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Empirical Modeling of Electrical Discharge in an Inert Medium at High-speed Flows

Michigan Technological Univ-Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
Michigan Technological Univ.-Mary P. Zadeh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1120
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Energy discharge models have been used to gain insights into the spark discharge process and early flame kernel development in spark-ignition engines. However, the existing models are reported to be applicable for a limited range of gas pressures and flow fields. This study aims to evaluate these models and propose an improved one to predict the spark ignition at pressurized conditions up to 45 bar and high-speed flows up to 32 m/s. The model captures the spark discharge behavior that has been observed experimentally in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel. This includes discharge characteristics and the occurrence of the spark blowouts and re-strikes. Results indicate that the voltage and current waveforms of the spark discharge are correlated to the flow velocity across the spark plug gap. Further investigations were performed to study the stretching rate of the spark channel under the high crossflow.
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Experimental Investigation of the Compression Ignition Process of High Reactivity Gasoline Fuels and E10 Certification Gasoline using a High-Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Injector

Aramco Services Co-Tom Tzanetakis
Michigan Technological Univ-Jiongxun Zhang, Meng Tang, William Atkinson, Henry Schmidt, Seong-Young Lee, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0323
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) technology shows potential to obtain high thermal efficiencies while maintaining relatively low soot and NOx emissions in light-duty engine applications. Recent experimental studies and numerical simulations have indicated that high reactivity gasoline-like fuels can further enable the benefits of GCI combustion. However, there is limited combustion data in the literature studying the gasoline compression ignition process at relevant in-cylinder conditions which are required for further optimizing combustion system designs. This study investigates the temporal and spatial evolution of the compression ignition process of various high reactivity gasolines with research octane numbers (RON) of 71, 74 and 82, as well as conventional RON 97 E10 gasoline fuel. Combustion visualizations were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber. A ten-hole prototype gasoline injector specifically designed for GCI applications to be capable of injection pressure of up to 450 bar was used. OH* chemiluminescence and natural luminosity images were recorded simultaneously to characterize the ignition process through two high speed cameras. The experiments were conducted under a wide range of ambient charge…
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An analytical energy-budget model for diesel droplet impingement on an inclined solid wall

Argonne National Laboratory-Roberto Torelli
Michigan Technological Univ-Xiucheng Zhu, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1158
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The study of spray-wall interaction is of great importance to understand the dynamics that occur during fuel impingement onto chamber wall or piston surfaces in internal combustion engines. The maximum spreading length after droplet impingement on wall is approved that it can provide a quantitative estimation of heat transfer and energy transformation for spray-wall interaction and further influence air-fuel mixing and hydrocarbon and particle emissions at combusting conditions. In this paper, an analytical model of a single diesel droplet impinging on the wall with different inclined angle (α) under isothermal conditions (liquid droplet and wall with the same temperature) is developed in terms of β_m (the ratio of maximum spreading length to initial droplet diameter) to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. This analytical model is established based on energy conservation that considers kinetic energy, gravitation energy, and surface energy before impingement, as well as viscous dissipation, gravitation energy, adhesion energy, and deformation energy after impingement. The experimental work of diesel droplet impinging on an inclined wall will be performed at a certain range of…
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Effect of Fuel Type and Tip Deposits on End of Injection Spray Characteristics of Gasoline Direct Injection Fuel Injectors

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Mark Meinhart
Michigan Technological University-Robert A. Schroeter, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
There has been a great effort expended in identifying causes of Hydro-Carbon (HC) and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions resulting from poor spray preparation, leading to characterization of fueling behavior near nozzle. It has been observed that large droplet size is a primary contributor to HC and PM emission. Imaging technologies have been developed to understand the break-up and consistency of fuel spray. However, there appears to be a lack of studies of the spray characteristics at the End of Injection (EOI), near nozzle, in particular, the effect that tip deposits have on the EOI characteristics. Injector tip deposits are of interest due to their effect on not only fuel spray characteristics, but also their unintended effect on engine out emissions. Using a novel imaging technique to extract near nozzle fuel characteristics at EOI, the impact of tip deposits on Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) fuel injectors at the EOI is being examined in this work. Additionally, the impact of the test fuel used will also be evaluated. This work will present the large influence of fuel…
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Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

Michigan Technological University-Xiucheng Zhu, Nitisha Ahuja, Jiachen Zhai, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet. These conditions were grouped into two: 1) Isothermal: cold wall-cold droplet and heated wall-heated droplet; 2) Non-Isothermal: cold wall-heated droplet and heated wall-cold droplet. Droplet and wall temperature were varied from 25 to…
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Impinged Diesel Spray Combustion Evaluation for Indirect Air-Fuel Mixing Processes and Its Comparison with Non-Vaporing Impinging Spray Under Diesel Engine Conditions

