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Performance Evaluation of an Electric Vehicle with Multiple Electric Machines for Increased Overall Drive Train Efficiency

University of Ljubljana-Mario Vukotić, Damijan Miljavec
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Daniele Chiappini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Proposed solutions for electric vehicles range from the simple single-motor drive coupled to one axle through a mechanical differential, to more complex solutions, such as four in-wheel motors, which ask for electronic torque vectoring. Main reasons for having more than one electric machine are: reduction of the rated power of each motor, which most likely leads to simplification and cost reduction of all the electric drive components; increased reliability of the overall traction system, enhancing fault tolerance ability; increase of the degrees of freedom which allows for control strategy optimization and efficiency improvement. In particular, electrical machines efficiency generally peaks at around 75% of load and this usually leads to machine downsizing to avoid operation in low efficiency regions. The same output performance can be achieved by using two or more electrical machines, rather than only one, of smaller size and running them at unequal load - one of the machines at higher load and the other(s) at lower load.In this paper, the performance of an electric vehicle with multiple electric machines is analyzed to…
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A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Analysis of an Air-Cooled Li-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles with Porous Media Insert Modeled at REV Scales

University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
University of Rome Tor Vergata-Gino Bella
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, owe to their ability to store higher electrical energy. As a matter of fact, in automotive applications, these batteries undergo frequent and fast charge and discharge processes, which are associated to internal heat generation, which in turns causes temperature increase. Thermal management is therefore crucial to keep temperature in an appropriate level for safe operation and battery wear prevention.In a recent work authors have already demonstrated the capabilities of a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method to deal with thermal transient of a three-dimensional air-cooled Li-ion battery at different discharging rates and Reynolds numbers. Here, in order to improve discharge thermal capabilities and reduce temperature levels of the battery itself, a layer of porous medium is placed in contact with the battery so to replace a continuum solid aluminum layer. Many studies, which have already demonstrated how the porous media can improve thermal performance of heat exchange systems, are present in recent literature. There is a large number of models for representing…
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Assessment of Energy Consumption and Range in Electric Vehicles with High Efficiency HVAC Systems Based on the Tesla Expander

University of Brescia-Paolo Iora, Alberto Cassago, Costante Invernizzi, Alessandro Copeta, Gioele Di Marcoberardino, Stefano Uberti
University of Florence-Daniele Fiaschi, Lorenzo Talluri
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are considered one of the most promising solution to improve the sustainability of the transportation sector aiming at a progressive reduction of the dependence on fossil fuels and the associated local pollutants and CO2 emissions.Presently, the major technological obstacle to a large scale diffusion of BEVs, is the fairly low range, typically less than 300 km, as compared to classical gasoline and diesel engines. This limit becomes even more critical if the electric vehicle is operated in severe weather conditions, due to the additional energy consumption required by the cabin heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC).The adoption of vapor-compression cycle, either in heat pump or refrigerator configuration, represents the state-of-the-art technology for HVAC systems in vehicles. Such devices typically employ an expansion valve to abruptly reduce the pressure causing the flash evaporation of the working fluid. This component, although necessary to provide the cooling effect, is also responsible of a significant exergy loss, which reduces the efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle.In this paper we study the possible benefits in terms of energy…
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A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Modeling of an Air-Cooled Li-Ion Battery Cell for Electric Vehicles

Univ. Tor Vergata-Gino Bella
Univ. di Roma Niccolo Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Due to their ability to store higher electrical energy, lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, whose market share is growing fast. Heat generation during charge and discharge processes, frequently undergone by these batteries, causes temperature increase and thermal management is indispensable to keep temperature in an appropriate level. In this paper, a coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume model for the three-dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module is presented. As it has already been successfully used to deal with several fluid-dynamics problems, the Lattice Boltzmann method is selected for its simpler boundary condition implementation and complete parallel computing, which make this approach promising for such applications. The standard Lattice Boltzmann method, here used only for the fluid-dynamic evolution, is coupled with a Finite Volume approach for solving the energy equation and recovering the temperature field throughout the whole domain (air, aluminum and battery). This coupled approach allows having a fully reliable control of the transients in conjugate heat transfer problems without introducing any simplification on…
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Influence of Fuel Type on the Pperformance of a Plug-In Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Vehicle with On-Board Fuel Processing

University of Brescia-Paolo Iora
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Laura Tribioli, Raffaello Cozzolino, Daniele Chiappini
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the energy management controller design of a mid-sized vehicle driven by a fuel cell/battery plug-in hybrid powertrain, where an experimentally validated high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell model is used. The power management strategy results from the application of the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle, where the optimal control parameter is derived in order to minimize fuel consumption under certain constraints. In particular, the vehicle is also equipped by an autothermal reformer and, in order to minimize the hydrogen buffer size, the control algorithm is subject to constraints on the maximum hydrogen buffer level. The effectiveness of the system is analyzed when feeding the autothermal reformer with different hydrocarbon fuels and over different driving conditions. The obtained solutions are compared in terms of hydrogen consumption, fossil fuel consumption, system efficiency, money saving and equivalent CO2 emissions.
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Adaptive Energy Management Strategy Calibration in PHEVs Based on a Sensitivity Study

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Center for Automotive Research, OSU-Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
University of Salento-Federica Lacandia
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-24-0074
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
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Methodology Procedure for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Design

University of Rome Tor Vergata-Laura Tribioli, Angela Fumarola
University of Tuscia-Fabrizio Martini
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, fuel economy and pollutant emissions are keenly felt topics and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) represent the best opportunity to respond to this problem in the short term. Hybrid electric vehicles meet the high-efficiency of electric motors, with the high reliability of the internal combustion engines, granting optimal results both in terms of emissions and fuel economy.The vehicle and path features highly affect the architecture choice. A parallel architecture, having a more flexible layout and providing a higher drive power, is more suitable for long paths and higher speeds, while the series one better adapts to urban cycles, as can be switched to a pure electric mode. At the same time, a parallel-series architecture is in general a good choice. Another crucial point is the definition of a control strategy suitable for the mission the car is expected to accomplish, that must properly control both the load partitioning, between engine and motors, and the regenerative braking.According to all these considerations, with the present paper the Authors intend to lay the basis of a comprehensive methodology,…
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0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

ENEA-Giovanni Pede, Carlo Villante
University of Rome Tor Vergata-Laura Tribioli
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies.For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train. To this aim, an integrated approach realized by coupling a zero-dimensional model of the vehicle with a mono-dimensional model of the thermal engine to evaluate fuel consumption and find the most suitable control strategy for the engine (totally decoupled to the mission).A kinematic approach has…
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