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Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

BP International Ltd.-John Williams
Concawe-Heather D. Hamje, David J. Rickeard
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle. A large number of fuels blended with and without oxygenates and ranging from around 95 to 103 RON and sensitivities (RON minus MON) up to around 15 were tested. The results were vehicle dependent but in general, showed that sensitivity and octane index appear to be…
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Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Imperial College London-Sebastian Henkel, Yannis Hardalupas, Alexander Taylor
Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Daisuke Tanaka, Ryo Uchida, Toru Noda
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing.Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions.As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.Tests focusing on chemical effects with fuel blends having different aromatic and olefin contents were also conducted. The test results obtained under a completely vaporized condition showed that a test fuel with a high aromatic content displayed higher PN emissions under rich conditions than one with…
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Crude Tall Oil-Based Renewable Diesel as a Blending Component in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

FEV GmbH-Hans Rohs, Andreas Kolbeck
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Benedikt Heuser
  • Journal Article
  • 2013-01-2685
Published 2013-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The residue and waste streams of existing industry offer feasible and sustainable raw materials for biofuel production. All kind of biomass contains carbon and hydrogen which can be turned into liquid form with suitable processes. Using hydrotreatment or Biomass-to-Liquid technologies (BTL) the liquid oil can be further converted into transportation biofuels.Hydrotreatment technology can be used to convert bio-oils and fats in to high quality diesel fuels that have superior fuel properties (e.g. low aromatic content and high cetane number) compared to regular diesel fuel and first generation ester-type diesel fuel. UPM has developed a new innovative technology based on hydrotreatment that can be used to convert Crude Tall Oil (CTO) into high quality renewable diesel fuel.This study concentrated on determining the functionality and possible effects of CTO based renewable diesel as a blending component on engine emissions and engine performance. Tested fuels were Euro Stage IV diesel (CEC RF-06-03) as reference fuel and 30% CTO renewable diesel, blended with Euro Stage IV diesel.The results showed that CTO based renewable diesel blend properties were comparable to…
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Glow-plug Ignition of Ethanol Fuels under Diesel Engine Relevant Thermodynamic Conditions

FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Philipp Adomeit, Andreas Kolbeck, Stefan Pischinger
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Markus Jakob
Published 2011-04-12 by SAE International in United States
The requirement of reducing worldwide CO₂ emissions and engine pollutants are demanding an increased use of bio-fuels. Ethanol with its established production technology can contribute to this goal. However, due to its resistive auto-ignition behavior the use of ethanol-based fuels is limited to the spark-ignited gasoline combustion process. For application to the compression-ignited diesel combustion process advanced ignition systems are required. In general, ethanol offers a significant potential to improve the soot emission behavior of the diesel engine due to its oxygen content and its enhanced evaporation behavior.In this contribution the ignition behavior of ethanol and mixtures with high ethanol content is investigated in combination with advanced ignition systems with ceramic glow-plugs under diesel engine relevant thermodynamic conditions in a high pressure and temperature vessel. The investigation focuses on optimizing the injection conditions, especially injection pressure and rate. Optical measurements are performed by high speed imaging of the fuel injection and ignition, and evaluated in terms of ignition and flame propagation. The high speed imaging technology furthermore enables to gain information on the statistical behavior…
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The Impact of Different Biofuel Components in Diesel Blends on Engine Efficiency and Emission Performance

FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
RWTH Aachen Univ.-Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Within the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel components in Diesel blends. In this paper, thermodynamic single cylinder engine results of today's and future biofuel components are presented with respect to their engine-out emissions and engine efficiency.The investigations were divided into two phases: In the first phase, investigations were performed with rapeseed oil methyl ester (B100) and an Ethanol-Gasoline blend (E85). In order to analyze the impact of different fuel blends, mixtures with 10 vol-% of B100 or E85 and 90 vol-% of standardized EN590 Diesel were investigated. Due to the low cetane number of E85, it cannot be used purely in a Diesel engine.To reduce the amount of energy needed for the biofuel production process, future fuels derived from biomass will have a molecular structure which is likely to be similar to the respective bio-feedstock. Thus, a blend with Ethyl levulinate is compared to today's biofuel components, additionally. Ethyl levulinate can easily…
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Dedicated GTL Vehicle: A Calibration Optimization Study

