoon Kim, Shin Won Lee, Woo Keun Cho, Kyung Shin Park, Chun Hyo Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0344
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
A conventional ultrasonic system will be replaced with a digital-type ultrasonic sensor system, which is better for cost-reduction and performance aspect than the old one. But the digital-type ultrasonic sensor system normally cannot provide ultrasonic echo signals from obstacle, which means quantitative sensor tuning is impossible. The reason for this is that every single element for ultrasonic application is integrated on ASIC in the digital-type ultrasonic sensor. But this weak point of the digital-type ultrasonic sensor has been solved by an ASIC improved by HMC, self-developed tuning communication protocol and a tuning program. From now on, the meaning and description of HMC digital-type sensor system will be dealt with in this article.
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Analysis of the Rescue Activities of Injured Vehicle Occupants by Rescue Team

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Yoshihiro Sukegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0089
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fire fighters have to carry out rescue activities of injured occupants in traffic accidents. The occupants are frequently trapped in devastated vehicle structures. However, few analysis of the relation between the vehicle structure and the rescue procedures has been done.In this report, accident cases and associated rescue activities were statistically analyzed. As a result, the rescue time required by fire fighters was 20 minutes on average. However, 14 rescues required over 31 minutes. When there were two or more persons to be rescued, the average rescue time exceeded 30 minutes. Rescues involving heavy truck frontal impacts took twice as long as rescues involving passenger car casualties. Moreover, rescue activities in which the colliding vehicle was a heavy truck required more rescue time than passenger car accidents.
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Effect of DMC-Blended Fuel on PM Formation in Combustion Chamber of DI Diesel Engine by Direct Sampling System

Kanazawa Institute of Technology-Tomoki Ikarashi, Kannsai Taura, Yoshimitu Kobashi, Satoshi Kato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0268
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this paper is to study PM reduction mechanism of DMC-blended fuel in DI diesel engine.A direct sampling system was used to obtain spatial and temporal information of combustion products in a combustion chamber. Experiments were conducted using gas oil and DMC-blended fuel. The experiment data was arranged with isoconcentration maps. As a result, maximum concentration THC and SOF reduce, the fuel spray volume of DMC-blended fuel which is low boiling temperature was slightly increased than gas oil.In addition, DMC-blended fuel has oxygen. Therefore, local excess air ratio increased.
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Development of the Exterior of Throttle Body for the Motorcycle

Keihin Corp.-Hiroshi Kikuchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2010-08-0053
Published 2010-05-19 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Under the concept of the harmonization with the exterior design of the motorcycle, the throttle body with the exterior color of the "deep black" was developed, in addition to maintaining the traditional beauty of the functional structure. The "deep black" coating of the die-casting throttle body made of the aluminum alloy ADC12 was achieved by the process based on the acid anodizing. (This process was used because of the quality control, minor change of the plant, and the popular technique).