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Axial Flow Turbine Concept for Conventional and e-Turbocharging

Brunel University-Apostolos Pesyridis
Universita di Napoli Federico II-Alessandro Cappiello, Raffaele Tuccillo, Maria Cristina Cameretti
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Engine downsizing has established itself as one of the most successful strategies to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions in the automotive field. To this regard, a major role is played by turbocharging, which allows an increase in engine power density, so reducing engine size and weight. However, the need for turbocharging imposes some issues to be solved. In the attempt of mitigating turbo lag and poor low-end torque, many solutions have been presented in the open literature so far, such as: low inertia turbine wheels and variable geometry turbines; or even more complex concepts such as twin turbo and electrically assisted turbochargers. None of them appears as definitive, though.As a possible way of reducing turbine rotor inertia, and so the turbo lag, also the change of turbine layout has been investigated, and it revealed itself to be a viable option, leading to the use of mixed-flow turbines. Only recently, the use of axial-flow turbines, with the aim of reducing rotor inertia, has been proposed as well.The current paper documents a case study involving the…
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Integrated CFD-Experimental Methodology for the Study of a Dual Fuel Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

Brunel University London-Vinícius Pedrozo, Hua Zhao
University of Napoli Federico II-Maria Cristina Cameretti, Roberta De Robbio, Raffaele Tuccillo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0093
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical investigation of a 2.0 litre single cylinder Heavy Duty Diesel Engine fuelled by natural gas and diesel oil in Dual Fuel mode. Due to the gaseous nature of the main fuel and to the high compression ratio of the diesel engine, reduced emissions can be obtained. An experimental study has been carried out at three different load level (25%, 50% and 75% of full engine load). Basing on experimental data, the authors recreated a 45° mesh sector of the engine cylinder and performed CFD simulations for the cases at 50% and 75% load levels. Numerical simulations were carried out on the 3D code Ansys FORTE. The aim of this work is to study combustion phenomena and, in particular, the interaction between natural gas and diesel oil, respectively represented by methane and n-dodecane. A reduced kinetic scheme for methane auto-ignition was implemented while for n-dodecane two set of reactions were utilised. The first one consisting of a one-step mechanism is compared with the far more detailed second one…
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CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Luigi Sequino, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
University of Napoli Federico II-Maria Cristina Cameretti, Roberta De Robbio, Raffaele Tuccillo
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas) concept represents a possible solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas (methane) as an alternative fuel. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel oil was injected directly into the engine.The present work describes the results of a numerical study on combustion process of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil. In particular, the aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on both pollutant emissions and combustion evolution.The study of dual-fuel engines that is carried out in this paper aims at the evaluation of the CFD potential, by a 3-dimensional code, to predict the main features of this technology. In fact, to better understand the phenomena that take place during the dual-fuel operation (flame propagation throughout the premixed methane-air medium activated by the early self-ignition of the diesel fuel), the fluid-dynamic calculations…
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Performance Improvement and Emission Control of a Dual Fuel Operated Diesel Engine

University of Naples Federico II - Italy-Maria Cristina Cameretti, Roberta De Robbio, Raffaele Tuccillo
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The present study deals with the simulation of a Diesel engine fuelled by natural gas/diesel in dual fuel mode to optimize the engine behaviour in terms of performance and emissions. In dual fuel mode, the natural gas is introduced into the engine’s intake system. Near the end of the compression stroke, diesel fuel is injected and ignites, causing the natural gas to burn. The engine itself is virtually unaltered, but for the addition of a gas injection system. The CO2 emissions are considerably reduced because of the lower carbon content of the fuel. Furthermore, potential advantages of dual-fuel engines include diesel-like efficiency and brake mean effective pressure with much lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. In previous papers, the authors have presented some CFD results obtained by two 3D codes by varying the diesel/NG ratio and the diesel pilot injection timing at different loads. The calculations have been referred to a light duty direct injection diesel engine, of which some experimental data were available, obtained both in full diesel and Dual Fuel…
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Conceptual Design of a Variable Geometry, Axial Flow Turbocharger Turbine

Accenture Spa-Alfredo Capobianco
Brunel University London-Apostolos Pesiridis
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The modern automotive industry is under strict regulations to reduce emissions to comply with the Kyoto Protocol, a universally acknowledged treaty aiming at reducing exhaust gas emissions. In order to achieve the required future emission reduction targets, further developments on gasoline engines are required. One of the main methods to achieve this goal is the application of engine downsizing. Turbocharging is a cost-effective method of downsizing an engine whilst reducing exhaust gas emissions, reducing fuel consumption and maintaining prior performance outputs. For these reasons, the turbocharging is becoming the most widely adopted technology in the automotive markets. In 2012, 32% of passenger and commercial vehicles sold had a turbocharger installed, and is predicted to be 40% of 2017 [1]. Even if the engine turbocharging is a widespread technology, there are still drawbacks present in current turbocharging systems. The main problem is overcoming the issue of turbo-lag, which is the poor initial response of the turbocharger to the driver commands due to its inertia. Indeed, the system turbine plus compressor is characterized by an own rotational…
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Dual Fuel Diesel Engine at Variable Operating Conditions: A Numerical and Experimental Study

