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An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

Clemson University-Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Katherine Sebeck, Scott Shurin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger. A complete lumped parameter numerical modelling was implemented to estimate the thermal behavior of the corresponding electric motor cooling system. Experimental and numerical results compare the temperature, heat flux, and cooling power measurements. For 250VA thermal load applied, the hybrid heat rejection strategy could save up to 33% of the power consumption while the operating…
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A Hybrid Thermal Bus for Ground Vehicles Featuring Parallel Heat Transfer Pathways

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson Unversity-Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Katherine Sebeck, Scott Shurin
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1111
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Improved propulsion system cooling remains an important challenge in the transportation industry as heat generating components, embedded in ground vehicles, trend toward higher heat fluxes and power requirements. The further minimization of the thermal management system power consumption necessitates the integration of parallel heat rejection strategies to maintain prescribed temperature limits. When properly designed, the cooling solution will offer lower noise, weight, and total volume while improving system durability, reliability, and power efficiency. This study investigates the integration of high thermal conductivity (HTC) materials, carbon fibers, and heat pipes with conventional liquid cooling to create a hybrid “thermal bus” to move the thermal energy from the heat source(s) to the ambient surroundings. The innovative design can transfer heat between the separated heat source(s) and heat sink(s) without sensitivity to gravity. A case study examines the thermal stability, heat dissipation capabilities, power requirements, and system weights for several driving cycles. Representative numerical results show that the HTC materials and carbon fibers offer moderate cooling while loop heat pipes provide significant improvements for passive cooling.
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An Integrated Cooling System for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Motors: Design and Simulation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson University-Junkui (Allen) Huang, Shervin Shoai Naini, Richard miller, John R. Wagner
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Katherine Sebeck, Scott Shurin
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1108
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicles offer the advantages of reduced emissions and greater travel range in comparison to conventional and electric ground vehicles. Regardless of propulsion strategy, efficient cooling of electric motors remains an open challenge due to the operating cycles and ambient conditions. The onboard thermal management system must remove the generated heat so that the motors and other vehicle components operate within their designed temperature ranges. In this article, an integrated thermal structure, or cradle, is designed to efficiently transfer heat within the motor housing to the end plates for transmission to an external heat exchanger. A radial array of heat pipes function as an efficient thermal connector between the motor and heat connector, or thermal bus, depending on the configuration. Cooling performance has been evaluated for various driving cycles. Numerical results show that 1.3 kW of peak heat wattage can be accommodated with free convection while 3.2 kW is obtained by adding forced convection using 13.7 W of electric power. The internal motor temperature is maintained within the prescribed limits of 75°C and 55°C…
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Near Automatic Translation of Autonomie-Based Power Train Architectures for Multi-Physics Simulations Using High Performance Computing

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Mississippi State Univ-Tomasz Haupt, Gregory Henley, Angela Card, Michael S. Mazzola, Matthew Doude
US Army ERDC-Christopher Goodin
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0267
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a powertrain simulation tool that provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystems of conventional or hybrid-electric vehicles. Due to its origins in Argonne National Lab’s Autonomie, PACE benefits from the reputation of Autonomie as a validated modeling tool capable of simulating the advanced hardware and control features of modern vehicle powertrains. However, unlike Autonomie that is developed and executed in Mathwork’s MATLAB/Simulink environment, PACE is developed in C++ and is targeted for High-Performance Computing (HPC) platforms. Indeed, PACE is used as one of several actors within a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation system (CRES-GV MERCURY): during a single MERCURY run, thousands of concurrent PACE instances interact with other high-performance, distributed MERCURY components. A proof-of-concept implementation of PACE, as applied to a conventional powertrain architecture, was presented at the SAE2016 conference. Since then, a C++ library of components implementing the functionality of the corresponding Simulink subsystems has been developed, followed by streamlining the process of the generation of the C++ code for a particular powertrain; the…
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Computationally-Efficient Heat Convection Model for Electric Machines

US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Scott Shurin
University of Michigan-Yuanying Wang, Heath Hofmann
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a computationally-efficient model of heat convection due to air circulation produced by rotor motion in the air gap of an electric machine. The model calculates heat flux at the boundaries of the rotor and stator as a function of the rotor and stator temperatures and rotor speed. It is shown that, under certain assumptions, this mapping has the homogeneity property. This property, among others, is used to pose a structure for the proposed model. The coefficients of the model are then determined by fitting the model to the results of a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation program. The accuracy of the new model is compared to the CFD results, shown an error of less than 0.3% over the studied operating range.
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A Thermal Bus for Vehicle Cooling Applications - Design and Analysis

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

Clemson University-Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner
TARDEC-Katherine Sebeck
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0266
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Designing an efficient cooling system with low power consumption is of high interest in the automotive engineering community. Heat generated due to the propulsion system and the on-board electronics in ground vehicles must be dissipated to avoid exceeding component temperature limits. In addition, proper thermal management will offer improved system durability and efficiency while providing a flexible, modular, and reduced weight structure. Traditional cooling systems are effective but they typically require high energy consumption which provides motivation for a paradigm shift. This study will examine the integration of passive heat rejection pathways in ground vehicle cooling systems using a “thermal bus”. Potential solutions include heat pipes and composite fibers with high thermal properties and light weight properties to move heat from the source to ambient surroundings. An initial case study focuses on the integration of heat pipes in a thermal bus to transfer heat from the thermal load (e.g., internal combustion engine, electric motor, battery pack, power electronic, etc.) to the heat exchanger. A mathematical U-shaped pulsating heat pipe model is used to numerically describe…
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Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) for Multi-Physics Simulations Using High Performance Computing

Mississippi State Univ.-Tomasz A. Haupt, Angela E. Card, Matthew Doude, Michael S. Mazzola
TARDEC-Alan Hufnagel
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The Powertrain Analysis and Computational Environment (PACE) is a forward-looking powertrain simulation tool that is ready for a High-Performance Computing (HPC) environment. The code, written in C++, is one actor in a comprehensive ground vehicle co-simulation architecture being developed by the CREATE-GV program. PACE provides an advanced behavioral modeling capability for the powertrain subsystem of a conventional or hybrid-electric vehicle that exploits the idea of reusable vehicle modeling that underpins the Autonomie modeling environment developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. PACE permits the user to define a powertrain in Autonomie, which requires a single desktop license for MATLAB/Simulink, and port it to a cluster computer where PACE runs with an open-source BSD-3 license so that it can be distributed to as many nodes as needed. Due to its origins in Autonomie, PACE benefits from the reputation of Autonomie as a validated powertrain modeling tool capable of simulating the advanced hardware and control features of modern vehicle powertrains. But PACE brings a completely new capability to ground vehicle concept evaluation and design because it permits unrestricted…
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