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Eco-Driving Strategies for Different Powertrain Types and Scenarios

Argonne National Laboratory-Simeon Iliev, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg, Michael Duoba
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2608
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
Connected automated vehicles (CAVs) are quickly becoming a reality, and their potential ability to communicate with each other and the infrastructure around them has big potential impacts on future mobility systems. Perhaps one of the most important impacts could be on network wide energy consumption. A lot of research has already been performed on the topic of eco-driving and the potential fuel and energy consumption benefits for CAVs. However, most of the efforts to date have been based on simulation studies only, and have only considered conventional vehicle powertrains. In this study, experimental data is presented for the potential eco-driving benefits of two specific intersection approach scenarios and four different powertrain types. The two intersection approach scenarios considered in this study include an approach to a red light where coming to a complete stop is avoidable and one where a complete stop is determined necessary thanks to advance information from vehicle to infrastructure communication (V2I). The four powertrain types tested in this study include an advanced conventional vehicle, a conventional vehicle with idle stop-start capability,…
 

Real-World Thermal Effects on Wheel Assembly Efficiency of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Argonne National Laboratory-Forrest Jehlik, Eric Rask, Michael Duoba
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0236
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures negatively impact vehicle system efficiency. This is due to a combination of factors: increased friction (engine oil, transmission, and driveline viscous effects), cold start enrichment, heat transfer, and air density variations. Although the science of quantifying steady-state vehicle component efficiency is mature, transient component efficiencies over dynamic ambient real-world conditions is less understood and quantified.This work characterizes wheel assembly efficiencies of a conventional and electric vehicle over a wide range of ambient conditions. For this work, the wheel assembly is defined as the tire side axle spline, spline housing, bearings, brakes, and tires. Dynamometer testing over hot and cold ambient temperatures was conducted with a conventional and electric vehicle instrumented to determine the output energy losses of the wheel assembly in proportion to the input energy of the half-shafts. Additionally, response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to the conventional vehicle serving as predictive models of the wheel assembly efficiency as a function of its thermal state. For the conventional vehicle, data showed that under -17°C ambient…
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Model Validation of the Honda Accord Plug-In

Argonne National Laboratory-Jongryeol Jeong, Dominik Karbowski, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the validation of an entire vehicle model of the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), which has a new powertrain system that can be driven in both series and parallel hybrid drive using a clutch, including thermal aspects. The Accord PHEV is a series-parallel PHEV with about 21 km of all-electric range and no multi-speed gearbox. Vehicle testing was performed at Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility on a chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber. First, components (engine, battery, motors and wheels) were modeled using the test data and publicly available assumptions. This includes calibration of the thermal aspects, such as engine efficiency as a function of coolant temperature. In the second phase, the vehicle-level control strategy, especially the energy management, was analyzed in normal conditions in both charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The third part examined how different thermal conditions such as environmental conditions (-7°C or 35°C with solar load) or vehicle state (soaked or warmed-up vehicle) affect the control strategy. Finally, the validation of the model implemented in Autonomie, a…
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Development and Validation of the Ford Focus Battery Electric Vehicle Model

Argonne National Laboratory-Daeheung Lee, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the vehicle model development and validation process for the Ford Focus battery electric vehicles (BEVs) using Autonomie and test results from Advanced Powertrain Research Facility in Argonne National Laboratory. The parameters or characteristic values for the important components such as the electric machine and battery pack system are estimated through analyzing the test data of the multi cycle test (MCT) procedure under the standard ambient condition. A novel process was used to import vehicle test data into Autonomie. Through this process, a complete vehicle model of the Ford Focus BEV is developed and validated under ambient temperature for different drive cycles (UDDS, HWFET, US06 and Steady-State). The simulation results of the developed vehicle model show coincident results with the test data within 0.5% ∼ 4% discrepancies for electrical consumption. A mathematical calculation function for validation is also applied to quantify the correlation between the simulation and test data, and most of the key signals show good comparison between simulation and test data.Using the developed BEV model, it is possible to quickly and…
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Analyzing the Energy Consumption Variation during Chassis Dynamometer Testing of Conventional, Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Eric Rask
Colorado State Univ-Jake Bucher, Thomas Bradley
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1805
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Production vehicles are commonly characterized and compared using fuel consumption (FC) and electric energy consumption (EC) metrics. Chassis dynamometer testing is a tool used to establish these metrics, and to benchmark the effectiveness of a vehicle's powertrain under numerous testing conditions and environments. Whether the vehicle is undergoing EPA Five-Cycle Fuel Economy (FE), component lifecycle, thermal, or benchmark testing, it is important to identify the vehicle and testing based variations of energy consumption results from these tests to establish the accuracy of the test's results. Traditionally, the uncertainty in vehicle test results is communicated using the variation. With the increasing complexity of vehicle powertrain technology and operation, a fixed energy consumption variation may no longer be a correct assumption. This paper will present the observed energy consumption variation as measured from the variation in the battery net energy change (NEC), and the variation observed during thermal dynamometer testing. Results will be provided for a variety of vehicle architectures tested on common drive cycles.
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A Comparison of Cold-Start Behavior and its Impact on Fuel Economy for Advanced Technology Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Argonne National Lab.-Eric Rask, Henning Lohse-Busch
Michigan Technological Univ.-Jay Anderson, Scott Miers
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1375
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle operation during cold-start powertrain conditions can have a significant impact on drivability, fuel economy and tailpipe emissions in modern passenger vehicles. As efforts continue to maximize fuel economy in passenger vehicles, considerable engineering resources are being spent in order to reduce the consumption penalties incurred shortly after engine start and during powertrain warmup while maintaining suitably low levels of tailpipe emissions. Engine downsizing, advanced transmissions and hybrid-electric architecture can each have an appreciable effect on cold-start strategy and its impact on fuel economy.This work seeks to explore the cold-start strategy of several passenger vehicles with different powertrain architectures and to understand the resulting fuel economy impact relative to warm powertrain operation. To this end, four vehicles were chosen with different powertrain architectures. These include a modern conventional vehicle with a 6-speed automatic transmission equipped with a torque converter, a downsized and turbocharged GDI vehicle with a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission, a modern turbo-diesel with a 6-speed dual-clutch transmission, and a gasoline-electric hybrid with a power split transmission. The vehicles were operated on a chassis dynamometer…
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Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Namwook Kim, Eric Rask, Aymeric Rousseau
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1818
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy. The engine of the vehicle is mostly turned on or off on the basis of the SOC, demand power, and vehicle speed according to the driver mode. If the engine is turned on, the front axle driven by the engine generally provides all propulsion power. Further,…
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Ambient Temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) Impact on Fuel and Energy Consumption for Several Conventional Vehicles, Hybrid and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicle

