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Haslegrave, Christine M.
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Using Digital Human Modelling to Evaluate Field of View for Articulating Devices on Railway Engineering Vehicles

Institute for Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham, UK-Brendan Ryan, Jin Wang, Christine M. Haslegrave
Published 2005-06-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of the current study was to construct a model of a road rail vehicle in JACK and investigate the view of the articulating arm of the machine for human models of different stature in test conditions simulating a digging task and a lifting task. The JACK software was also used to determine the likely effects on operator comfort of postural adjustments which would be required to see different parts of the articulating arm. Modelling of the tasks using JACK has been a useful first step in identifying the limitations in the field of view for vehicle operators of different statures. The use of the view cones in JACK have been evaluated and the simulations have highlighted the potential for discomfort arising from postural adjustments which would be necessary in the tasks. Further research on operators' postures and visual strategies during real world digging and lifting tasks is now necessary.
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The Determination of Optimal Pedal Positioning for Automobiles Using Jack

Institute for Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham-Christine M. Haslegrave
Taylor’d Ergonomics Incorporated-Rachel Freeman
Published 2004-06-15 by SAE International in United States
Simulations of pedal positioning, using Jack modelling software, were conducted to determine, for 1st percentile female to 99th percentile male, the optimal fore/aft positioning of the accelerator pedal for joint comfort, and the resulting consequences on strength and comfort for brake pedal use. The results produced a range of acceptable pedal positions for 99% of the population at seat heights between 15 cm and 25 cm above the floor. Pedal positions could not be located at seat heights above 25 cm due to ankle angle comfort constraints.The discrepancies between several comfort threshold studies reported in the literature are discussed relative to the practical value of recommended comfort ranges. Recommendations are made for additional facilities in the simulation software, which would assist users in performing these types of research investigations and analyses.
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Modeling the Effects on Head and Trunk Postures of an Obstruction in the Line of Sight

Institute for Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham, UK-Mohd Asyraf Che Doi, Christine M. Haslegrave
Published 2004-06-15 by SAE International in United States
The main purpose of this study was to investigate and understand the effects of visual obstruction on head and trunk postures, to find by how much these two parts of the body are adjusted to see around an obstruction in the line of sight. At the same time, this study was designed to investigate the same scenario in a JACK simulation and to compare the results. The JACK simulation was validated for the situation in which there is a clear view of a display and for obstructed views where moderate adjustments to posture are needed, but was less realistic when the obstruction was severe and more extreme postural adjustments were required. A possible reason for this is that humans have greater flexibility to adjust shoulder and upper trunk posture than is represented by the digital model. Visual angle to the display and the position of any obstruction in the line of sight were both found to have an important influence on the posture adopted by the viewer, but visual difficulty level was not found to…
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Evaluation of JACK for Investigating Postural Behaviour at Sewing Machine Workstations

Institute of Occupational Ergonomics, University of Nottingham, UK-Mohd Asyraf Che Doi, Christine M. Haslegrave
Published 2003-06-17 by SAE International in United States
The study was undertaken to investigate ways in which the JACK computer-aided ergonomics system can be used to evaluate workstations for tasks in which there are complex and precise visual and manual demands, taking sewing machine operation as an example. The posture data produced was used to validate the simulation by comparison with real postural behaviour in sewing machine operation recorded in an earlier study by Li et al [1], as well as to assess the ease and limitations of the JACK analysis process itself. The results showed that the initial posture used as a starting point had an effect on the final posture determined automatically by JACK in terms of the eye's view of the workstation and of the potential for collisions between the arm and parts of the workstation. Further manual adjustment to the postures could overcome most of these problems, although some discrepancies were still found in upper arm postures when these were compared with the postures adopted by the human subjects in Li et al's experiment [1]. With this manual adjustment,…
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Factors in the Driving Task Effecting Comfort and Health

University of Nottingham-Christine M. Haslegrave
  • Technical Paper
  • 95A117
Published 1995-03-29 by Associazione Tecnica Dell'Automobile in Italy
It is recognized that professional long-distance and off-road drivers have a high incidence of back pain, greater than would be expected simply from the sedentary nature of the work. Various aspects of the driving task are liable to increase stresses on the spine and back muscles, particularly the postures adopted, the long duration of the relatively fixed postures, the vibration experienced, and the forces involved in operating controls. A series of studies have been carried out to investigate these factors and to find their effects on drivers' posture and spinal loading

Car Controls for Physically Handicapped Drivers

Motor Industry Research Association-Christine M. Haslegrave
  • Technical Paper
  • 856037
Published 1985-01-01 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Many physically handicapped drivers have difficulties in using ordinary car controls, and modifications need to be made to their vehicles. A review of the types of adaptations and equipment that are available for this in Europe has identified the principal aspects that need to be considered in their design. For safety and ease of use, it is important to match the characteristics of a control conversion to the driver's capabilities, taking into account the location and mode of operation of the control, together with the operating forces and the range of movement. Many of these adaptations are highly individual, and it is also important to encourage innovation and flexibility in design to increase the possibilities for severely disabled people to obtain the mobility accepted as the norm by the rest of the population.Modern technology permits the use of sophisticated control systems, and a high degree of power assistance can be provided on steering and brakes. This raises problems such as determining the appropriate degree of feedback or “feel” on the steering wheel for drivers who…
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Ergonomics Standardisation of Electronic Displays for Road Vehicles

Ford of Britain-Gordon R. W. Simmonds
Leyland Vehicles-Barry M. Brooks
Published 1984-02-01 by SAE International in United States
Technical advances in electronics and electro optical displays have given great freedom for designers, but this has led to criticism that some displays suit the technology rather than the users. There is a need for some standardisation but this must not unnecessarily limit design freedom and should where possible be cast in performance terms. Existing standards are reviewed, but these are not always appropriate for the newer technologies. For example, alphanumerics may be more easily reproduced than the ISO symbols.A structure is proposed which will help understanding of the area and will lead to establishing the aspects which require standardisation through ISO. A practical programme of work will consider which aspects are most relevant, which information has the highest priority and whether research findings are already available.Alphanumeric displays should be considered for early standardisation, which may need to cover many aspects, from the detailed form of individual characters to the message content.
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