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Strive for Zero Emissions Impact from Hybrids

Continental-Lorenzo Pace, Katrin Konieczny
Volvo Car Corporation-Mats Laurell, Fredrik Ekström
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Since several decades, passenger cars and light duty vehicles (LDV) with spark-ignited engines reach full pollutant conversion during warm up conditions; the major challenge has been represented by the cold start and warming up strategies. The focus on technology developments of exhaust after treatment systems have been done in the thermal management in order to reach the warm up conditions as soon as possible. A new challenge is now represented by the Real Driving Emission (RDE) Regulation as this bring more various, and not any longer cycle defined, cold start conditions. On the other hand, once the full conversion has been reached, it would be beneficial for many Exhaust After Treatment System (EATS) components, e.g. for overall durability if the exhaust gas temperature could be lowered. To take significant further emission steps, approaching e.g. zero emission concepts, we investigate the use of Electrical Heating Catalyst (EHC) also including pre-heating.The clear goal is to have the right temperature in the right place at the right time. Several approaches have been investigated in this paper regarding EATS…
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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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New VM R750 Engine Family: A Different Approach to Reach the Emission Limit

Emitec G.m.b.H.-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
VM Motori-Emilio Bertoni, Alessandro Mazza, Carlo Ricci
Published 2013-10-15 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Emission legislation for Off Road Engines is forcing the industry to review the engine design, introducing state of the art technology for many components and tailored exhaust gas after treatment architectures. Particulate matter reduction is a crucial issue to be addressed having an influence on overall engine performance and cost. At the present stage there is not a unilateral solution in the industry, as some manufacturers use a combination of very high fuel injection pressure and very efficient DOC, while others rely on the automotive derived DPF technology with active regeneration or SCR-only technology to reach EU Stage IV and US Tier4f. Considering the pros and cons of each solution, VM Motori decided to adopt an innovative solution consisting in a DOC followed by a partial-flow filter PM-Metalit® for the R750 Engine family. The advantages of this solution will be discussed in this paper along with the application work that has been carried over to reach the emission limit. A short overview of the PM-Metalit technology will be given together with a comprehensive explanation of…
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Cold Start Thermal Management with Electrically Heated Catalyst: A Way to Lower Fuel Consumption

EMITEC G.m.b.H.-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Ferrari Auto Spa-Luca Poggio, Vincenzo Rossi
Published 2013-09-08 by SAE International in United States
Recent engine development has been mainly driven by increased specific volumetric power and especially by fuel consumption minimization. On the other hand the stringent emission limits require a very fast cold start that can be reached only using tailored catalyst heating strategy.This kind of thermal management is widely used by engine manufactures although it leads to increased fuel consumption. This fuel penalty is usually higher for high power output engines that have a very low load during emission certification cycle leading to very low exhaust gas temperature and, consequently, the need of additional energy to increase the exhaust gas temperature is high.An alternative way to reach a fast light off minimizing fuel consumption increase is the use of an Electrical Heated Catalyst (EHC) that uses mechanical energy from the engine to generate the electrical energy to heat up the catalyst. Following this thermal management strategy the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized. Moreover, the efficiency of such systems can be further…
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Accelerated Durability Test for Metallic Substrates Tailored for Motorcycle Application

Emitec G.m.b.H.-Lorenzo Pace, Francois Jayat, Roman Konieczny
KTM Sportmotorcycles AG-Martin Forster, Rudolf Prem, Richard Humer
Published 2011-11-08 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Future emission legislation for 2 and 3 wheelers in EU and many other Countries will introduce durability of pollution control devices. Along with a durable coating technology, the mechanical durability of the substrate must be ensured to guarantee the requested conversion efficiency for the entire life of the motorcycle.A traditional approach consisting in engine bench and vehicle testing is no more competitive considering the very short time to market needed in the motorcycle market and the relevant cost related to this kind of tests. For this reason a new time and cost efficient accelerated component durability test was developed, which can account for the combined effects of critical load at a metallic catalytic converter.This paper shows the methodology used to determine the critical stressors and their levels in real operating conditions by measuring and analyzing a broad range of vehicle test information. The information was used to develop a temperature profile and a high vibration load, which were implemented in a superimposed hot vibration / thermal cycling component bench test.This highly accelerated test provides a…
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An Alternative Way to Reduce Fuel Consumption During Cold Start: The Electrically Heated Catalyst

