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Analysis of Drivability Influence on Tailpipe Emissions in Early Stages of a Vehicle Development Program by Means of Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Michael Görgen, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Christian Heusch, Daniel Guse, Frank Dorscheidt, Johannes Claßen, Timm Fahrbach, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to increasing environmental awareness, standards for pollutant and CO2 emissions are getting stricter in most markets around the world. In important markets such as Europe, also the emissions during real road driving, so called “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE), are now part of the type approval process for passenger cars. In addition to the proceeding hybridization and electrification of vehicles, the complexity and degrees of freedom of conventional powertrains with internal combustion engines (ICE) are also continuing to increase in order to comply with stricter exhaust emission standards. Besides the different requirements placed on vehicle emissions, the drivability capabilities of passenger vehicles desired by customers, are essentially important and vary between markets. As the interactions between different hardware and software parts of the powertrain strongly influence the drivability characteristics of a vehicle, a high degree of maturity of test vehicles is required to execute drivability calibration tasks with a reliable evidence. Hence, these calibration and evaluation tasks are generally conducted in late phases of the vehicle development process where the engines base calibration is already…
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Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electric Traction Drives with an Efficiency Optimized DC-DC Converter Control

RWTH Aachen University-Konstantin Etzold, René Scheer, Timm Fahrbach, Shuang Zhou, Rafael Goldbeck, Daniel Guse, Fabian Frie, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Rik W. De Doncker, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0462
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce development cost and time, frontloading is an established methodology for automotive development programs. With this approach, particular development tasks are shifted to earlier program phases. One prerequisite for this approach is the application of Hardware-in-the-Loop test setups. Hardware-in-the-Loop methodologies have already successfully been applied to conventional as well as electrified powertrains considering various driving scenarios. Regarding driving performance and energy demand, electrified powertrains are highly dependent on the dc-link voltage. However, there is a particular shortage of studies focusing on the verification of variable dc-link voltage controls by Hardware-in-the-Loop setups. This article is intended to be a first step towards closing this gap. Thereto, a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup of a battery electric vehicle is developed. The electric powertrain consists of an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine and an inverter, which are set up as real components at a laboratory test bench. The test bench is connected to a real-time vehicle simulation including a battery model and the dc-dc converter model. The entire Hardware-in-the-Loop setup is successfully validated by vehicle measurements performed on…
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Objectified Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles Longitudinal Drivability Capabilities in Automated Load Change Drive Maneuvers at Engine-in-the-Loop Test Benches

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Christian Heusch, Serge Klein, Timm Fahrbach, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0245
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The growing number of passenger car variants and derivatives in all global markets, their high degree of software differentiability caused by regionally different legislative regulations, as well as pronounced market-specific customer expectations require a continuous optimization of the entire vehicle development process. In addition, ever stricter emission standards lead to a considerable increase in powertrain hardware and control complexity. Also, efforts to achieve market and brand specific multistep adjustable drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition, rapidly extend the scope for calibration and testing tasks during the development of powertrain control units. The resulting extent of interdependencies between the drivability calibration and other development and calibration tasks requires frontloading of development tasks. Usually, drivability calibration takes place towards the end of the vehicle development program as soon as a sufficient level of product maturity is achieved. Hence, for streamlining the entire development process, various powertrain engineering tasks need to be shifted from the overall vehicle level to component conception phases. In this context, highly dynamic and appropriated “Hardware-in-the-Loop” (HiL) component test benches are the means of…
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Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

FEV Europe GmbH-Stefan Tegelkamp, Christopher Schmidt, Henning Roehrich, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Christian Heusch, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available. The resulting compaction and parallelization of the calibration work to meet the emissions, on-board diagnostics as well as the drivability requirements drastically reduces development costs and time.This article presents an objectified drivability evaluation and classification approach for passenger cars, which is based on physical criteria, developed at…
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Virtual 48 V Mild Hybridization: Efficient Validation by Engine-in-the-Loop