Istituto Motori CNR-Sabato Iannaccone
Univ of Napoli Federico II-Carmelina Abagnale, Maria Cristina Cameretti, Umberto Ciaravola, Raffaele Tuccillo
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas, NG) concept represents a solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas as an alternative fuel. As well known, the dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. A further important requirement of the DF operation in automotive engines is a satisfactory response in a wide range of load levels. In particular, the part-load levels could present more challenging conditions for an efficient combustion development, due to the poor fuel/air ratio.Basing on the above assumptions, the authors discuss in this article the results of a combined numerical and experimental study on the effect of different injection timings on performance and pollutant fractions of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil. The study of dual-fuel engines that is carried out in this paper aims at the evaluation of the CFD capability to analyze the main phenomena that characterize this particular technology. Actually, in order to put into evidence the key processes that…
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Experimental Investigation and Numerical Modelling of an Advanced Turbocharged D.I. Diesel Engine

Università di Napoli-Fabio Bozza, Maria Cristina Cameretti, Adolfo Senatore, Raffaele Tuccillo
Published 1997-02-24 by SAE International in United States
Following their recent experiences in the fields of experimental analysis and numerical simulation of turbocharged engines, the authors present, in this paper, an integrated procedure for studying the behaviour of a light-duty turbocharged D.I. diesel engine, equipped with a variable geometry turbine, an intercooler and an EGR system for NOx control.Experimental activities consist of a complete investigation of the engine operating conditions under different rotational speeds and fuel deliveries. Experimental data provide the basis for numerical investigations.Numerical simulation is carried out through different level of approach, characterised by an increasing level of complexity. A simplified approach of the filling and emptying type is employed for a preliminary determination of matching conditions among the components. Next, a 1-D flow model allows a more correct evaluation of wave propagation phenomena through external ducts.A more detailed insight of the in-cylinder phenomena is obtained by employing a multidimensional model (i.e., the well known KIVA II code) for examining the closed-valve period. The authors employ a recently proposed methodology for matching the results of 0-D and multidimensional simulation as to…
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A Two-Stroke Engine Model Based on Advanced Simulation of Fundamental Processes

Universita di Napoli “Federico II”-Fabio Bozza, Raffaele Tuccillo, Domenico de Falco
Published 1995-09-01 by SAE International in United States
Research activities concerning the development and set up of a theoretical model for the analysis of spark-ignition two-stroke engines are reported. The engine system is identified by the definition of both zero-dimensional time-varying control volumes (i.e., cylinders or crankcases) and one-dimensional devices (i.e., intake or exhaust manifolds, transfer ducts, etc.). Fundamental processes such as combustion, fluid dynamics and scavenging, are modelled using up-to-date approaches. In particular, a fractal sub-model is adopted for the evaluation of flame area and burning rate; a high resolution upwind TVD scheme is utilized for the prediction of wave propagation within ducts.The overall prediction level is estimated through the comparison with experimental data measured on a small-size engine under both motored and firing conditions. The proposed model achieves a satisfactory compromise between accuracy and computational costs, if compared with more advanced CFD calculations, and allows the design and the analysis of a large number of different engine configurations to be performed.
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Experimental Correlations for Heat Release and Mechanical Losses in Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Università di Napoli “Federico II”-Raffaele Tuccillo, Luigi Arnone, Fabio Bozza, Roberto Nocera, Adolfo Senatore
Published 1993-09-01 by SAE International in United States
The authors present a methodology to establish correlation, derived from experimental activities, for both heat release law and mechanical loss components in a turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engine.The introduction of the resulting parameters in a fully theoretical model leads to an improvement in its predictive level, as demonstrated by the result presented in terms of both thermodynamic and mechanical engine features.The most interesting characteristic of the model is represented by the comprehensive description of the engine dynamics under transient conditions.
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Second Law Analysis of Turbocharged Engine Operation

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica (D.I.M.E.), Universita di Napoli Federico II Italy-Fabio Bozza, Roberto Nocera, Adolfo Senatore, Raffaele Tuccillo
Published 1991-02-01 by SAE International in United States
In this paper the turbocharged diesel engine operation is analyzed by means of a second law based method. The instantaneous release and storage of availability inside the several components (cylinders, manifolds, compressor and turbine) are evaluated by following a theoretical-experimental methodology that has been recently proposed by the authors.Examples of availability balances are compared for different values of some parameters which influence the combustion and the exhaust process, or for several arrangements of the engine and turbomachine system.The availability analysis of the engine transient development will show the amounts of mechanical energy employed for both in-cylinder storage and turbocharger acceleration and of those available for conversion into external output. These amounts will be compared with the fuel availability and with those destroyed during the several processes (i.e. combustion, gas exchange, turbocharger operation).
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