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A Parametric Study of the Flammability of Dieseline Blends with and without Ethanol

Concawe-Heather Hamje, John Rogerson
ENI Spa-Leonardo Pellegrini
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Low Temperature Combustion using compression ignition may provide high efficiency combined with low emissions of oxides of nitrogen and soot. This process is facilitated by fuels with lower cetane number than standard diesel fuel. Mixtures of gasoline and diesel (“dieseline”) may be one way of achieving this; however, a gasoline/diesel mixture in a fuel tank can result in a flammable headspace, particularly at very cold ambient temperatures. A mathematical model to predict the flammability of dieseline blends, including those containing ethanol, was previously validated. In this paper, that model is used to study the flammability of dieseline blends parametrically. Gasolines used in the simulations had Dry Vapour Pressure Equivalent (DVPE) values of 45, 60, 75, 90 and 110 kPa. Simulations were carried out for dieseline blends containing ethanol with two types of specifications - a fixed ethanol volume percent in the dieseline blend (0-50% ethanol), or blends containing specified EXX gasolines (E10, E20, E30, E40, E60 and E85) added to diesel fuel. Predicted Upper Flammability Limit (UFL) temperatures and blend DVPEs are presented for all…
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A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Martin Gold, John Rogerson, Craig Goodfellow
MAHLE Powertrain Ltd-Alasdair Cairns, Phil Stansfield, Neil Fraser, Hugh Blaxill
  • Journal Article
  • 2009-01-0138
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
This work was concerned with evaluation of the performance and emissions of potential future biofuels during advanced spark ignition engine operation. The fuels prepared included three variants of gasoline, three gasoline-ethanol blends and a gasoline-butanol fuel altogether covering a range of oxygen mass concentrations and octane numbers to identify key influencing parameters.The combustion of the fuels was evaluated in a turbocharged multi-cylinder direct fuel injection research engine equipped with a standard three-way catalyst and an external EGR circuit that allowed use of either cooled or non-cooled EGR. The engine operating effects studied at both part and boosted high load conditions included fuel injection timing and pressure, excess air tolerance, EGR tolerance and spark retard limits. A number of blends were also mapped at suitable sites across the European drive cycle under downsized engine conditions. Relative in-vehicle fuel economies were then determined via drive cycle simulation and compared to a naturally aspirated gasoline PFI engine.
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Effect of the Molecular Structure of Individual Fatty Acid Alcohol Esters (Biodiesel) on the Formation of Nox and Particulate Matter in the Diesel Combustion Process

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

BP Global Fuels Technology-Robert Allan, John Williams, John Rogerson
University College London-Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-1578
Published 2008-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which can be used as a direct replacement for fossil Diesel fuel as a calorific source in Diesel Engines. It consists of fatty acid mono-alkyl esters, which are produced by the trans-esterification reaction of plant oils with monohydric alcohols. The Plant oils and alcohols can both be derived from biomass, giving this fuel the potential for a sustainable carbon dioxide neutral life-cycle, which is an important quality with regard to avoiding the net emission of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Depending on its fatty ester composition, Biodiesel can have varying physical and chemical properties which influence its combustion behaviour in a Diesel engine. It has been observed by many researchers that Biodiesel can sometimes lead to an increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared to fossil Diesel fuel, while emitting a lower amount of particulate mass. The work described in this paper examines the influence of the detailed molecular structure of fatty acid ester molecules on the formation of NOx and particulate matter. Several individual fatty acid alcohol esters were…
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Effects on diesel combustion of the molecular structure of potential synthetic bio-fuel molecules

BP Global Fuels Technology-John Williams, Robert Allan, John Rogerson
University College London-Alessandro Schönborn, Nicos Ladommatos
Published 2007-09-16 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Synthetic bio-fuels, which can be obtained through the gasification of biomass into synthesis gas and the subsequent catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas into liquid fuel molecules, could play a key-role in providing a sustainable source of automotive fuels during the coming decades. This paper presents an attempt to understand the effect of molecular structure of potential oxygenated synthetic bio-fuel molecules of different structure on the diesel combustion process in both stratified and homogeneous combustion modes. Specifically, the effects of molecular structure on the energy release rates, gaseous exhaust emissions and the sub-micron particulate matter distribution were examined. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using a specially adapted common-rail fuel-system which allowed the injection of small single-molecule fuel samples at high pressure. It was found that significant differences exist in the combustion characteristics of various molecules of the same molecular weight and atomic make-up. Substantial differences in ignition characteristics as well as detailed effects of molecular structure on pollutant formation and sub-micron particulate matter were observed.
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