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

RWTH Aachen University-Serge Klein, Philip Griefnow, Daniel Guse, Feihong Xia, Jakob Andert
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0410
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
New 12 V/48 V power net architectures are potential solutions to close the gap between customer needs and legislative requirements. In order to exploit their potential, an increased effort is needed for functional implementation and hardware integration. Shifting of development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) is a promising solution to streamline the development process and to increase the maturity level at early stages.This study shows the potential of the frontloading of development tasks by implementing a virtual 48 V mild hybridization in an engine-in-the-loop (EiL) setup. Advanced simulation technics like functional mock-up interface- (FMI) based co-simulation are utilized for the seamless integration of the real-time (RT) simulation models and allow a modular simulation framework as well as a decrease in development time. As baseline, an existing and validated co-simulation consisting of a GT-POWER engine model, a SimulationX transmission model, and a dSPACE Automotive Simulation Models (ASM) vehicle dynamics model is used. A Simulink-based dual 12 V/48 V power net model is developed to extend the base model. The 48 V side is mainly composed of…
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Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

FEV Europe GmbH-Johannes Scharf, Martin Nijs, Ralf Wellers, Yi Zhang
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Serge Klein, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components.This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups. The first constellation is based on an already validated vehicle model (A), including a physical dual-clutch transmission model (DCT), a semi-physical tire model and a vehicle dynamics model. With this standard configuration, the real-time model accuracy is initially illustrated by comparing the operating points distribution and the tailpipe emissions (diluted vs. undiluted) in “Worldwide…
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Influence of Vehicle Operators and Fuel Grades on Particulate Emissions of an SI Engine in Dynamic Cycles

RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Henning Roehrich, Martin Lenz, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
With the implementation of the “Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure” (WLTP) and the highly dynamic “Real Driving Emissions” (RDE) tests in Europe, different engineering methodologies from virtual calibration approaches to Engine-in-the-loop (EiL) methods have to be considered to define and calibrate efficient exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies without the availability of prototype vehicles in early project phases. Since different types of testing facilities can be used, the effects of test benches as well as real and virtual vehicle operators have to be determined. Moreover, in order to effectively reduce harmful emissions, the reproducibility of test cycles is essential for an accurate and efficient application of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems and the calibration of internal combustion engines.In this paper, the influence of different human drivers on the particle count of a passenger car with a small turbocharged three-inline-cylinder gasoline engine with intake-manifold fuel injection is presented. Furthermore, the effects of one human driver in comparison to a virtual driver regarding the reproducibility of the test results are shown. In this setup several particulate measurement systems with…
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Engine in the Loop: Closed Loop Test Bench Control with Real-Time Simulation

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

ESI ITI GmbH-Torsten Blochwitz, Claudia Bellanger
RWTH Aachen University-Serge Klein, Rene Savelsberg, Feihong Xia, Daniel Guse, Jakob Andert
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0219
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
The complexity of automobile powertrains grows continuously. At the same time, development time and budget are limited. Shifting development tasks to earlier phases (frontloading) increases the efficiency by utilizing test benches instead of prototype vehicles (road-to-rig approach). Early system verification of powertrain components requires a closed-loop coupling to real-time simulation models, comparable to hardware-in-the-loop testing (HiL). The international research project Advanced Co-Simulation Open System Architecture (ACOSAR) has the goal to develop a non-proprietary communication architecture between real-time and non-real-time systems in order to speed up the commissioning process and to decrease the monetary effort for testing and validation. One major outcome will be a generic interface for coupling different simulation tools and real-time systems (e.g. HiL simulators or test benches). In this paper, we show the seamless transition from a purely simulated vehicle in a MiL (model in the loop) co-simulation to a heterogeneous testing scenario with an engine test bench linked to real-time models. First, the offline co-simulation consisting of a GT-POWER engine model, a SimulationX transmission model and a dSPACE ASM vehicle dynamics…
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