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Olechiw, Michael
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Real-World Emission Modeling and Validations Using PEMS and GPS Vehicle Data

US Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Carl Fulper, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) are used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to measure gaseous and particulate mass emissions from vehicles in normal, in-use, on-the-road operation to support many of its programs, including assessing mobile source emissions compliance, emissions factor assessment for in-use fleet modeling, and collection of in-use vehicle operational data to support vehicle simulation modeling programs. This paper discusses EPA’s use of Global Positioning System (GPS) measured altitude data and electronically logged vehicle speed data to provide real-world road grade data for use as an input into the Gamma Technologies GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model. The GPS measured altitudes and the CAN vehicle speed data were filtered and smoothed to calculate the road grades by using open-source Python code and associated packages. Ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, wind direction, and speeds were used to simulate actual driving environment conditions, and to calculate vehicle performance, fuel economy, and emissions associated with environmental effects. Complete engine maps, transmission efficiencies, and vehicle data were used as inputs into the GT-DRIVE+ vehicle model to estimate fuel economy,…
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Modeling and Validation of 48V Mild Hybrid Lithium-Ion Battery Pack

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Joseph McDonald, Michael Olechiw
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0433
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As part of the midterm evaluation of the 2022-2025 Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Standards, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed simulation models for studying the effectiveness of 48V mild hybrid electric vehicle (MHEV) technology for reducing CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles. Simulation and modeling of this technology requires a suitable model of the battery. This article presents the development and validation of a 48V lithium-ion battery model that will be integrated into EPA’s Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model and that can also be used within Gamma Technologies, LLC (Westmont, IL) GT-DRIVE™ vehicle simulations. The battery model is a standard equivalent circuit model with the two-time constant resistance-capacitance (RC) blocks. Resistances and capacitances were calculated using test data from an 8 Ah, 0.4 kWh, 48V (nominal) lithium-ion battery obtained from a Tier 1 automotive supplier, A123 Systems, and developed specifically for 48V mild hybrid vehicle applications. The A123 Systems battery has 14 pouch-type lithium-ion cells arranged in a 14 series and 1 parallel (14S1P) configuration. The RC battery model…
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Teardown-Based Cost Assessment for Use in Setting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

EPA-Antonio Fernandez
FEV Inc-Thomas Casciani
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1343
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contracted with FEV, Inc. to estimate the per-vehicle cost of employing selected advanced efficiency-improving technologies in light-duty motor vehicles. The development of transparent, reliable cost analyses that are accessible to all interested stakeholders has played a crucial role in establishing feasible and cost effective standards to improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.The FEV team, together with engineering staff from EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory, and FEV's subcontractor, Munro & Associates, developed a robust costing methodology based on tearing down, to the piece part level, relevant systems, sub-systems, and assemblies from vehicles “with and without” the technologies being evaluated. The parts found to be redesigned, added, or deleted to implement the new technologies were then examined by the team's manufacturing experts to assess their material composition and sequence of fabrication steps. Finally, using information from comprehensive costing databases for raw materials, labor rates, manufacturing overhead, and mark-up costs, each technology's direct manufacturing cost was determined. Where appropriate, these results were scaled to other vehicle sizes…
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