Michigan Technological University-Zhihao Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Under low-temperature combustion for the high fuel efficiency and low emissions achievement, the fuel impingement often occurs in diesel engines with direct injection especially for a short distance between the injector and piston head/cylinder wall. Spray impingement plays an important role in the mixing-controlled combustion phase since it affects the air-fuel mixing rate through the disrupted event by the impingement. However, the degree of air entrainment into the spray is hard to be directly evaluated. Since the high spray expansion rate could allow more opportunity for fuel to mix with air, in this study, the expansion rate of impinged flame is quantified and compared with the spray expansion rate under non-vaporizing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a constant volume combustion chamber with an ambient density of 22.8 kg/m3 and the injection pressure of 150 MPa. The ambient temperature was set to 900 K and 1000 K to study the effect of ambient temperature on the air-fuel mixing process for combustion experiments. Under the non-reacting experiments, the chamber was filled with nitrogen at an ambient…
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Spray-Wall Dynamics of High-Pressure Impinging Combustion

Michigan Technological University-Zhihao Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Le Zhao, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The fuel spray impingement on the piston head and/or chamber often occurs in compact IC engines. The impingement plays one of the key roles in combustion because it affects the air-fuel mixing process. In this study, the impinged combustion has been experimentally investigated to understand the mechanism and dynamics of flame-wall interaction. The experiments were performed in a constant volume combustion chamber over a wide range of ambient conditions. The ambient temperature was varied from 800 K to 1000 K and ambient gas oxygen was varied from 15% to 21%. Diesel fuel was injected with an injection pressure of 150 MPa into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3. The natural luminosity technique was applied in the experiments to explore the impinged combustion process. High-speed images were taken using a high-speed camera from two different views (bottom and side). An in-house Matlab program was used to post-process the images. The potential region of soot formation was found on the impinging plate based on the strength of local soot luminosity. The effect of air entrainment…
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Characterization of Impingement Dynamics of Single Droplet Impacting on a Flat Surface

Michigan Technological University-Le Zhao, Nitisha Ahuja, Xiucheng Zhu, Zhihao Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The liquid fuel spray impingement onto surfaces occurs in both spark ignited and compression ignited engines. It causes a fundamental issue affecting the preparation of air-fuel mixture prior to the combustion, further, affecting engine performance and emissions. To better understand the underlying mechanism of spray interaction with a solid surface, the physics of a single droplet impact on a heated surface was experimentally investigated. The experimental work was conducted at four surface temperatures where a single diesel droplet was injected from a precision syringe pump with a specific droplet diameter and impact velocity. A high-speed camera was used to visualize the droplet impingement process. Images from the selected test condition (We = 52 to 925, Re = 789 to 3330 based on initial droplet impingement parameters) were analyzed to qualify the impinging outcomes and quantify the post-impingement characteristics. In particular, splashing characteristics and the effect of the surface temperature on the temporal evolution of the droplet spreading factor, dynamic contact angle, contact line velocity, as well as heat flux were studied. The hydrodynamics of single…
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High Pressure Impinging Spray Film Formation Characteristics

Michigan Technological University-Le Zhao, Zhihao Zhao, Xiucheng Zhu, Nitisha Ahuja, Jeffrey Naber, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Fuel film formed in the spray-piston or cylinder wall impingement plays a critical role in engine performance and emissions. In this paper, the fuel film formation and the relevant film characteristics resulting from the liquid spray impinging on a flat plate were investigated in a constant volume combustion vessel by Refractive Index Matching (RIM) technique. The liquid film thickness was firstly calibrated with two different proportional mixtures (5% n-dodecane and 95% n-heptane; 10% n-dodecane and 90% n-heptane by volume) pumped out from a precise syringe to achieve an accurate calibration. After calibration, n-heptane fuel from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector was then injected on a roughened glass with the same optical setup. The ambient temperature and the plate temperature are set to 423 K with the fuel temperature of 363 K. The effects of various ambient density (14.8, 22.8, and 30.0 kg/m3) and injector pressure (120 and 150 MPa) on the liquid film properties were studied. The analysis of film formation contain the spatial distribution and time-resolved evolution of fuel film thickness, the film wetted area, and the film…
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Splashing Criterion and Topological Features of a Single Droplet Impinging on the Flat Plate

Michigan Technological University-Le Zhao, Nitisha Ahuja, Xiucheng Zhu, Zhihao Zhao, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper aims to provide the experimental and numerical investigation of a single fuel droplet impingement on the different wall conditions to understand the detailed impinging dynamic process. The experimental work was carried out at the room temperature and pressure except for the variation of the impinged wall temperature. A high-speed camera was employed to capture the silhouette of the droplet impinging on wall process against a collimated light. Water, diesel, n-dodecane, and n-heptane were considered as four different droplets and injected from a precision syringe pump with the volume flow rate of 0.2 mL/min at various impact Weber numbers. The impingement outcomes after droplet impacting on the wall include stick, spread, rebound and splash, which depend on the controlling parameters of Weber number, Reynolds number, liquid and surface properties, etc. In this paper, the various splashing and non-splashing criteria were summarized based on the earlier research and applied to evaluate the current experimental data. It is found that the experimental results at various conditions overall show good agreement in predicting the splashing and non-splashing phenomena…
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