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Optimal Pressure Relief Groove Geometry for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani, Vidya Marri
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the design of choice for engine friction reduction and fuel economy improvement. Unfortunately, this pump creates excessive pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the lubrication system and leading to the generation of objectionable tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different vanes spacing and porting geometries are used. Moreover, an oil pressure relief groove can be added, at the onset of the high pressure port, to achieve this goal.This paper presents an optimization method to identify the best geometry of the oil pressure relief groove. This method integrates adaptive meshing, 3D CFD simulation, Matlab routine and Genetic Algorithm based optimization. The genetic algorithm is used to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a large number of parameterized groove geometries. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the oil pressure relief groove is disclosed.
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Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

Xiaoqi Li
Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology.Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity. The algorithms that are explored include Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Ensembles of Trees (EOT) and Gaussian Process (GP). The variables selected as inputs to these algorithms include BMEP, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP), spark timing, crank…
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An Analytical Methodology for Engine Gear Rattle and Whine Assessment and Noise Simulation

FEV North America, Inc.-Joern Baumann, Brian Campbell
Ford Motor Company-Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Mario Felice
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a CAE methodology based on a multiphysics approach for engine gear noise evaluation is reviewed. The method comprises the results and outputs from several different analytical domains to perform the noise risk assessment. The assessment includes the source-path analysis of the gear-induced rattling and whining noise. The vibration data from the exterior surface of the engine is extended through acoustic analysis to perform the engine noise simulation and to identify acoustic hot spots contributing to the noise. The study includes simulations under different engine loading conditions with results presented in both time and frequency domains. Various sensitivity analyses involving different gear geometries and micro-geometries are investigated as well. Finally, the simulation results from three different engines are compared vis-a-vis.
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Topology Driven Design of Under-Hood Automotive Components for Optimal Weight and NVH Attributes

Altair Engineering-Linus Francis Fernandes, Abhilash Patel
Ford Motor Company-Sushanth Kumareshwar Panchaxrimath, Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Weight is a major factor during the development of Automotive Powertrains due to stringent fuel economy requirements. Light weighting constitutes a challenge to the engineering community when trying to deliver quieter powertrains. For this reason, the NVH (Noise Vibration Harshness) CAE engineers are adopting advanced vibro-acoustic simulation methods combined with topology optimization methods to drive the design of the under hood components for Noise Vibration and Harshness. Vibro-acoustic computational methods can be complex and require significant computation effort. Computation of Equivalent Radiated Power (referred to as ERP) is a simplified method to assess maximum dynamic radiation of components for specific excitations in frequency response analysis which in turn affects radiated sound. Topology Optimization is a mathematical technique used to find the best material distribution for structural systems in order to deliver a specific objective under clearly defined constraints.This paper will showcase the process adopted to optimize the weight of an under-hood automotive component while maintaining the ERP performance across several one third octave bands. In order to address the large eigenvalue problem solved during the…
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FEA-Based Simulation of Exhaust Hanger Forces

Ford Motor Company-Zefang Xu, Nagesh Gummadi, Daniel Woytowich, Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust systems can be a source of vibrations that transmit inside the vehicle through the exhaust hangers. These vibrations are caused by engine excitations under acceleration. During the upfront development stage, it is important to predict accurately the forces of the exhaust hangers in order to drive a robust exhaust system design and prevent objectionable noise and vibrations inside the vehicle. This paper describes an FEA-based simulation method to predict the exhaust hanger forces. It demonstrates the effect of temperature on the exhaust dynamic behavior and its importance for an accurate prediction of the exhaust hanger forces.
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Optimal Vanes Spacing for Improved NVH Performance of Variable Displacement Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani, Gabriela Dziubinschi, Vidya Marri, Simon Antonov
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In modern automotive engines, Variable Displacement Oil Pump (VDOP) is becoming the pump of choice to enable reduction in friction and delivery of stringent fuel economy. However, this pump creates pressure ripples, at the outlet port during oil pump shaft rotation, causing oscillating forces within the system and leading to the generation of tonal noises and vibrations. In order to minimize the level of noise, different porting geometries and vane spacing are used.This paper describes an optimization method intended to identify the best possible spacing of the vanes in the conventional 7-vanes, 9-vanes and 11-vanes oil pumps. The method integrates a Matlab routine with the modeFRONTIERsoftware to create the required design space in order to perform a multi-objective optimization using a genetic algorithm. Results of this optimization method are discussed and a design guideline for the VDOP vane spacing is disclosed. Test data are included to validate the results of the optimization study.
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Turbocharger First Order Synchronous Noise and Vibrations: Predictions and Measurements

Ford Motor Company-Hassan Nehme, Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
EcoBoost engines constitute one of the strategies used by Ford Motor Company to deliver engines with improved fuel economy and performance. However, turbochargers exhibit many inherent NVH challenges that need to be addressed in order to deliver refined engines that meet customer’s expectation. One of these challenges is the turbocharger 1st order synchronous noise due to the interaction between the manufacturing tolerances of the rotating components and the dynamic behavior of the rotor.This paper discusses an MBD/FEA/BEM based method to predict the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the rotor semi floating bearing, its impact on the bearing loads and the resulting powerplant noise due to the interaction with the turbocharger imbalance level. The MBD predictions of the bearing forces from the inner nonlinear hydrodynamic and outer semi floating squeeze damper bearings are used in an FEA/BEM analysis to predict the synchronous of turbocharger housing vibrations level and the synchronous powerplant radiated sound pressure.Measurement data obtained for three different levels of turbocharger imbalance and for different engine conditions are presented in this paper. This data validates the…
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CAE Simulation of Engine Oil Pump Tonal Noise: Design Modifications and Countermeasures

Ford Motor Company-Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani, Esra Demren
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
In this presentation, two cases of CAE simulations of oil pump-induced tonal noises are presented. The first case involves oil pump-induced whine in an I4engine during coast down. The second case addresses oil pan moan during hot idle and the effect of oil pump pick-up tube positioning inside the oil pan of an I5 engine. The investigations include several design modifications to the pump and the pick-up tube to prevent the tonal noise. Test data are also included to demonstrate the accuracy of the CAE simulation.
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CAE Simulation of Engine Tonal Noise Generated by Gerotor Oil Pumps

Ford Motor Co.-Mohammad Moetakef, Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A CAE method has been developed to address engine tonal noise and whine due to the excitation from a gerotor oil pump. The method involves a multidisciplinary approach including CFD, frequency-response structural analysis and acoustic analysis. The results from the application of the method applied to a couple of pumps with different designs are discussed. Engine tonal noise improvement through reduction in the excitation source from the pump and also stiffening the excitation path from the pump to the engine are studied. The effect of component modal alignment with oil pump orders is addressed as well.
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NVH Development of the Ford 2.7L 4V-V6 Turbocharged Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Co.-Abdelkrim Zouani, Joseph Stout, Salah Hanim, Changshen Gan, Gabriela Dziubinschi, William Baldwin, Zhi Fu
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2288
Published 2015-06-15 by SAE International in United States
A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH.This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
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