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Investigation on an Injury Criterion Related to Traumatic Brain Injury Primarily Induced by Head Rotation

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yukou Takahashi
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The high frequency of fatal head injuries is one of the important issues in traffic safety, and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) without skull fracture account for approximately half of them in both occupant and pedestrian crashes. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance for TBIs in these crashes using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), a comprehensive injury criterion calculated from the rotational rigid motion of the head is required. While many studies have been conducted to investigate such an injury criterion with a focus on diffuse brain injuries in occupant crashes, there have been only a limited number of studies focusing on pedestrian impacts. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive injury criterion based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head suitable for both occupant and pedestrian crashes.In this study, an injury criterion that correlates with the tissue-level predictors of diffuse brain injuries in both occupant and pedestrian crashes is proposed by incorporating the change of the rotational velocity during a certain maximum time. A mid-sized male human head/brain FE model…
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Investigation on Generational Difference of Intracranial Responses Related to Traumatic Brain Injuries Using Age-Specific Human Head/Brain FE Models

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Toshiyuki Yanaoka, Yasuhiro Dokko
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading.In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC. The generational difference of intracranial responses related to TBI, such as cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM), dilatational damage measure (DDM) and elongation of bridging vein (BV), were studied using the models.From the study of the generational…
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Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Hiroyuki Asanuma, Yukou Takahashi, Miwako Ikeda, Toshiyuki Yanaoka
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures.The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation. A unique model called a multi-layer model developed in this study represented each of the hood and the windshield with a stack of the panel representing the entire…
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Validation of Age-Specific Human FE Models for Lateral Impact

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Yasuhiro Dokko, Toshiyuki Yanaoka
PSG Co., Ltd.-Kazuki Ohashi
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
Corresponding to the increasing need for the protection of elderly people from traffic accidents, the authors have been developing age-specific human FE models capable of predicting body kinematics and skeletal injuries for younger adult (35y.o.) and the elderly (75y.o.). The models have been developed and validated part by part referring to the literature and then integrated into whole bodies. Validation had been conducted in order of single bones, components and whole body. Whole body kinematics in frontal impact had been validated against the PMHS frontal belt restrained sled tests series, resulting in good biofidelity scores. In this study, the models were validated for lateral impact. The models were validated against several impact tests of body regions from ISO-TR9790 and against recently published full scale lateral sled tests for whole body kinematics. In most cases, the results showed good biofidelity of the models. Capability of the rib fracture prediction was also discussed.
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