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Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters

J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, Y. Page, J-F Huère, J-Y. Le Coz, J-C Coltat
CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Baudrit, H. Guillemot
Published 2001-11-01 by The Stapp Association in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties.In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have…
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Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes with Occupant Restrained with Belt Load Limiter

CEESAR-T. Phalempin, D. Villeforceix, P. Dandres, C. Got
Lab Renault / PSA Peugeot-Citroën-J-Y. Foret-Bruno, X. Trosseille, J-Y. Le Coz
Published 1998-11-02 by SAE International in United States
In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that the greatest proportion of restrained occupants sustaining severe injuries and fatalities are involved in frontal impact (70% and 50% respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restraint occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the seat belt. In the seventies, a few cars were equipped in France with load limiters and it was thereby possible to observe a relationship between the force applied and the occupant's age with regard to this thoracic risk.The reduction of intrusion for the most violent frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic risks with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact violence. It is therefore essential to limit restraint forces with a seat belt to reduce the number of road casualties, especially for the most elderly.In order to address the thoracic risk in frontal impact, a restraint system combining belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension,…
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Modeling and analysis of interactions between occupant, seatback and headrest in rear impact

AARISTE-D. Song, A. Dômont
IRBA-J. Uriot, C. Got
  • Technical Paper
  • 1996-13-0012
Published 1996-09-11 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
The improvement of neck protection in rear impact requires a better understanding of the interactions between occupant, seatback and headrest. A mathematical approach was developed to analyze the interactions and to quantify the influences of different design parameters on neck responses.The first phase of this development consisted of neck modeling. To begin with, the RID-neck was compared to the Hybrid-III neck in terms of sensitivity with regards to some design parameter changes. A series of mini-sled tests showed the sensitivity of the RID-neck to be better than that of the Hybrid-III neck. Following this preliminary study, a numerica model was developed on the basis of the RID-neck and of two existing sources of biomechanical data on the human neck behavior in rear impact.For the second phase of this development, the interactions of the thorax and the pelvis with the seatback were modelized, as was that of the head and the headrest. Component tests were conducted to characterize these interactions. With these data, two types of seatback models were constructed. One is a global seatback modeling…

Lower leg injuries in real-world frontal accidents

Ecole Nationale Superieure d'Arts et Metiers-F. Lavaste
Hopital Intercommunal-J.-C. Coltat
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-13-0004
Published 1993-09-08 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
The magnitude and the type of lower leg injuries observed in real-world frontal accidents as well as the injury mechanisms in this body region have been examined. An investigation into the APR (Associated Peugeot Renault) accident database has been carried out. From 2,022 front-seat occupants, restrained or not, involved in a frontal collision, 208 sustained either a strain, a laceration into joint, a dislocation or a fracture below the tibial plateaux. An in-depth analysis of the injury mechanisms has been performed using the X-rays of 42 occupants.The most prominent injuries are metatarsal fractures (39 cases), malleolar fractures (39 cases) and ankle sprains (44 cases).The brake pedal increases significantly the number of injuries on the right foot of the drivers. However no differences have been found between the right and the left legs as far as drivers' ankles are concerned. Passengers sustain more injuries on their left ankle, and seem to have more injuries on their right foot, directly exposed to wheel well intrusions.The most significant parameters which influence the lower leg injuries appear to be…

Development of a New Rearward-Facing Seat for Children From 0 to 3 Years

Renault SA-X. Trosseille, P. Baudrit, C. Tarriere
Volvo Car Corp.-E. Gleimar, B. Lundell
  • Technical Paper
  • 1993-25-0052
Published 1993-09-01 by ISATA - Dusseldorf Trade Fair in United Kingdom
About 1000 children are killed in Europe each year in cars. 5,000 are severely injured. An accidentological study made by Renault on fatal car accidents in France indicates that 38% of children of less than 4 years killed in vehicles are involved in frontal impact and 29% in lateral impact. This study also shows that 79% of children killed in frontal impact could be saved by a good restraint system, and that this number would be 40% in lateral impact.In Sweden, rearward-facing child seats have been used for over 20 years, and the accident experience is very positive, with very low fatality rates for this age group. When a new model of the Volvo rearward-facing child seat for children up to three years (group 0 and 1) was planned, it was decided to develop it also for Renault car models.As far as frontal impact is concerned, a conclusion from an International Task Force on Child Restraint Systems (ITFCRS), as well as Swedish experience, show that is was absolutely necessary to carry children of less than…

