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Malhotra, R K
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Indian Experience of Soot Loading on Diesel Engine Oil’s Performance - Friction, Wear and Fuel Economy

Indian Institute of Technology - Delhi-K.A. Subramanian
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd..-Gopalakrishna Acharya
Published 2017-01-10 by SAE International in United States
In India, there is a large population of heavy duty diesel engine powered vehicles such as trucks and buses. Buses are operated under normal speed & load conditions whereas trucks are generally overloaded with high severity on engine oil and lugging operation is common. Higher loading of soot in engine oil results in increase in viscosity of oil and also affects the friction properties and also wear in engine components. The engine oil keep the soot dispersed in order to meet the basic function of lubricating and also keep the engine components clean.To study the impact of soot on diesel engine oil performance tests were conducted on a turbo charged diesel engine conforming to BSIII for 150 / 250 hours using commercial grade oils with increased test severity by changing the engine design parameters such as injection timing & injection pressure, intake air throttling and also operating conditions such as speed, torque, coolant and oil temperatures in order to generate 6% of soot level at the end of 250 hrs for simulating the field conditions…
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Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance & Emission Characteristics of a 6.0 L Heavy Duty Natural Gas Engine

Ashok Leyland Technical Center-S Nagarajan, S Yoganandam, G Senthil Kumar, G Gopal
Indian Oil Corporation Limited-Sauhard Singh, Reji Mathai, Ved Singh, A K Sehgal, B Basu, R K Malhotra
Published 2014-09-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, experimental evaluation was carried out on a 6.0 L heavy duty CNG engine which has been optimized for 18 percent hydrogen blended CNG (HCNG). Optimization test results shows that use of HCNG results in reduced CO, THC & CH4 emissions by 39, 25 & 25 percent respectively and increase in NOx by 32 percent vis-a-vis CNG. After optimization the engine was subjected to endurance test of 600 hours as per 15 mode engine simulated city driving cycle with HCNG. The performance & emission characteristics of the engine were analyzed after completion of every 100 hours as per European Transient Cycle (ETC). Test results indicate that there were no significant changes observed in engine power output over the complete endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) measurements were consistent at all the 15 modes of engine simulated city driving cycle. It was observed from the test results that over the period of endurance test of 600 hrs with HCNG, all the major exhaust emissions species such as CO, THC,…
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Investigation on the Effect of 5% Biodiesel -Diesel Blend on Heavy Duty Buses: With Different Aspiration Technologies in Respect of Vehicle Performance

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R&D Centre-M Muralidharan, M Subramanian, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel derived from non-edible vegetable oils/tree borne oils hold potential for meeting India's future energy needs by part substitution of Diesel Fuel. This paper investigates performance of 5% blend of commercially available biodiesel (B5) in diesel as fuel for heavy duty vehicles. The test fuel was evaluated on buses with different aspiration technologies viz. naturally aspirated and turbo charged, and the same was compared with neat commercial diesel under different operating conditions like driving cycle, road load simulation (RLS) and wide open throttle (WOT) on chassis dynamometer for power, fuel economy, smoke and soot particle number concentration. Fuel economy was observed to be comparable with B5 in naturally aspirated bus while better fuel economy was observed in case of Turbo charged bus with B5. However, there was a marginal drop in the WOT power (vehicle) with B5 fuel in naturally aspirated bus while the drop was higher with Turbo charged bus. In general the particle number concentration with naturally aspirated bus was higher than turbo charged bus.
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Characterization of Particulate Emissions from Spark Ignition Engine Driven Vehicles with Different Fuels

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R & D Centre, Faridabad-M Subramanian, M Muralidharan, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2008-01-09 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This study focused on the small size nano-particulates that pose the greatest risk to human health for which significant uncertainties remain. Diesel engine powered vehicles are generally considered to be primary contributors of particulate matter and consequent health hazards as compared to particulates emitted by gasoline and gas driven vehicles.This paper discusses the findings of particulate emissions with respect to number and size distribution with variables like lubrication system, different fuels on 2-wheelers and 3-wheeler auto rickshaw using electrically low pressure impactor (ELPI). Analysis of particulates with CVS system and direct tail pipe were also done for highlighting the ambiguity in both the measurements.Particle number concentration was found more in the two-stroke engine powered two wheelers. Within two-stroke engine powered is also, this concentration was higher in case of two-stroke engines equipped with auto lube lubrication system as compared to premix lubrication system. Four Stroke engine running on Euro III gasoline has shown large number of particles in the size range of 0-0.48 microns. However, the size and number concentration reduced with blending of 5%…
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Characterization of Particulates with Different Blends of Bio-Fuels in Light Commercial Vehicle

Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R & D Centre, Faridabad, India-M Subramanian, M Muralidharan, P C Kanal, R K Malhotra
Published 2005-10-23 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
This paper covers the test work done on the comparative characterization of particulates using different blends of biofuels (like biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel) in light commercial vehicle under different operating conditions. The test vehicle selected was equipped with Direct Injection (DI) diesel engine with inline fuel injection pump. Under transient operating condition (Indian Driving Cycle), the results indicate that with increased percentage of biodiesel (upto 20%) in the blend, particulate concentration decreases. However, with 5% ethanol diesel blend, particulate concentration increases when compared with neat diesel as well as biodiesel blends while mass concentrations are lower with both the biofuels as compared to neat diesel. It is observed that the nanoparticles are higher with 5% ethanol diesel in IDC test mode. From the results of this work, it is observed that amongst the biofuels i.e. ethanol and biodiesel, biodiesel is a synergistic blending component for diesel for reducing mass and number of nanoparticles in DI engine powered vehicle.
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