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Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

BP International Ltd.-John Williams
Concawe-Heather D. Hamje, David J. Rickeard
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle. A large number of fuels blended with and without oxygenates and ranging from around 95 to 103 RON and sensitivities (RON minus MON) up to around 15 were tested. The results were vehicle dependent but in general, showed that sensitivity and octane index appear to be…
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Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Zissis Samaras, Athanasios Dimaratos
BP Europa SE-Thomas Bartsch
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies. The tests were conducted in two driving cycles, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the Worldwide harmonised Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), which is considered closer to real driving and is going to be the new type approval test in…
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Emissions and Fuel Economy Evaluation from Two Current Technology Heavy-Duty Trucks Operated on HVO and FAME Blends

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Neste Oil Corp.-Jukka Nuottimäki, Kalle Lehto
University of California, Riverside-George Karavalakis, Yu Jiang, Jiacheng Yang, Thomas Durbin
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0876
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
Gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions were assessed from two current technology heavy-duty vehicles operated on CARB ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) blends, and a biodiesel blend. Testing was performed on a 2014 model year Cummins ISX15 vehicle and on a 2010 model year Cummins ISB6.7 vehicle. Both vehicles were equipped with diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Testing was conducted over the Heavy-Duty Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) Transient Cycle. The results showed lower total hydrocarbons (THC), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and methane (CH4) emissions for the HVO fuels and the biodiesel blend compared to CARB ULSD. Overall, nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions showed discordant results, with both increases and decreases for the HVO fuels. NOx emissions with the biodiesel blend for both vehicles were higher compared to the HVO fuels and CARB ULSD. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were generally lower for the HVO fuels relative to CARB ULSD, but not for the biodiesel blend. Fuel economy showed some…
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Diesel Fuel Lubricity Comparisons with HFRR and Scuffing Load Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator Methods, part II

Neste Oil Corp.-Markku Aaro Kuronen, Ulla Kiiski, Kalle Lehto
Published 2015-09-06 by SAE International in United States
The sulphur level of diesel fuels began to be limited in Europe at the end the 20th century. Quite soon after that it was noticed that the processes for removing sulphur also removed other polar compounds and the natural lubricity of the diesel fuel was lost. Lubricity additives were introduced to restore lubricity properties. Also, a rapid laboratory method was developed to measure lubricity i.e. High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). The method (HFRR) ISO 12156-1 was introduced in 1997 and included in EN 590.In recent years purely paraffinic diesel fuels, such as GTL (Gas To Liquid) and renewable HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil), have been introduced to the market. Unlike traditional biodiesel (FAME, Fatty Acid Methyl Ester), paraffinic diesel fuels require the use of lubricity additives to reach a sufficiently high level of lubricity.In this study two methods were applied in testing lubricity: HFRR and SLBOCLE (Scuffing Load Ball-On-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator) on diesel fuels with aromatic levels between 0 and 14.5 wt.-%. Two types of lubricity additives (with different dosing rates) were included.The aim of this…
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Diesel Fuel Lubricity Comparisons with HFRR and Scuffing Load Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator Methods

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Neste Oil Corp.-Kalle Lehto, Aki Vepsäläinen, Ulla Kiiski, Markku Kuronen
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-2761
Published 2014-10-13 by SAE International in United States
Diesel fuel requires sufficient lubricity to prevent excessive wear in fuel injection equipment. The processes for removing sulfur from diesel fuel also eliminate compounds that are responsible for its lubricating properties. This phenomenon is counterbalanced by employing lubricity additives to restore fuel lubricity to an acceptable level.The aim of this study was to compare the two different laboratory methods for testing lubricity. The two methods were the EN 590 standard method high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR) and a less utilized method scuffing load ball-on-cylinder lubricity evaluator (SLBOCLE). Two different commercial lubricity additives were used. In addition, rapeseed methyl ester (RME) was used for lubricity purposes in the same way as the additives. To study the possible effect of the base fuel, the tests were performed with fossil diesel fuel, paraffinic diesel (Hydrotreated vegetable oil, HVO), and a blend of these.The best HFRR - SLBOCLE correlation was found with RME used as a lubricity additive, but the results were still conflicting concerning the approval limits. With the commercial lubricity additives, the best correlation was achieved with…
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Emission Reduction Potential with Paraffinic Renewable Diesel by Optimizing Engine Settings or Using Oxygenate

