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Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream, based on the distribution measured during the test. Predicted collection…
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Braking on Dry Pavement and Gravel With and Without ABS

Florida Reconstruction, LLC-William Wright
Mechanical Forensics Eng'g Services, LLC-Wade Bartlett
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
It has been observed that locked-wheel skidding friction values are essentially vehicle- and tire-independent. It has been tacitly assumed by most crash reconstructionists that any ABS-equipped vehicle would also decelerate at nearly the same rate as any other ABS-equipped vehicle. This paper will review literature with relevant straight-line test results on paved roadways and gravel, and present additional results from recent tests generated with four modern vehicles built by three manufacturers. Results from the recent testing showed that locked-wheel skidding values on a concrete roadway were similar for all four vehicles, but the ABS-improvement on the same roadway varied. On gravel, ABS was always less effective than locked-wheel skidding. ABS and locked-wheel results on gravel had less car-to-car variation than tests conducted on concrete.
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Comparison of Drag-Sled and Skidding-Vehicle Drag Factors on Dry Roadways

Ed Livesay & Associates-Ed Livesay
Florida Atlantic University-William Wright
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight “drag sleds” have long been used by crash investigators to determine the “drag factor” at a crash scene. Despite this long history, no published work has ever shown a correlation between drag sled results and the skidding performance of vehicles on multiple “uncalibrated” surfaces. Indeed, some researchers have noted that their testing appeared to show a poor correlation between the two. It has become clear in recent years that the interaction between braking or skidding tires and pavement does not fit the simple weight- and speed-independent friction model that has been assumed, leaving the accuracy of drag sleds in doubt. This paper presents the results of several comparison tests at different locations, involving multiple skid-test vehicles, dozens of drag sleds of various designs, and more than a hundred “pullers,” and attempts to correlate the results of the two methods. Drag sleds tended to read higher than even the peak value generated with skidding cars, though occasionally this was not the case, and no relationship between individual drag sled results and skidding vehicle results could…
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Enhanced Fifth Wheel Modelling and Testing

IFMA - Institut Francais De Mechanique Advancee-Loris Malaptias
Mechanical Engineering Department, Florida Atlantic University-Oren Masory
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
A two dimensional dynamic model, which provides a full description of a vehicle motion based on sensory input, is presented. The model has three sensory inputs: the velocity of a fifth wheel; the orientation of the fifth wheel with respect to the vehicle; and the yaw rate of the vehicle. Based on these inputs, the model determines the position, velocity, acceleration and the yaw angle of the vehicle. The results of experiment with an instrumented vehicle, which were designed to verify the validity and accuracy of the model, are reported.
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Evaluating the Uncertainty in Various Measurement Tasks Common to Accident Reconstruction

Florida Atlantic Univ.-William Wright, Oren Masory
Klein Associates-Terry Stanard
Published 2002-03-04 by SAE International in United States
When performing calculations pertaining to the analysis of motor vehicle accidents, investigators must often select appropriate values for a number of parameters. The uncertainty of the final answers is a function of the uncertainty of each parameter involved in the calculation.This paper presents the results of recent tests conducted to obtain sample distributions of some common parameters, including measurements made with tapes, measurements made with roller-wheels, skidmark measurements, yawmark measurements, estimation of crush damage from photographs, and drag factors, that can be used to evaluate the uncertainty in an accident reconstruction analysis. The paper also reviews the distributions of some pertinent data reported by other researchers.
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