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Kass, Michael D.
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Elastomer Swell Behavior in 1-Propanol, Diisobutylene, Cyclopentanone, and a Furan Mixture Blended in E10 and a Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (BOB)

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA-Michael D. Kass, Christopher J. Janke, Raynella M. Connatser, Brian West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0011
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of four potential bio-derived blendstock molecules with infrastructure elastomers was determined by measuring the volume change following exposure. The blendstock molecules included 1-propanol, diisobutylene, cyclopentanone, and a furan mixture. The elastomers included two fluorocarbons, six nitrile rubbers (NBRs), and one each of fluorosilicone, neoprene, polyurethane, and silicone. The elastomers were exposed to the fuel molecules as blends ranging from 0 to 30 vol.% in both a blendstock for oxygenate blending (BOB) formulation and an E10 fuel. Silicone exhibited excessive swelling in each test fuel, while the other elastomers showed good compatibility (low swell) with diisobutylene, 1-propanol, and the furan mixture when BOB was used as the base fuel. The E10 base fuel produced high (>30%) swell in neoprene, polyurethane, and some nitrile rubbers. In most cases diisobutylene produced the least amount of volume expansion. In contrast, the addition of cyclopentanone produced unacceptably high swelling in each elastomer and is not considered suitable for use with these fuels. Analysis of the results showed that the swelling behavior is predominantly due to the polarity of…
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Compatibility of Fuel System Elastomers with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Brian H. West
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0802
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure elastomers with promising bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Thirty-four candidate fuels were evaluated in this study including multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The elastomer materials were fluorocarbon, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene (SBR), neoprene, polyurethane and silicone. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their measured volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels. The alcohols showed probable compatibility with fluorocarbon and polyurethane, but are not likely to be compatible at low blend levels with NBR and SBR. Low and mid-range blends are also considered incompatible with silicone, as are mid-range blends with neoprene. The alkane fuel candidate is likely compatible with fluorocarbon, polyurethane, NBR and SBR at most blend levels, but low to mid-range blends are not likely compatible with silicone. Neoprene showed compatibility only…
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Compatibility of Dimethyl Ether (DME) and Diesel Blends with Fuel System Polymers: A Hansen Solubility Analysis Approach

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Charles Daw
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-0835
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of notable infrastructure elastomers and plastics with DME and its blends with diesel fuel were examined using solubility analysis. The elastomer materials were fluorocarbon, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene (SBR), neoprene, polyurethane and silicone. Plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades and thermosetting resins. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels.A Hansen solubility analysis was performed for each material with DME, diesel, and blends of both fuel components. The results for the elastomers indicate that DME and its blends with diesel fuel will offer improved compatibility with NBR and SBR materials. Silicone, neoprene and polyurethane show similar solubility potential for any combination of DME and diesel, so no degradation is expected with DME. In contrast, fluorocarbon can be expected to become increasingly incompatible with increased DME concentration. In general, the solubility…
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Compatibility Assessment of Elastomeric Infrastructure Materials with Neat Diesel and a Diesel Blend Containing 20 Percent Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0888
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of elastomer materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. (This fuel blend is not to be confused with B20, which is a blend of diesel fuel with 20% biodiesel.) The elastomer types evaluated in this study included fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polyurethane, neoprene, and silicone. All of these elastomer types are used in sealing applications, but some, like the nitrile rubbers are also common hose materials. The elastomer specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.All of the elastomers exhibited higher solubility (volume swell) with the Bio20 fuel blend consistent with a solubility assessment. However, many of the elastomers (except neoprene, SBR,…
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Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials with Test Fuels Representing E10 and iBu16

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Butamax Advanced Biofuels LLC-James Baustian, Leslie Wolf
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Timothy Theiss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0894
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for a test fuel representing gasoline blended with 10% ethanol. Prior investigations were performed on gasoline fuels containing 25, 50 and 85% ethanol, but the knowledge gap existing from 0 to 25% ethanol precluded accurate compatibility assessment of low level blends, especially for the current E10 fuel (gasoline containing 10% ethanol) used in most filling stations, and the recently accepted E15 fuel blend (gasoline blended with up to15% ethanol).For the majority of the plastic materials evaluated in this study, the wet volume swell (which is the parameter most commonly used to assess compatibility) was higher for fuels containing 25% ethanol, while the volume swell accompanying E10 was much lower. However, several materials, such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fiberglass resins, and the polyethylene terephthalate co-polymer (PETG) exhibited similar volume expansions with both 10 and 25% ethanol.In the second part of this study, the compatibility performance of the infrastructure plastics in the E10 test fuel was compared to a test fuel containing 16%…
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Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials with Off-Highway Diesel and a Diesel Blend Containing 20 Percent Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Raynella Connatser, Sam Lewis, James Keiser, Timothy Theiss
  • Journal Article
  • 2015-01-0893
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of plastic materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for an off-highway diesel fuel and a blend containing 20% bio-oil (Bio20) derived from a fast pyrolysis process. Bio20 is not to be confused with B20, which is a diesel blend containing 20% biodiesel. The feedstock, processing, and chemistry of biodiesel are markedly different from bio-oil.Plastic materials included those identified for use as seals, coatings, piping and fiberglass resins, but many are also used in vehicle fueling systems. The plastic specimens were exposed to the two fuel types for 16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured to determine extent of property change. A solubility analysis was performed to better understand the performance of plastic materials in fuel blends composed of bio-oil and diesel.All of the plastic materials evaluated in this study exhibited higher solubility (volume swell) with the Bio20 fuel blend. This result was predicted by the solubility analysis. However, there were two notable exceptions;…
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Experimental Evaluation of a 4-cc Glow-Ignition Single-Cylinder Two-Stroke Engine

