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Spears, Matthew W.
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Alternative Heavy-Duty Engine Test Procedure for Full Vehicle Certification

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Houshun Zhang, James Sanchez, Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-2768
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States
In 2015 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) proposed a new steady-state engine dynamometer test procedure by which heavy-duty engine manufacturers would be required to create engine fuel rate versus engine speed and torque “maps”.[1] These maps would then be used within the agencies' Greenhouse Gas Emission Model (GEM)[2] for full vehicle certification to the agencies' proposed heavy-duty fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards.This paper presents an alternative to the agencies' proposal, where an engine is tested over the same duty cycles simulated in GEM. This paper explains how a range of vehicle configurations could be specified for GEM to generate engine duty cycles that would then be used for engine testing. This paper discusses a numerical scheme by which GEM could interpolate these cycle average results instead of the steady-state map the agencies proposed. This paper explores this alternative via simulation and numerical analysis. Engine and powertrain testing of this alternative are described a companion SAE Technical Paper entitled “Alternative…
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Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 2 - Statistical Modeling and Simulation Approach

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute ® (SwRI )-Janet P. Buckingham, Robert L. Mason
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0939
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance of in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during field operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to conventional laboratory-based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA). The gaseous pollutants examined in the program were carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). As part of a three-paper series, this paper summarizes the part of this program that involved the development of the Monte Carlo simulation model and describes the methodology used in determining the additive emission measurement allowances for in-use testing.…
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Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program Part 3 – Results and Validation

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute ® (SwRI )-Christopher A. Sharp, Michael D. Feist
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Christopher A. Laroo, Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0938
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Beginning in 2007, heavy-duty engine manufacturers in the U.S. have been responsible for verifying the compliance on in-use vehicles with Not-to-Exceed (NTE) standards under the Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing Program (HDIUT). This in-use testing is conducted using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) which are installed on the vehicles to measure emissions during real-world operation. A key component of the HDIUT program is the generation of measurement allowances which account for the relative accuracy of PEMS as compared to more conventional, laboratory based measurement techniques. A program to determine these measurement allowances for gaseous emissions was jointly funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and various member companies of the Engine Manufacturer's Association (EMA). This program was conducted at Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), and was directed by a Steering Committee comprised of representatives from all of the funding parties. In field validation testing was conducted by the Center for Environmental Research &As part of a three paper series, this paper will focus on the final results of program. The results…
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Determination of PEMS Measurement Allowances for Gaseous Emissions Regulated Under the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine In-Use Testing Program: Part 1 – Project Overview and PEMS Evaluation Procedures

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®)-Michael D. Feist, Christopher A. Sharp
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Matthew W. Spears
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0940
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Heavy-Duty In-Use Testing (HDIUT) program, emission of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) have been regulated using Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) during in-use field operation for heavy-duty on-highway diesel engines with 2007 or later model year designations. As directed by the EPA, the Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB), additive emission measurement accuracy margins (measurement allowances) were experimentally determined for HDIUT to account for the measurement differences between laboratory testing with laboratory grade equipment and in-use testing with PEMS.As part of a three-paper series, this paper summarizes the HDIUT measurement allowance program while focusing on the laboratory evaluations of the Sensors Inc. SEMTECH-DS PEMS. The objective of the project was to quantify PEMS measurement errors as compared to concurrent measurements from a 40 CFR Part 1065 compliant dynamometer test cell. PEMS measurement errors were also evaluated when subjected to various environmental disturbances. The error data recorded during laboratory testing were used to populate a Monte Carlo statistical…
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