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Fuel-Lubricant Interactions on the Propensity for Stochastic Pre-Ignition

Driven Racing Oil-Lake Speed
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Bradley Zigler, Jon Luecke
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the impact of the interaction of lubricant and fuel properties on the propensity for stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on statistically significant changes in SPI tendency and magnitude, as determined by measurements of cylinder pressure. Specifically, lubricant detergents, lubricant volatility, fuel volatility, fuel chemical composition, fuel-wall impingement, and engine load were varied to study the physical and chemical effects of fuel-lubricant interactions on SPI tendency. The work illustrates that at low loads, with fuels susceptible to SPI events, lubricant detergent package effects on SPI were non-significant. However, with changes to fuel distillation, fuel-wall impingement, and most importantly engine load, lubricant detergent effects could be observed even at reduced loads This suggests that there is a thermal effect associated with the higher load operation. It was hypothesized that the thermal effect was associated with lube oil nitrogenation. To test this theory, nitromethane (CH3NO2) was blended at 6.5% by volume CH3NO2 resulted in significant sensitivity to lubricant additive package effect on SPI, even at reduced loads where no lubricant sensitivity was observed without…
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Choice of Tuning Parameters on 3D IC Engine Simulations Using G-Equation

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist
West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Dumitrescu
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
3D CFD spark-ignition IC engine simulations are extremely complex for the regular user. Truly-predictive CFD simulations for the turbulent flame combustion that solve fully coupled transport/chemistry equations may require large computational capabilities unavailable to regular CFD users. A solution is to use a simpler phenomenological model such as the G-equation that decouples transport/chemistry result. Such simulation can still provide acceptable and faster results at the expense of predictive capabilities. While the G-equation is well understood within the experienced modeling community, the goal of this paper is to document some of them for a novice or less experienced CFD user who may not be aware that phenomenological models of turbulent flame combustion usually require heavy tuning and calibration from the user to mimic experimental observations. This study used ANSYS® Forte, Version 17.2, and the built-in G-equation model, to investigate two tuning constants that influence flame propagation in 3D CFD SI engine simulations: the stretch factor coefficient, Cms and the flame development coefficient, Cm2. After identifying several Cm2-Cms pairs that matched experimental data at one operating conditions,…
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Performance of a Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Generator for Automotive Application

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist, John Thomas, Brian C. Kaul
University of Tennessee-Steven Davis
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust as the heat source, with the TEG positioned after the catalyst system. Applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have also been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered, and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three-way catalyst. The generator was characterized using a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map. Detailed performance results are presented. Measurements indicate the generator can produces over 300 W of power with 900 °C exhaust at relatively high flow rates, but less than 50 W when the exhaust is 600 °C and at lower flow rates. The latter condition is typical of standard test cycles and most driving scenarios.
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Engine Operating Conditions and Fuel Properties on Pre-Spark Heat Release and SPI Promotion in SI Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Derek Splitter, Brian Kaul, James Szybist, Gurneesh Jatana
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0688
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude. However, clusters and short lived bursts of multiple SPI events are found to better correlate with fuel-wall interaction. The results highlight the interplay of bulk gas thermodynamics and SPI ignition source, on SPI event magnitude and cluster tendency. Moreover,…
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Analysis of Thermal and Chemical Effects on Negative Valve Overlap Period Energy Recovery for Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion

SAE International Journal of Engines

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist
Sandia National Laboratories-Isaac Ekoto
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2451
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
A central challenge for efficient auto-ignition controlled low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines has been achieving the combustion phasing needed to reach stable performance over a wide operating regime. The negative valve overlap (NVO) strategy has been explored as a way to improve combustion stability through a combination of charge heating and altered reactivity via a recompression stroke with a pilot fuel injection. The study objective was to analyze the thermal and chemical effects on NVO-period energy recovery. The analysis leveraged experimental gas sampling results obtained from a single-cylinder LTGC engine along with cylinder pressure measurements and custom data reduction methods used to estimate period thermodynamic properties. The engine was fueled by either iso-octane or ethanol, and operated under sweeps of NVO-period oxygen concentration, injection timing, and fueling rate. Gas sampling at the end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus, with detailed sample speciation by in-house gas chromatography. The balance of NVO-period input and output energy flows was calculated in terms of fuel energy, work, heat loss, and change in sensible…
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Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Lab.-Derek Splitter, James Szybist
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1231
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with λ=1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at λ=1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even…
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Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-John M. Storey, Sam Lewis, James Szybist, John Thomas, Teresa Barone, Mary Eibl, Eric Nafziger, Brian Kaul
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1606
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot…
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Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

General Motors Company-Patrick Szymkowicz, William F. Northrop
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. Data are examined from a direct-injection single-cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. The high load operating point that incorporates a pilot + main injection strategy shows a reduced sensitivity to fuel ignitibility compared to the high load operating point using only a single injection event. Although ignition delay varies by only…
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Investigation of Knock Limited Compression Ratio of Ethanol Gasoline Blends

Delphi Powertrain Systems-Matthew Foster, Wayne R. Moore, Keith Confer
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-James Szybist, Adam Youngquist, Robert Wagner
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Ethanol offers significant potential for increasing the compression ratio of SI engines resulting from its high octane number and high latent heat of vaporization. A study was conducted to determine the knock-limited compression ratio of ethanol-gasoline blends to identify the potential for improved operating efficiency. To operate an SI engine in a flex fuel vehicle requires operating strategies that allow operation on a broad range of fuels from gasoline to E85. Since gasoline or low ethanol blend operation is inherently limited by knock at high loads, strategies must be identified which allow operation on these fuels with minimal fuel economy or power density tradeoffs.A single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignited engine with fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is operated at WOT and other high-load conditions to determine the knock-limited compression ratio (CR) of ethanol fuel blends. The geometric CR is varied by changing pistons, producing CR from 9.2 to 12.87. The effective CR is varied using an electro-hydraulic valve train that changed the effective trapped displacement using both Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) and Late Intake Valve…
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Potential Methods for NOx Reduction from Biodiesel

Penn State University-James Szybist, John Simmons, Matthew Druckenmiller, Khalid Al-Qurashi, André Boehman, Alan Scaroni
Published 2003-10-27 by SAE International in United States
Interest in biodiesel is increasing in the United States because it is a renewable fuel source that decreases carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emissions. Although it is more expensive than petroleum based diesel fuel, it is a cost-effective fuel for government agencies to obtain EPAct alternative fuel credits. However, a 20% biodiesel blend in diesel fuel (B20) causes an average increase in NOx emissions of 2-5%. The emissions of NOx are critical, especially in ozone non-attainment areas, making the increase with biodiesel problematic to its widespread use. Using cetane improving additives and modifying feedstock composition are two possible methods to reduce NOx emissions from biodiesel. This study further explores the feasibility of these methods. First, the storage stability of the cetane improvers 2-EHN and DTBP are investigated in B20 by measuring the additive concentration by GC/MS and differences in the flash point, viscosity, and peroxide number over the duration of a short-term storage stability test (35 days). Secondly, the bulk modulus of biodiesel is higher than that of diesel fuel, a fuel property…
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