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Mark W. Noakes, Brian Kaul, Dean Edwards, Timothy Theiss, Lonnie Love, Ryan Dehoff, John Thomas
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The performance of a 4cc two-stroke single cylinder glow plug engine was assessed at wide open throttle for speeds ranging from 2000 to 7000RPM. The engine performance was mapped for the stock aluminum head and one composed of titanium, which was printed using additive manufacturing. The engine was mounted to a motoring dynamometer and the maximum torque was determined by adjusting the fuel flow. Maximum torque occurred around 3000 to 3500RPM and tended to be higher when using the aluminum head. At slower speeds, the titanium head produced slightly higher torque. For each test condition, maximum torque occurred at leaner conditions for the titanium head compared to the stock aluminum one. Higher efficiencies were observed with the aluminum head for speeds greater than 3000RPM, but the titanium heads provided better efficiency at the lower speed points.The titanium head was equipped with an in-cylinder pressure sensor and the combustion performance was assessed at maximum torque for speeds of 4000, 6000, and 7000RPM. The peak cylinder pressure increased with decreasing speed, while the indicated mean effective pressure…
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Compatibility Assessment of Elastomer Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Butamax Advanced Biofuels, LLC-James Baustian, Les Wolf
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Timothy Theiss, Steve Pawel, Chris Janke
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1462
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of elastomeric materials used in fuel storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline and gasoline blends containing 10 and 17 vol.% ethanol, and 16 and 24 vol.% isobutanol. The actual test fuel chemistries were based on the aggressive formulations described in SAE J1681 for oxygenated gasoline. Elastomer specimens of fluorocarbon, fluorosilicone, acrylonitrile rubber (NBR), polyurethane, neoprene, styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silicone were exposed to the test fuels for 4 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 20 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was also performed to determine the glass transition temperature (Tg).Comparison to the original values showed that all elastomer materials experienced volume expansion and softening when wetted by the test fuels. The fluorocarbons underwent the least amount of swelling (<25 %) while the SBR and silicone samples exhibited the highest level of expansion (>100%). The level of swelling for each elastomer was higher for the test fuels containing the…
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Compatibility Assessment of Plastic Infrastructure Materials to Test Fuels Representing Gasoline Blends Containing Ethanol and Isobutanol

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Butamax Advanced Biofuels LLC-James Baustian, Les Wolf
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Chris Janke, Timothy Theiss, Steve Pawel
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-1465
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of plastic materials used in gasoline storage and dispensing applications was determined for test fuels representing neat gasoline (Fuel C), and blends containing 25% ethanol (CE25a), 16% isobutanol (CiBu16a), and 24% isobutanol (CiBu24a). A solubility analysis was also performed and compared to the volume swell results obtained from the test fuel exposures. The plastic specimens were exposed to each test fuel for16 weeks at 60°C. After measuring the wetted volume and hardness, the specimens were dried for 65 hours at 60°C and then remeasured for volume and hardness. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), which measures the storage modulus as a function of temperature, was also performed on the dried specimens to determine the temperature associated with the onset of the glass-to-rubber transition (Tg).For many of the plastic materials, the solubility analysis was able to predict the relative volume swell for each test fuel. Those plastic materials commonly used as permeation barriers exhibited the least amount of volume and hardness change (<5%) when exposed to the test fuels. The response of other plastics (especially nylon)…
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Influence of High Fuel Rail Pressure and Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction on PM Formation in an Off-Highway Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael D. Kass, Norberto Domingo, John M. E. Storey, Samuel A. Lewis
  • Journal Article
  • 2008-01-2497
Published 2008-10-06 by SAE International in United States
The influence of fuel rail pressure (FRP) and urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on particulate matter (PM) formation is investigated in this paper along with notes regarding the NOx and other emissions. Increasing FRP was shown to reduce the overall soot and total PM mass for four operating conditions. These conditions included two high speed conditions (2400 rpm at 540 and 270 Nm of torque) and two moderated speed conditions (1400 rpm at 488 and 325 Nm). The concentrations of CO2 and NOx increased with fuel rail pressure and this is attributed to improved fuel-air mixing. Interestingly, the level of unburned hydrocarbons remained constant (or increased slightly) with increased FRP. PM concentration was measured using an AVL smoke meter and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS); and total PM was collected using standard gravimetric techniques. These results showed that the smoke number and particulate concentrations decrease with increasing FRP. However the decrease becomes more gradual as very high rail pressures. Additionally, the total PM decreased with increasing FRP; however, the soluble organic fraction (SOF) reaches a maximum…
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