Development of a F.E.M. of the Human Head According to a Specific Test Protocol

AARIMT Paris-F. Guillon, A. Domont
ENSAM Paris-F. Lavaste
Published 1992-11-01 by SAE International in United States
Finite Element Models of the head are more and more often used to analyse brain injury risk during car crashes. Nevertheless, if the properties of head components such as brain, cerebral spinal fluid and membranes can be evaluated, the behaviour of the head has not yet been sufficiently validated as a whole.This paper deals with the development process of the model and the biomechanical data specifically generated for this purpose. Cadavers were re-pressurized and fully instrumented in order to measure 3D head dynamic, CSF pressure in various points of the subarachnoϊd space or in ventricles and intracerebral accelerations. For this last, a specific protocol has been developed; accelerometers have been designed to implant them at the right places.Tests were performed in various impact situations involving thorax and head segments with or without paddings. Results are proposed and a parametric study is made in the range of known data for head components in an attempt to validate the F.E.M.
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Frontal Impact Protection Requires a Whole Safety System Integration

Renault-C. Tarriere, C. Thomas, X. Trosseille
  • Technical Paper
  • 916140
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Beyond the generalization of the belt wearing, the improvement of the frontal impact protection is one of the most efficient action to reduce the number of severe road victims. However, the attempt to evaluate the potential gains shows some important limitations to this efficiency and indicates the necessity of complementary actions. Among them: • the front-end of the trucks needs to be modified to avoid underride and too sever decelerations of car occupants, • due to the interaction between the protection in frontal and in lateral impact, the gain in frontal could be lost by an increase of the aggressiveness of the impacting car in side collisions, • in car-to-car head-on collisions, the gain would be reduced by the increasing aggressiveness of the heavier car.The author presents the quantification of the expected gains for the most prioritary countermeasures, discusses the major interactions between them, and tries to define the required conditions to optimize the whole safety system.

Initial Conclusions of An International Task Force on Child Restraining Systems

Renault-C. Tarrière, X. Trosseille
Volvo Car Corp.-G. Carlsson
  • Technical Paper
  • 916048
Published 1991-11-04 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Eighteen experts from 13 teams and 7 countries are joining their efforts: • to gather and analyze together the maximum number of accident cases where restrained children are involved, • to select the most useful cases for experimental reconstructions; -to check and quantify certain mechanisms, -to increase knowledge of child tolerance to impact through linkage of parameters recorded with the injuries (or lack thereof) in real life accidents.The paper describes the work already done, presents the program going on and the first available conclusions.

Some New Data Related to Human Tolerance Obtained from Volunteer Boxers

Lab. of Physiology and Biomechanics Associated with Peugeot S.A./Renault Nanterre, France-Y. Pincemaille, X. Trosseille, P. Mack, C. Tarrière
U. R. A. Unité de Recherche en Physiologie Cognitive Pathologie Psychiatrique et Neurologique Hôpital de la Salpétrierè Paris, France-F. Breton, B. Renault
Published 1989-10-01 by SAE International in United States
In order to obtain data about human head tolerance, the LPB-APR has conducted some experimentations with volunteer boxers. Five fights, i.e. fifteen rounds were carried out.Such research was undertaken because they expose themselves, in their normal body activities to direct head impacts.In an earlier publication, the methodology used for these experimentations was presented. The scope of this paper is to present the results obtained : the head accelerations. the head kinematics, the physiological effects.The findings showed that the angular accelerations were in all cases higher than 3500 rd/s2 exceeding the values considered as tolerance limit for volunteers given in the literature already available. The maximum angular velocity was 48 rd/s with a corresponding angular acceleration of 13600 rd/s2.In complement to physical measurements, tests of Event Related Potential Assessment of Attention and Orienting Reaction were performed by the CNRS-LENA in Hôpital de la Salpétrière, Paris.The data recorded were analysed in statistical way for ail boxers together. This sophisticated analysis did not indicate any anomaly in the results, except for one case where a small effect was…
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Reconsideration of the HIC, Taking into Account the Skull Bone Condition Factor (SBCF) — Limit of Head Tolerance in Side Impacts

Laboratory of Physiology and Biomechanics, Associated with Peugeot S.A./Renault-X. Trosseille, F. Chamouard, C. Tarrière
Published 1988-10-01 by SAE International in United States
Based on morphological and biomechanical study of 146 human skulls, a parameter has been established to characterize the resistance of the skulls of subjects used in experiments, the so-called “Skull Bone Condition Factor” (SBCF). The analysis of ten cadaver lateral drop tests has allowed to point out the influence of this parameter on the prediction of brain injury through HIC.This paper intends to establish a simple way to integrate the SBCF in the Head Injury Criterion with the aim of allowing comparisons between cadaver tests and of having a more realistic means of prediction of brain injuries.
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