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Rajamani, Ravi
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Unsettled Domains Concerning Electric Propulsion Technology for Commercial Aircraft

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019006
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
According to some, electric propulsion is already on its way down the “trough of disillusionment.” This report argues that while there are some concerns with associated technologies, such pessimism is unwarranted. Yes, battery systems can be more energy dense; charging standards are late in being developed; it is not clear what technologies and architectures will win out for which sectors; we still have to figure out how to deal with thermal management issues at all levels in future designs; and what might be the certification standards for electric aircraft. But that does not mean that these issues will not be addressed. Yes, these unsettled questions may take a little longer to solve than originally estimated, but there is full expectation within the industry that electric propulsion for commercial aircraft will succeed. In this SAE EDGE Research Report we present points of view from leading researchers in the industry who are thinking deeply about solving these problems.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of…
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Data Interoperability for Aerospace IVHM Systems

Infosys-Ravi Kumar G. V. V.
SAP-Martin Whitfield
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Aerospace systems today are generating a lot of data and for the most part all this data is being generated by siloed entities (by various stakeholders like components/sub-system manufacturers, OEMs, operators) and ends up living within the four walls of these individual entities. For the industry to fully benefit from this data there needs to be a transparent way to share this data while strictly controlling the proprietary nature of the data and adhering to all contracts. The SAE HM-1 technical committee is writing an aerospace information report (AIR) 6904 to describe a digital data landscape and approach that can support health management [1]. Integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) systems cut across many disciplines and boundaries and can benefit from structured landscape and well defined approach. For example, data associated with a fault in an aircraft subsystem like the engine must travel through multiple systems and boundaries before it can be analyzed by the cognizant personnel. Today the landscape is pretty ad-hoc; with not many standards governing the data handling, storage, analysis, and disposal. This…
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Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft

Pascal Thalin
INSA-Jean-Charles Maré
  • Book
  • R-462
Published 2018-12-18 by SAE International in United States
Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft was developed to explain what the electric aircraft stands for by offering an objective view of what can be expected from the giant strides in innovative architectures and technologies enabling aircraft electrification. Through tangible case studies, a deep insight is provided into this paradigm shift cutting across various aircraft segments – from General Aviation to Large Aircraft. Addressing design constraints and timelines foreseen to reach acceptable performance and maturity levels, Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft puts forward a general view of the progress made to date and what to expect in the years to come. Drawing from the expertise of four industry veterans, Pascal Thalin (editor), Ravi Rajamani, Jean-Charles Mare and Sven Taubert (contributors), it addresses futuristic approaches but does not depart too far from the operational down-to-earth realities of everyday business. Fundamentals of Electric Aircraft also offers analyses on how performance enhancements and fuel burn savings may bring more value for money as long as new electric technologies deliver on their promises.
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Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-193
Published 2018-12-11 by SAE International in United States

Condition-Based Maintenance in Aviation: The History, The Business and The Technology describes the history and practice of Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) systems by showcasing ten technical papers from the archives of SAE International, stretching from the dawn of the jet age down to the present times.

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Diagnostics and Prognostics of Aerospace Engines

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Progress In Technology (PT)
  • PT-195
Published 2018-11-28 by SAE International in United States

The propulsion system is arguably the most critical part of the aircraft; it certainly is the single most expensive component of the vehicle. Ensuring that engines operate reliably without major maintenance issues is an important goal for all operators, military or commercial. Engine health management (EHM) is a critical piece of this puzzle and has been a part of the engine maintenance for more than five decades. In fact, systematic condition monitoring was introduced for engines before it was applied to other systems on the aircraft.

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Electric Flight Technology: The Unfolding of a New Future

drR2 Consulting-Ravi Rajamani
  • Book
  • T-135
Published 2018-05-28 by SAE International in United States
The environmental impact of hydrocarbon-burning aircraft is one of the main motivations for the move to electric propulsion in aerospace. Also, cars, buses, and trucks are incorporating electric or hybrid-electric propulsion systems, reducing the pressure on hydrocarbons and lowering the costs of electrical components. The economies of scale necessitated by the automotive industry will help contain costs in the aviation sector as well. The use of electric propulsion in airplanes is not a new phenomenon. However, it is only recently that it has taken off in a concrete manner with a viable commercial future. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future reviews the history of this field, discusses the key underlying technologies, and describes how the future for these technologies will likely unfold, distinguishing between all-electric (AE) and hybrid-electric (HE) architectures. Written by Dr. Ravi Rajamani, it covers the essential information needed to understand this new technology wave taking hold in the aerospace industry. The Electric Flight Technology: Unfolding of a New Future covers fundamental topics such as: • The history of electric…
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Determining Remaining Useful Life for Li-ion Batteries

Meggitt USA-Andrew Dickerson, Ravi Rajamani
Securaplane Technologies-Mike Boost, John Jackson
Published 2015-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A high fidelity system for estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) for Li-ion batteries for aerospace applications is presented. The system employs particle filtering coupled with outlier detection to predict RUL. Calculations of RUL are based on autonomous measurements of the battery state-of-health by onboard electronics. Predictions for RUL are fed into a maintenance advisor which allows operators to more effectively plan battery removal. The RUL algorithm has been exercised under stressful conditions to assert robustness.
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Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

Airbus Operations GmbH-Frank Kramer
Honeywell Aerospace-Ginger Shao
Published 2013-09-17 by SAE International in United States
The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to…
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Certification of Engine Health Management Systems: Guidelines for Selecting Software Assurance Levels

Meggitt PLC-Ravi Rajamani
Rolls-Royce PLC-Nicholas Waters
Published 2011-10-18 by SAE International in United States
The use of Engine Health Management (EHM) systems has been growing steadily in both the civilian and the military aerospace sectors. Barring a few notable exceptions (such as certain temperature and thrust margin monitoring) regulatory authorities around the world have not required these systems to be certified in any way. This is changing rapidly. New airframes and engines are increasingly being designed with the assumption that EHM will be an integral part of the way customers will operate these assets. This leads to a need for better guidelines on how such systems should be certified. The SAE E-32 committee on Propulsion System Health Monitoring is leading an industry-wide effort to develop a set of guidelines for certifying EHM systems. Since software plays a critical role in these systems, and since the hardware and the system-level aspects of certification have been covered thoroughly by other standards such as ARP 4754A, the emphasis of this initial effort is EHM software, and will result in an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP 5987) titled, “Guidelines for Engine Health Management System…
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