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Characterization of GHG Reduction Technologies in the Existing Fleet

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education-Brandon Mikkelsen
US Environmental Protection Agency-Kevin Bolon, Andrew Moskalik, Kevin Newman, Aaron Hula, Anthony Neam
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
By almost any definition, technology has penetrated the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet significantly in conjunction with the increased stringency of fuel economy and GHG emissions regulations. The physical presence of advanced technology components provides one indication of the efforts taken to reduce emissions, but that alone does not provide a complete measure of the benefits of a particular technology application. Differences in the design of components, the materials used, the presence of other technologies, and the calibration of controls can impact the performance of technologies in any particular implementation. The effectiveness of a technology for reducing emissions will also be influenced by the extent to which the technologies are applied towards changes in vehicle operating characteristics such as improved acceleration, or customer features that may offset mass reduction from the use of lightweight materials.This paper begins with an examination of trends in the penetration of key advanced technologies into the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. We then investigate the overall influence of these technologies and vehicle changes on tailpipe CO2 emissions using metrics for powertrain efficiency…
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Modeling and Controls Development of 48 V Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Michael Safoutin, Anthony Neam, Joseph McDonald, Kevin Newman
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool (ALPHA) was created by EPA to evaluate the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions of Light-Duty (LD) vehicles. ALPHA is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator capable of analyzing various vehicle types combined with different powertrain technologies. The ALPHA desktop application was developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The ALPHA tool was used to evaluate technology effectiveness and off-cycle technologies such as air-conditioning, electrical load reduction technology and road load reduction technologies of conventional, non-hybrid vehicles for the Midterm Evaluation of the 2017-2025 LD GHG rule by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ). This paper presents controls development, modeling results, and model validation for simulations of a vehicle with a 48 V Belt Integrated Starter Generator (BISG) mild hybrid electric vehicle and an initial model design for a 48 V inline on-axis P2-configuration mild hybrid electric vehicle. Both configurations were modeled with a MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow tool, which has been integrated into EPA’s ALPHA vehicle model and was also used to model components within Gamma Technology GT-DRIVE simulations.…
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Development of Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis Tool

US Environmental Protection Agency-Byungho Lee, SoDuk Lee, Jeff Cherry, Anthony Neam, James Sanchez, Ed Nam
Published 2013-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The Advanced Light-Duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis tool was created by Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions and fuel efficiency of light-duty vehicles. It is a physics-based, forward-looking, full vehicle computer simulator that is capable of analyzing various vehicle types equipped with different powertrain technologies. The software is built on MATLAB/Simulink. This first version release of the simulation tool models conventional vehicles and is capable of evaluating effects of off-cycle technologies on greenhouse gas emissions, such as air conditioning, electrical load reduction, road load reduction by active aerodynamics, and engine start-stop.This paper introduces the simulation tool by describing its basic model architecture and presenting its underlying physics as well as model formulations. It describes the simulation capability along with its graphical user interface of the tool, designed for off-cycle technology analysis purposes. Model validation results are provided by comparing the simulation outputs with conventional production vehicle test data. The paper concludes with a description of the role this model played in determining the effects of off-cycle technologies on greenhouse gas emissions to…
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