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Improvement of Tightening Reliability of Bolted Joints Using Elliptical Confidence Limit in Calibrated Wrench Method

Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Satoshi Kobayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The calibrated wrench method is used in the tightening of bolts in manufacturing industries in the case of a large amount of tightening work. It is important to apply a large initial clamping force to ensure tightening reliability and prevent self-loosening, fatigue breakage, and so forth. In this method, the clamping force of bolted joints is controlled using a torque wrench. However, since the clamping force is indirectly applied by a wrench, it varies greatly in the case of a large amount of tightening in a factory. Therefore, the calibrated wrench method is not so accurate from the viewpoint of clamping force control. It is conventionally thought that the distribution of the clamping force has the shape of a rhombus. When tightening torque and clamping force are considered to be two independent random variables, the clamping force is distributed within an elliptical confidence limit. Here, we show that the distribution of equivalent stress also has an elliptical confidence limit. Considering the permitted limit for working load stress on a bolted joint, the elliptical distribution has…
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Loosening Lifetime and Residual Clamping Force Prediction Method on Bolted Joints and Evaluation Criterion of Clamping Force Level for Prevention of Loosening Failure

Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe, Satoshi Kobayashi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To secure the reliability of bolted joints, high clamping force (axial tension) is required to prevent fatigue breakage or loosening failure, and so on. In this paper, at first, we observe the behavior of the initial clamping force decrease tendency (loosening phenomenon) obtained by tightening the bolt used in the actual machine (large forklift) during operation. Based on our previous research, there is a strong linear relationship on log-log paper of loosening phenomenon between decrease tendency of clamping force and distance travelled (or passage of time). By utilizing its properties, we show estimation method of residual clamping force such as "How much the clamping force is remaining after the tens of thousands of hours (kilometers)?" Also, a method for estimating loosening lifetime with respect to residual clamping force level is shown. Finally, we examine evaluation criteria such as "Is the residual clamping force sufficient for prevention of loosening failure?" The limit surface pressure is examined as the upper limit clamping force. As the lower limit clamping force, the allowable value of the external transverse force…
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Working Load Measurement and Analysis of Bolted Joint under Off-road Vehicle Operation

Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we propose a method of measuring and analyzing the load on bolted joints used in a machine under off-road vehicle operation. Working load measurement under actual machine operation and the results of its analysis are shown as load frequency diagrams. An example of the measurement analysis of a load (three types of load: axial force, bending moment, and torsional torque) added to a bolted joint shank during actual machine operation is shown. In this paper, we describe how to apply the results of load analysis to the load condition at the design and experimental development stages.
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Residual Clamping Force Estimation and Lifetime Prediction to Loosening Failure of Bolted Joints

Hitachi Construction Machinery-Takayuki Shimodaira, Akio Hoshi
Tokyo Metropolitan University-Soichi Hareyama, Ken-ichi Manabe
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This investigation describes a method for estimating the absolute lock effect in bolted joint. Observation results of loosening phenomenon in industrial vehicle are analyzed for the linear relation by the proposed regression formula. Based on the relation, in early stages of the development test, the rate of clamping force decrease can be estimated accurately after prolonged operation by measuring the clamping force behavior. The tendency to decrease is observed about the depression type and working load type loosening. For evaluation design bases, the residual clamping force estimation chart is established. The L-N (Loosening Lifetime - Number of Cycles to Loosening N) diagram is proposed for the loosening lifetime prediction for working load type loosening also. Using the loosening damage (cumulative decrease of clamping force) and L-N diagram, the lifetime to loosening failure can be predicted accurately for the locking device and method as an absolute evaluation.
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A Proposal for the Absolute Estimation Method on Self-Loosening of Bolted Joints During Off-Road Vehicle Operation

Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.-Soichi Hareyama, Ryuji Takada, Takayuki Shimodaira, Kazuhisa Tamura, Akio Hoshi
TCM Corp.-Makoto Nakashima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2011-08-0090
Published 2011-10-12 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a method for estimating the absolute lock effect in bolted joints during off-road vehicle operation. There is a good linear relation between axial tension decrease tendency (loosening phenomenon) and the operation time (or mileage or number of operations) after the tightening on logarismic coordinates. Based on this relation, this report leads to two estimating methods described below.1) Decrease of axial tension (self-loosening) is estimated accurately after long hours since tightening by measuring the initial axial tension behavior using the bolt-loosening evaluation diagram.2) Method of estimating the locking device availability (usefulness) on actual machine operation is obtained from laboratory loosening test results.