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Investigation of Knock Damage Mechanisms on a GDI TC Engine

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo, Lorella Ceschini, Eleonora Balducci
Published 2017-09-04 by SAE International in United States
The recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, and knocking combustion mode has become one of the most relevant limiting factors. This paper reports the main results of a specific project carried out as part of a wider research activity, aimed at modelling and real-time controlling knock-induced damage on aluminum forged pistons. The paper shows how the main damage mechanisms (erosion, plastic deformation, surface roughness, hardness reduction) have been identified and isolated, and how the corresponding symptoms may be measured and quantified. The second part of the work then concentrates on understanding how knocking combustion characteristics affect the level of induced damage, and which parameters are mainly responsible for piston failure. For this purpose, steady-state tests have been conducted controlling different and constant levels of knock intensity (i.e., pressure waves oscillation amplitude) and thermal load (i.e., average temperature and pressure levels inside the combustion chamber). Since these parameters are strictly interrelated for a given engine operating condition and for a given fuel, fuels with…
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Investigation on Pre-Ignition Combustion Events and Development of Diagnostic Solutions Based on Ion Current Signals

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Nahuel Rojo
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0784
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Pre-ignition combustions are extremely harmful and undesired, but the recent search for extremely efficient spark-ignition engines has implied a great increase of the in-cylinder pressure and temperature levels, forcing engine operation to conditions that may trigger this type of anomalous combustion much more frequently. For this reason, an accurate on-board diagnosis system is required to adopt protective measures, preventing engine damage.Ion current signal provides relevant information about the combustion process, and it results in a good compromise between cost, durability and information quality (signal to noise ratio levels). The GDI turbocharged engine used for this study was equipped with a production ion current sensing system, while in-cylinder pressure sensors were installed for research purposes, to better understand the pre-ignition phenomenon characteristics, and to support the development of an on-board diagnostic system solely based on ion current measurements.In this work, pre-ignition events induced by heavy knocking operation have been analysed. The focus was mainly on ion current signal real-time processing, and on the possibility to correctly and rapidly detect pre-ignition events. In a previous work, destructive…
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Turbocharger Control-Oriented Modeling: Twin-Entry Turbine Issues and Possible Solutions

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ferrari Auto Spa-Lucio Calogero, Ruggero Cevolani, Luca Poggio
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Andrea Borelli
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-24-2427
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents possible solutions for developing fast and reliable turbocharger models, to be used mainly for control applications. This issue is of particular interest today for SI engines since, due to the search for consistent CO2 reduction, extreme downsizing concepts require highly boosted air charge solutions to compensate for power and torque de-rating. For engines presenting at least four in-line cylinders, twin-entry turbines offer the ability of maximizing the overall energy conversion efficiency, and therefore such solutions are actually widely adopted.This work presents a critical review of the most promising (and recent) modeling approaches for automotive turbochargers, highlighting the main open issues especially in the field of turbine models, and proposing possible improvements. The main original contribution is then on solving specific issues related to the twin-entry turbine, to develop a control-oriented model able to predict the machine behavior under all possible admission conditions.The results of this study have been applied to a V8 high-performance GDI engine with twin-entry turbochargers. Experimental data are shown throughout the paper, to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed…
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Cold Start Thermal Management with Electrically Heated Catalyst: A Way to Lower Fuel Consumption

EMITEC G.m.b.H.-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Vincenzo Rossi
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Recent engine development has been mainly driven by increased specific volumetric power and especially by fuel consumption minimization. On the other hand the stringent emission limits require a very fast cold start that can be reached only using tailored catalyst heating strategy.This kind of thermal management is widely used by engine manufactures although it leads to increased fuel consumption. This fuel penalty is usually higher for high power output engines that have a very low load during emission certification cycle leading to very low exhaust gas temperature and, consequently, the need of additional energy to increase the exhaust gas temperature is high.An alternative way to reach a fast light off minimizing fuel consumption increase is the use of an Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC) that uses mechanical energy from the engine to generate the electrical energy to heat up the catalyst. Following this thermal management strategy the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized. Moreover, the efficiency of such systems can be further…
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Benchmark Comparison of Commercially Available Systems for Particle Number Measurement

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Fabio Bedogni, Vincenzo Rossi, Luca Stronati
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Measurement of particle number was introduced in the Euro 5/6 light duty vehicle emissions regulation. Due to the complex nature of combustion exhaust particles, and to transportation, transformation and deposition mechanisms, such type of measurement is particularly complex, and regression analysis is commonly used for the comparison of different measurement systems.This paper compares various commercial instruments, developing a correlation analysis focused on PN (Particle Number) measurement, and isolating the factors that mainly influence each measuring method. In particular, the experimental activity has been conducted to allow critical comparisons between measurement techniques that are imposed by current regulations and instruments that can be used also on the test cell. The paper presents the main results obtained by analyzing instruments based on different physical principles, and the effects of different sampling locations and different operating parameters.The main instruments that have been critically analyzed during this project are: Horiba MEXA 2000 SPCS Particle Counter installed on a CVS tunnel; AVL APC 489 installed directly on the exhaust gas flow; AVL Smart Sample 478 GEM 140 (Mini CVS tunnel)…
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Development and Implementation of Hardware in the Loop Simulation for Dual Clutch Transmission Control Units