EMITEC G.m.b.H-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
Published 2011-09-11 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that the optimal management of cold start is crucial to fulfill present and future emission legislation. During past years the catalytic converter has left its original under floor position to get increasingly closer to the engine in order to exploit higher exhaust gas temperature. Simultaneously, the exhaust gas temperature is becoming significantly lower, both in gasoline engines due to the extensive use of turbo charging, and in diesel engines thanks to very high combustion efficiency and in some cases the use of two stage turbo charging. A well established way to reach the catalyst light-off temperature fast enough to fulfill emission limits consists of artificially increasing the exhaust gas temperature. This has the drawback of a higher fuel consumption which conflicts with the tight CO2 targets now required of the OEMs. This paper describes an alternative way to warm up the catalytic converter in a fast and efficient manner using the electrical heated catalyst (EHC) with only minor increases of fuel consumption. Additionally, the application of the electrical heated catalyst is…
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Changing the Substrate Technology to meet Future Emission Limits

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

EMITEC GmbH-Lorenzo Pace, Manuel Presti
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-1550
Published 2010-05-05 by SAE International in United States
Future stringent emission legislation will require high efficient catalytical systems. Along with engine out emission reduction and advanced wash coat solution the substrate technology will play a key role in order to keep system costs as low as possible.The development of metallic substrates over the past few years has shown that turbulent-like substrates increase specific catalytic efficiency. This has made it possible to enhance overall performance for a specific catalytic volume or reduce the volume while keeping catalytic efficiency constant.This paper focuses on the emission efficiency of standard, TS (Transversal Structure) and LS (Longitudinal Structure) metallic substrates. In a first measurement program, standard TS and LS substrates have been compared using a 150cc 4 Stroke engine in dynamic (ECE R40) conditions. In a second test standard and LS substrate have been tested.Both TS and LS technologies show advantage compared to standard technology but have different application fields: TS is a cost effective solution for next emission limits while LS is a possible solution for future stringent emission limits.
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Innovative 2 Wheeler Substrate Developments for EU5

Emitec G.m.b.H.-Lorenzo Pace, Francois Jayat, Roman Konieczny
KTM Sportmotorcycles AG-Martin Forster, Richard Humer, Daniel Mairhörmann, Rudolf Prem
  • Technical Paper
  • 2009-32-0102
Published 2009-11-03 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Future tighter emission limits for 2 wheelers in Europe and worldwide will require a completely new approach in catalyst system design. In particular, the EU5 scenario, probably with the same emission limits as 4 wheelers and, for the first time, emission durability requirements, needs a new strategy to combine higher and durable conversion efficiency with the classical characteristics of 2 wheeler systems: low cost, low weight with minimum impact on exhaust system layout and engine out performances such as low fuel consumption and good power output.This paper deals with the investigation of innovative metallic substrates keeping constant, as a first step towards the development of an EU5 system, both washcoat technology and PGM loading. In particular the effect of turbulent structures in the substrate, using PE (Perforated Foils) and LS (Longitudinal Structure) have been thoroughly investigated in testing 400cpsi PE and LS substrates.After a brief review of past experiences with structured foils, a first test matrix was designed with the catalysts tested at constant engine load point to prevent any influence of test set up,…
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Turbulent Flow Metal Substrates: A Way to Address Cold Start CO Emissions and to Optimize Catalyst Loading

EMITEC GmbH-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Umicore AG & Co KG-Gerardo Carelli, Paul Spurk
Published 2006-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection and EGR are characterized by an increasingly high combustion efficiency. Consequently the exhaust gas temperature, especially during a cold start, is significantly reduced compared to typical values measured in previous engine generations. This leads to a potential problem with CO emission limit compliance. The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of turbulent-flow metal substrates, carried out on a vehicle roller bench using a production 1.3 Liter diesel engine equipped passenger car. The tested metal supported catalysts proved to yield extremely high conversion rates both during cold start and in warm operation phase. The improved mass transfer efficiency of the advanced metal substrates is related on one hand to the optimized coating technology and, on the other hand, to the enhanced flow performance in the single converter channels which is caused by structured metal foils. Additionally different cost saving scenarios have been analyzed by means of both catalyst volume reduction and decreased PGM loading.
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Innovative metal supported catalysts for EU V Diesel Engines

Emitec G.m.b.H-Manuel Presti, Lorenzo Pace
Umicore AG & Co KG-Gerardo Carelli, Paul Spurk, Markus Kögel
Published 2005-09-11 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Future stringent emission levels for NOx and PM will lead to the introduction of innovative combustion processes for diesel engines, such as premixed combustion, with the results to enhance the engine out emission of HC and CO. Therefore very efficient oxidation catalyst will be needed to face this possible issue. This paper deals with the optimization of a EU IV exhaust system by means of innovative metal supported catalyst, as for example the Pre Turbo Catalyst and the Hybrid Catalyst in combination with dedicated catalyst coatings. Moreover a base study over the use of PM-Filter Catalyst has been made, to show the efficiency of such a device with EU IV engine calibration. The second part of the paper deals with the turbulent like structured foils substrates to have an even more efficient diesel oxidation catalyst with very high volumetric efficiency.
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