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System Performance Comparison of Direct Torque Control Strategies Based on Flux Linkage and DC-Link Voltage for EV Drivetrains

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, C. Upendra Reddy, Amit Kumar Singh, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0007
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
Numerous works have been carried out with perspectives to improve the energy efficiency of electric vehicle (EV) drivetrains; much of the attention has been on the design of highly efficient electric motors, power converters, and energy storage system. Besides the abovementioned factors, selection of the drivetrain configuration and control strategy also influence the efficiency and performance of EV drivetrain. The drivetrain efficiency and performance indices, such as torque ripple and total harmonic distortion (THD) of voltage and current, are sensitive to the direct current (dc)-link voltage and flux linkage values for a drivetrain control strategy. Therefore, in this work, the efficiency and the performance of two popular direct torque controlled induction motor (IM) drives are compared on the basis of adjustable dc-link voltage and flux linkage values for desired operating condition. Both these techniques are implemented on a lab scale test bed. Extensive experiments are performed to determine and compare the drivetrain efficiency maps. Further, dynamic and steady-state (SS) control performance in terms of speed, torque, and flux linkage is examined. Other performance indices, such…
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Design for Adaptive Rear Floor Carpet for Changing Shapes and Complex Architecture

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Ramakrishna Nimmagadda, Harshad Bornare, Nareen Kinthala
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
With increasing road traffic and pollution, it becomes responsibility for all OEM to increase fuel efficiency and reduce carbon footprint. Most effective way to do so is to reduce weight of the vehicle and more use of ecofriendly recyclable material. With this objective we have come up with Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution for Injection moulded RQT (Rear quarter trim). It is an interior plastic component mounted in the III row of the vehicle. This is required to ensure inside enhanced aesthetic look of the vehicle and comfort for 3rd row passengers. Conventionally RQT of vehicle with 3rd row seating is made using plastic material (PP TD 20). With the use of plastic moulded RQT there is a significant weight addition of around 6 kg per vehicle along with reduced cabin space, huge investment and development time impact.In PROJECT X model which is a 4.4 meter vehicle with 3rd row seating capacity, we have challenged the conventional way of design and have come up with “Light weight, cost effective sustainable design solution” of…
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Design of Light Weight Footstep Using Continuous Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Vivek KV Shenoy, Ashish Kumar Sahu, Srivatsa Sriperumbudur, Anton Kumanan, K V Balaji
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Utility or Off-road vehicles are characterized with their higher ground clearances. Higher ground clearance of vehicle requires the vehicle to have footsteps for easy entry and exit of passengers from the vehicle. A typical foot step construction consists of structural steel brackets with an Aluminum or plastic top panel. Conventional steel construction is heavier to meet weight bearing capacity and durability requirements. Our objective of this work is to explore lightweight materials which can meet these performance requirements with a lighter construction. We chose to study the continuous glass fiber reinforced plastic as an alternative to the metal construction.
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Design of Energy Absorbing Plastic Brackets to Meet Rear Crash Regulation ECE R42

Automotive & Industrial Sales-Pushparaj Arumugam
Automotive CAE-Devendra Sankla
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle safety and adherence to rules and regulation is of utmost requirement for any OEM. ECE R42 is one of the most important test criteria for a vehicle to get launched. To prove this, we shall discuss the case of Low speed impact structure construction. In this paper, we are going to demonstrate the novel design of Polymer energy absorption structure to meet the rear bumper low speed impact test and ensure proper absorption of impact energy and avoid any damage to rear lamp of the vehicle. This paper shows a perfect example of sustainability with the help of complete modular construction of the frame structure. The proposed design uses a cost-effective way of assembling the physical part by comparing with benchmarking and within the Mahindra part library. The low speed impact structure is mounted directly to BIW panels without any extra foams. These frame structure are simple in design and rigid in construction by comparing with other OEM products and within all Mahindra vehicles.The low speed impact structural member is integrated but modular at…
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Design of Lightweight Composites for Vehicle Front End Energy Management of Bumper Beam

Indian Institute of Technology-Balasubramanian Muthiah, Velmurugan Ramachandran
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Sarma Sr Akella, Ayan Chakraborty, Shankar M Venugopal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Application of advance composites in place of the various conventional materials such as steel can give significant weight and performance advantages. The application of composites is now finding it’s way in the automotive industry due to the growing requirement of the lightweight solutions and high strength to weight ratio. However, their low mechanical properties have limited their application in automotive structural components. The study presented here is focused on the explicit dynamic analysis of a bumper beam and advance composites are used for the study. Different configurations and designs of the bumper are considered to be able to make a comparative study of the stress and deformation levels. The analysis was done in coherence to the Euro NCAP tests and the offset frontal impact analysis was done. The boundary conditions were aligned with the real time impact conditions for proper prediction of the results. Based on stress, deformation, specific strength and weight, the replacing materials for existing steel bumper are considered and the corresponding energy absorption are calculated. Laminated composites such as Glass, Carbon and…
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Design of Light Weight Spoiler for Efficient Aerodynamic Performance of a Vehicle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Aditya Pandey, Vivek KV Shenoy, BalaChandar R, Ayan Chakraborty
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The spoiler is functional as well as aesthetic part fitted on the vehicles to improve the vehicle aerodynamic performance and better aesthetic appeal. The improvement of aerodynamics performance of the vehicle at higher speeds is achieved by reducing the overall vehicle coefficient of drag. This helps in better handling and improved fuel efficiency of the vehicle thus contributing to development of greener vehicle.In this project, our main focus is to reduce overall vehicle coefficient of drag, Design a light weight spoiler and improve the vehicle aesthetic appearance.
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Selection of Reference Flux Linkage for Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor Drive in Electric Vehicle Applications