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

Ferrari Auto SpA-Luca Poggio, Francesco Marcigliano
University of Bologna-Nicolo Cavina, Davide Olivi, Enrico Corti, Giorgio Mancini
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-0816
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
A control oriented model of a Dual Clutch Transmission was developed for real time Hardware In the Loop (HIL) applications. The model is an innovative attempt to reproduce the fast dynamics of the actuation system maintaining a step size large enough for real time applications. The model comprehends a detailed physical description of hydraulic circuit, clutches, synchronizers and gears, and simplified vehicle and internal combustion engine sub-models; a stable real time simulation is achieved with a simplification of the model without losing physical validity. After an offline validation, the model was implemented in a HIL system and connected to the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) via two input-output boards, and to a load plate which comprehends all the actuators. The paper presents a selection of the several tests that have been performed for the development of the DCT controller: electrical failure tests on sensors and actuators, mechanical failure tests on hydraulic valves, clutches and synchronizers, and application tests comprehending all the main features of the control performed by the TCU, i.e. drive away and gear shift…
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Misfire and Partial Burn Detection based on Ion Current Measurement

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Giovanni Sartoni
Univ. degli Studi di Bologna-Nicolo Cavina
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-24-0142
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the implementation of a combustion diagnosis system that integrates crankshaft speed oscillations analysis with ion current signal processing, for V8 and V12 high performance engines.Ion current sensing has been introduced in the last V8 and V12 Ferrari models in order to improve combustion control by implementing ion current based closed-loop spark-advance control systems, both under knocking and non-knocking conditions (respectively based on measured knocking level, and on ion current peak position control).Another area where ion current sensing can improve the engine controller performance is related to the ability of detecting and isolating missing and partial burn combustions. The typical approach to misfire detection (based on engine speed oscillation measurement) is in fact particularly critical for engines with a large number of cylinders, and ion current sensing provides additional information not only about presence (or absence) of combustion, but also about the causes that generated the fault. Moreover, the paper shows that real-time analysis of specific ion current signal features allows isolating incomplete and inefficient combustion events, thus providing extremely useful information to…
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Development of a Multi-Spark Ignition System for Reducing Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of a High Performance GDI Engine

Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Daniele Zecchetti
Univ degli Studi di Bologna-Enrico Corti
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the development and real-time implementation of a combustion control system based on optimal management of multiple spark discharge events, in order to increase combustion stability, reduce pollutant emissions and fuel consumption, and avoid partial or missing combustion cycles.The proposed approach has been developed as a cost-effective solution to several combustion-related issues that affect Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines during cold start and part load operation. The problem of optimizing combustion efficiency and improving its stability during such operating modes is even more critical for high performance engines, which are designed to maximize charge efficiency especially at medium-high engine speeds.The main benefits that have been achieved by introducing and optimizing a multi-spark ignition mode can be summarized as follows: missing and partial burn combustions elimination, combustion variability minimization, HC emissions reduction (also due to absence of misfiring events), NOx emissions reduction (mainly due to the possibility of increasing residual gas fraction), significant specific fuel consumption reduction (especially during very low load operation - brake mean effective pressure around 0.5∼1.0 bar - and during…
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Individual Cylinder Combustion Control Based on Real-Time Processing of Ion Current Signals

DIEM - University of Bologna-Nicolò Cavina, Davide Moro
Eldor Corporation SpA-Riccardo Nanni, Andrea Gelmetti
Published 2007-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The paper presents the main results of a research activity focused on the analysis, development, and real time implementation of a closed-loop, individual cylinder combustion control system, based on ion sensing technology.The innovative features of the proposed control system consist of extracting combustion quality related information from the ion current signal, and of using such information, together with pre-defined look-up-tables, for feedback control of the spark advance throughout the entire engine operating range. In particular, the ion current signal processing algorithm that is carried out in real-time, initially determines whether knocking is affecting or not the actual combustion process. Based on such evaluation, the closed-loop spark advance controller uses different signal processing algorithms to continuously determine individual cylinder spark advance deviations with respect to a pre-defined, base spark advance look up table, common to all the engine cylinders, and to store them in the Electronic Control Unit memory.The main result is therefore a spark advance controller that is continuously able to adapt its actuations both to engine/components variations (either due to ageing or to manufacturing…
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Backpressure Optimized Metal Supported Close Coupled PE Catalyst - First Application on a Maserati Powertrain

ArvinMeritor-Mathias Holzinger
EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
Published 2005-04-11 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission limits both in the European Community and USA require continuously increased conversion efficiency of exhaust after-treatment systems.Besides the obvious targets of fastest light-off performance, overall conversion efficiency and durability, catalytic converters for maximum output engines require highly optimized flow properties as well, in order to create minimum exhaust backpressure for low fuel consumption.This work deals with the design, development and serial introduction of a close coupled main catalyst system using the innovative technology of Perforated Foils (PE).By means of PE-technology, channel-to-channel gas mixing within the metal substrate could be achieved leading to dramatically reduced backpressure values compared with the conventional design.Due to the highly improved flow properties of the advanced metal substrate, a compact converter could be designed taking into account the demanding packaging constraints in a modern V8 engine compartment.The present paper consists of numerical simulations, flow bench and engine test bench measurements carried out to assess emission performance, backpressure advantage and engine power output increase of a close-coupled single brick system compliant with LEV-II and EU4 emission limits.
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