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

AUDI AG-Rene Van Doorn
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Michael Kind, Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-0737
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
GTL (Gas-To-Liquid) fuel is well known to improve tailpipe emissions when fuelling a conventional diesel vehicle, that is, one optimized to conventional fuel. This investigation assesses the additional potential for GTL fuel in a GTL-dedicated vehicle.This potential for GTL fuel was quantified in an EU 4 6-cylinder serial production engine. In the first stage, a comparison of engine performance was made of GTL fuel against conventional diesel, using identical engine calibrations. Next, adaptations enabled the full potential of GTL fuel within a dedicated calibration to be assessed. For this stage, two optimization goals were investigated: - Minimization of NOx emissions and - Minimization of fuel consumption.For each optimization the boundary condition was that emissions should be within the EU5 level. An additional constraint on the latter strategy required noise levels to remain within the baseline reference.Optimizing the calibration for GTL fuel led to further substantial reductions of regulated emissions, i.e., achieving EU 5 levels with a former EU 4 vehicle, as well as significantly reduced exhaust CO₂ emissions.The use of GTL fuel in combination with…
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Impact of Fuel Properties on Advanced Combustion Performance in a Diesel Bench Engine and Demonstrator Vehicle

Chevron USA Inc.-William Cannella
Concawe-Kenneth D. Rose
Published 2010-04-12 by SAE International in United States
Six diesel, kerosene, gasoline-like, and naphtha fuels have been tested in a single cylinder diesel engine and a demonstrator vehicle, both equipped with similar engine technology and optimized for advanced combustion performance. This study was completed in order to investigate the potential to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and noise levels through changes in both engine hardware and fuel properties. The fuels investigated in this study were selected in order to better understand the effects of ignition quality, volatility, and molecular composition on engine-out emissions and performance. The optimized bench engine used in this study included engine hardware enhancements that are likely to be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond, in part by operating under advanced combustion conditions, at least under some speed and load conditions. The engine enhancements included high fuel injection pressures, high EGR levels and charge cooling, and closed loop combustion control to ensure a constant combustion phasing with different fuels. With these modifications, it was found that the engine could run on a wide range of…
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Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping
RWTH Aachen University-Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2009-11-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level.The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance. To gain knowledge about the underlying processes of such fuels, experiments in a single cylinder research engine were carried out. Engine results for decanol…
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Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Andreas Kolbeck, Matthias Lamping, Thomas Koerfer
Institute for Combustion Engines, RWTH Aachen University-Andreas Janssen, Martin Muether, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2009-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level.To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance.The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond. The test conditions were optimized by means of a Design of Experiment (DOE) approach at four part-load conditions and full-load, which represents a wide range of engine operation including NEDC load points.Tailor-made fuels have an enormous potential to reduce…
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Fuel Property Effects on Emissions and Performance of a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

FEV Inc.-Harsha Nanjundaswamy, Marek Tatur, Dean Tomazic
FEV Motorentechnik GmbH-Thomas Koerfer, Matthias Lamping, Andreas Kolbeck
Published 2009-04-20 by SAE International in United States
Increased demand for highly fuel efficient propulsion systems drives the engine development community to develop advanced technologies allowing improving the overall thermal efficiency while maintaining low emission levels. In addition to improving the thermal efficiencies of the internal combustion engine itself the developments of fuels that allow improved combustion as well as lower the emissions footprint has intensified recently.This paper will describe the effects of five different fuel types with significantly differing fuel properties on a state-of-the-art light-duty HSDI diesel engine. The fuels cetane number ranges between 26 and 76. These fuels feature significantly differing boiling characteristics as well as heating values. The fuel selection also contains one pure biodiesel (SME - Soy Methyl Ester). This study was conducted in part load and full load operating points using a state of the art HSDI diesel engine. The part load operating points had combustion parameter sweeps to widen the understanding of combustion dynamics associated with fuels of varying properties over performance and emissions, where as at full load the effect of constant volume fuel injection over…
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