Indian Oil Corp Ltd-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studi-Ajay Srivastava
To be published on
by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower PM and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the NOx emissions reduces however HC and CO emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the performance and emissions of compressed natural gas (CNG) – diesel dual fuel engine.
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by SAE International in United States
Contact between the knees and knee bolster commonly occurs in frontal collisions. The contact region on the bolster and the knee anatomy involved are related to the pre-crash positioning of the knees. The location of the distal (or infra-) patella was recorded on volunteers of widely varying stature after they had selected a comfortable driving position in mockups of three vehicles representing a large variation in size and shape: sedan, crossover SUV, and full-size pickup. On average, the right knees were grouped more tightly and were located more forward and lower than the left knees. On average, the knees were positioned 200 mm from the knee bolster for all subjects. The range of distance separating the distal patellae (within subject knee-to-knee distance) varied from 184–559 mm for all subjects for the three vehicles. Three adult Hybrid-III ATDs (small female, midsize male, large male) positioned in the test vehicles using the positioning protocol for crash testing (FMVSS 208) yielded positions that were reflective of the volunteers in two vehicles (sedan, pickup) in the fore-aft direction. For…
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