Argonne National Laboratory-Henning Lohse-Busch, Michael Duoba, Eric Rask, Kevin Stutenberg
US Dept of Energy-Lee Slezak, David Anderson
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
This paper determines the impact of ambient temperature on energy consumption of a variety of vehicles in the laboratory. Several conventional vehicles, several hybrid electric vehicles, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and a battery electric vehicle were tested for fuel and energy consumption under test cell conditions of 20°F, 72°F and 95°F with 850 W/m₂ of emulated radiant solar energy on the UDDS, HWFET and US06 drive cycles.At 20°F, the energy consumption increase compared to 72°F ranges from 2% to 100%. The largest increases in energy consumption occur during a cold start, when the powertrain losses are highest, but once the powertrains reach their operating temperatures, the energy consumption increases are decreased. At 95°F, the energy consumption increase ranges from 2% to 70%, and these increases are due to the extra energy required to run the air-conditioning system to maintain 72°F cabin temperatures. These increases in energy consumption depend on the air-conditioning system type, powertrain architecture, powertrain capabilities and drive patterns. The more efficient the powertrain, the larger the impact of climate control (heating or…
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Analysis of Input Power, Energy Availability, and Efficiency during Deceleration for X-EV Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Argonne National Laboratory-Eric Rask, Danilo Santini, Henning Lohse-Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-1473
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The recovery of braking energy through regenerative braking is a key enabler for the improved efficiency of Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Plug-in Hybrid Electric, and Battery Electric Vehicles (HEV, PHEV, BEV). However, this energy is often treated in a simplified fashion, frequently using an overall regeneration efficiency term, ξrg [1], which is then applied to the total available braking energy of a given drive-cycle.In addition to the ability to recapture braking energy typically lost during vehicle deceleration, hybrid and plug-in hybrid vehicles also allow for reduced or zero engine fueling during vehicle decelerations. While regenerative braking is often discussed as an enabler for improved fuel economy, reduced fueling is also an important component of a hybrid vehicle's ability to improve overall fuel economy. Much like energy captured though regenerative braking, engine fueling during deceleration is also often treated using an estimated deceleration fueling rate which is then applied to the total time of deceleration for a particular drive cycle.
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Autonomie Model Validation with Test Data for 2010 Toyota Prius

Argonne National Laboratory-Namwook Kim, Aymeric Rousseau, Eric Rask
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The Prius - a power-split hybrid electric vehicle from Toyota - has become synonymous with the word “Hybrid.” As of October 2010, two million of these vehicles had been sold worldwide, including one million vehicles purchased in the United States. In 2004, the second generation of the vehicle, the Prius MY04, enhanced the performance of the components with advanced technologies, such as a new magnetic array in the rotors. However, the third generation of the vehicle, the Prius MY10, features a remarkable change of the configuration - an additional reduction gear has been added between the motor and the output of the transmission [1]. In addition, a change in the energy management strategy has been found by analyzing the results of a number of tests performed at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (ARRF). Whereas changes in the configuration, such as the reduction gear, are possibly noticeable, it is not easy to determine the effect of the energy management strategy because the supervisory control algorithm is, generally, not published. Further, it is almost impossible…
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