Aalto University-Kalle Lehto, Teemu Sarjovaara
Tampere University of Technology-Matti Happonen, Juha Heikkilä
Published 2012-09-10 by SAE International in United States
Over the past decade significant research and development activities have been invested in alternative fuels in order to reduce our dependency on fossil fuel sources and reduce CO₂ and local emissions from traffic. One result of these R&D efforts is paraffinic diesel fuels, which can be used with existing vehicle fleets and infrastructures. Paraffinic diesels also have other benefits compared to conventional diesels, for example, a very high cetane number and the lack of sulfur and aromatic compounds. These characteristics are beneficial in terms of exhaust gas emissions, something which has been demonstrated in numerous studies.The objective of this study was to develop low-emission combustion technologies for paraffinic renewable diesel in a compression ignition engine, and to study the possible benefits of oxygenated paraffinic diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), which is a commercial example of paraffinic, renewable diesel, was used with and without oxygenate in comparison with conventional diesel. Exhaust emissions were measured in three steady state conditions. The adjusted engine parameters, such as inlet valve closure and injection timing, injection pressure and amount of…
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Emission Reduction Using Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) With Miller Timing and EGR in Diesel Combustion

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Aalto Univ.-Kalle Lehto, Antti Elonheimo, Kari Hakkinen, Teemu Sarjovaara, Martti Larmi
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-1955
Published 2011-08-30 by SAE International in United States
Several high-speed diesel engine test runs were carried out during 2010 in Aalto University using a single-cylinder research engine. The main focus was on miller cycle and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) tests using hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as fuel. But also reference tests were run using both HVO and regular EN590 diesel in normal engine configuration and running parameters.The miller tests included a sweep of three different intake valve closing timings and also a sweep with advanced start of injection. The results showed a reduction in both nitrous oxides (NOx) and smoke emissions.EGR tests showed a significant decrease in NOx emissions as was expected. The lower smoke emissions of HVO compared to EN590 enable higher EGR percentages with similar PM emission and hence bigger NOx emission reduction.
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Studying Local Conditions in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine by Creating Phi-T Maps

Aalto University-Ossi Kaario, Kalle Lehto, Karri Keskinen, Martti Larmi
Åbo Akademi-Anders Brink
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
New measurements have been done in order to obtain information concerning the effect of EGR and a paraffinic hydrotreated fuel for the smoke and NO emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Measured smoke number and NO emissions are explained using detailed chemical kinetic calculations and CFD simulations. The local conditions in the research engine are analyzed by creating equivalence ratio - temperature (Phi-T) maps and analyzing the CFD results within these maps. The study uses different amount of EGR and two different diesel fuels; standard EN590 diesel fuel and a paraffinic hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO). The detailed chemical kinetic calculations take into account the different EGR rates and the properties of the fuels. The residence time in the kinetical calculations is used to explain sooting combustion behavior within diesel combustion. It was observed that NO emission trends can be well captured with the Phi-T maps but the situation is more difficult with the engine smoke.
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Effect of Turbulence Boundary Conditions to CFD Simulation

Aalto Univ.-Kalle Lehto, Ossi Kaario
Aalto Univ., VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland-Eero Antila
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The CFD simulation of diesel combustion needs as accurate initial values as possible to be reliable. In this paper the effect of spatial distribution of state and turbulence values at intake valve closure to those distributions prior to SOI is studied. Totally five cases of intake and compression stroke simulations are run. The only change between cases is the intake boundary condition of turbulence. In the last case the average values of p, T, k, ε and swirl number at intake valve closure are used as initial values to compression simulation.The turbulence in the engine cylinder is mainly generated in the very fast flow over the intake valves. In this paper the effect of boundary conditions of turbulence to its level at intake valve closure is studied. Several cases are simulated with different boundary conditions of turbulence. Also the swirl number is compared to experimental value.The discharge coefficients over the valves calculated from simulation results are compared to measured values.Simulated engine is a single-cylinder research engine is based on a commercial 6-cylinder off-road common rail…
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Real Gas Effects in High-Pressure Engine Environment

SAE International Journal of Engines

Aalto University School of Science and Technology-Ossi Kaario, Mika Nuutinen, Kalle Lehto, Martti Larmi
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0627
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Real gas effects are studied during the compression stroke of a diesel engine. Several different real gas models are compared to the ideal gas law and to the experimental pressure history. Comparisons are done with both 1-D and CFD simulations, and reasons and answers are found out for the observed differences between simulations and experimental data. The engine compression ratio was measured for accurate model predictions. In addition, a 300bar extreme pressure case is also analyzed with the real gas model since an engine capable for this performance level is currently being built at the Aalto University School of Science and Technology. Real gas effects are even more important in these extreme conditions than in normal operating pressures. Finally, it is shown that the predicted pressure history during an engine compression stroke by a real gas model is more accurately predicted than by the ideal gas law.
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