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, India-Amit Kumar Singh, Upendra Reddy, Kashyap Kumar Prabhakar, Praveen Kumar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-01-0001
Published 2019-04-08 by SAE International in United States
The surge in economic activities, in the developing nations, has resulted in rapid expansion of urban centres. This expansion of cities has caused a rapid increase in vehicular traffic, which in turn has caused deterioration of air quality. To overcome the problem of unprecedented air pollution, the governments worldwide have framed policies for faster adoption of electric vehicles. One of the major challenges faced is the development of low- cost drive for these vehicles and keeping the imports to a minimum. As a result of this, the trend is to move away from the permanent magnet-based motor technology and to use induction motor-based drivetrain. For the induction motors to be successful in electric vehicle drivetrain application, it is important to have a robust speed control algorithm. This work aims at adapting a direct torque control technique for induction motor’s speed control. The work addresses the impact of reference flux linkage on the operation of an induction motor for direct torque control over a wide range of operation. A Finite Element Analysis based induction motor model…
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System Level 1-D Analysis of an Air-System for a Heavy-Duty Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Yuanjiang Pei, Michael Traver
BorgWarner Turbo Systems-John Watson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A detailed study of various air system configurations has been conducted for a prototype gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine using a Cummins MY2013 ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine as the base platform. The study evaluated the configurations with the assumption that RON80 gasoline would be used as the fuel and the combustion chamber would have a geometric compression ratio (CR) of 16.5.Using 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, a high efficiency & low engine-out NOx GCI combustion recipe was developed across the five engine operating points from the heavy-duty Supplemental Emissions Test (SET) cycle: A100, B25, B50, B75, and C100. The CFD generated air-thermal boundary conditions and the combustion burn-rate & injector rate-of-injection profiles were imported into a calibrated 1-D engine model for the air-handling systems analysis. For the RON80 GCI concept, an engine-out NOx range 1-1.5 g/kWh was targeted and this drove a need for higher boost pressure and EGR rates with intake temperatures in the 65°C-70°C range. The production air system comprising a single stage turbocharger and a high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (HPEGR) system…
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An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Gasoline Compression Ignition Using Conventional and Higher Reactivity Gasolines in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Aramco Research Center-Yu Zhang, Praveen Kumar, Yuanjiang Pei, Michael Traver, David Cleary
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This research investigates the potential of gasoline compression ignition (GCI) to achieve low engine-out NOx emissions with high fuel efficiency in a heavy-duty diesel engine.The experimental work was conducted in a model year (MY) 2013 Cummins ISX15 heavy-duty diesel engine, covering a load range of 5 to 15 bar BMEP at 1375 rpm. The engine compression ratio (CR) was reduced from the production level of 18.9 to 15.7 without altering the combustion bowl design. In this work, four gasolines with research octane number (RON) ranging from 58 to 93 were studied. Overall, GCI operation resulted in enhanced premixed combustion, improved NOx-soot tradeoffs, and similar or moderately improved fuel efficiency compared to diesel combustion. A split fuel injection strategy was employed for the two lower reactivity gasolines (RON80 and RON93), while the RON60 and RON70 gasolines used a single fuel injection strategy.Building on the GCI experimental results at 15.7 CR and by performing closed-cycle, 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) combustion simulations across several key engine operating points, an initial combustion recipe for high efficiency, low NOx GCI operation…
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3D Printing Technique, An Effective Solution for Robust and Reliable Engineering of Trims

Mahindra Mahindra, Ltd.-Praveen Kumar, Nareen Kinthala, Sri Viknesh Mohan, Harshad Bornare
Published 2017-07-10 by SAE International in United States
3D Printing is a revolutionizing technology extensively used in automotive and aerospace industries. It is an additive layer manufacturing process by which a scale model is quickly fabricated from CAD data in just a matter of hours. In Automotive trims, 3D Printing technology is a boon. It is used: To simulate the ‘tooled up/production part’ in terms of assembly, defined function, limited CMF and fit & finish.To evaluate and capture early feedback from top management with respect to aesthetic, design, etc.For early prediction and plan of action towards improvement for craftsmanship.To reduce design iterations, interface concerns, product lifecycle time and cost.In this paper, we will discuss on the technical aspects of how the trims 3D printed models have been effectively put to use. We have covered case studies under door trims, floor console, tail gate trim, glove box latch, molded spare wheel cover, Instrumental panel duct and bumper mask-painting template.
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